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[^AU rights reserved.'] 





PART m. 


[Under this head are incladed — 1. All words in use in the 
revenue ofEices both of the past and present governments ; 
2. Words descriptive of tenures, divisions of crops, fiscal 
accounts, and the like ; 3. Some articles relating to ancient 
territorial divisions, whether obsolete or still existing, with 
one or two geographical notices, which fall more appro- 
priately under this head than any other. — ^B.] 

A distiller, a vendor of spirituous liquors. Abk&ri^ or the 
tax on spirituous liquors, is noticed in the Glossary. 

With the initial a unaccented, Abkar means agriculture. 

Adabandi, (^jcjbl ^<[l44^ 

The fixing a period for the performance of a contract or pay- 
ment of instalments. From Ul performance, and ^/uj (root 
fXS) to bind. 

TOL. n. 



Diyision of produce in equal shares; from HHn half, and 
^^it, diyision. 

Adheld, iljbj\ ir^WT 

Half a pice, comprising 12i^ dams, or 4 damris^ q.v. [Also 
an eight-ana piecOi or haK a rupee.] 

Adhelf, ^J\ ^«?NPr 

Half a Chauthia, q.v, A measure used for com. — Sanger. 
Small fractional divisions of land. — Garhw&l. 
Also an eight-ana piece, or half a rupee. 

Adlieliyd, W^^^^ ^l^tflRTT 

Adhelia, or Adhia, signifies a proprietor of a half share. 

Adhiyar^ j\jbo\ nfM^IK 

A man who passes half his time in one village, and half in 
another, is said to be adhiy&r kam& ; called adhbar in Bohil- 
khand. Adhiy&r differs from p&hik&sht, inasmuch as adhiy&r 
implies that there are two establishments, one in each of the 
two villages which are visited, [whereas p&hik&sht is a man 
who lives in one village and cultivates land in another]. 

Adhiydrf, i^j^^^ ^TM^IlO 

A half share. The word ^KVT half, enters into the composi- 
tion of all these words. 

Adhkachchdi \J^J\ ^[^mx 

A soil lying between the land named Pah&ra and the Tar&i, 
in the district of Sah&ranpdr. 


Adhkarf, ^Jjbi}\ iraivO 

An instalment of eight anas in the rupee^ or half of the 
Goyernment Jama. 

Aghani, v^H^ ^Pnrft 

The produce of part of the Kharlf season, or of the month of 
Aghan, ^^^^ (November-December). 

*^* In Behar there are two rice crops, one in Bh&don, the 
other in Aghan ; the produce of the former is less valuable than 
that of the latter, and is only eaten by the lower classes, and 
by animals. — ^B. 

An advance of rent paid by As&mls to Zamind&rs in the 
months of Jeth and Asarh. — ^E. Oadh. The word is derived 
from dge jXT, before, beyond. 

'Ahdy j^ "^ip^ 

An agreement or contract. Ahdn&ma ^U«Xy6 is the written 
document containing an agreement. 

'Ahddar, j\js^ ^f«l4. 

Literally, holder of a contract. An ofBLcer of the Mughal 
Gbvemment, who, for a commission of 2 or 3 per cent., engaged 
for the revenue of a district, and made himself responsible for 
the balance. 

Ajanrf) i^j^\ "vft^ 

Advances, particularly to agricultural labourers. — ^Eastern 
Oudh. Agraurihi is used in a similar sense in Baiswara. Both 
words are, perhaps, derived from dge, before, in advance. 

A land measure equivalent to four B(s{s. Nine Alf go to a 


Jul&. — Garhw&l and Kam&on. See further under the articles 
Bisi and Jdld. 

Algf, J\\ ^nnft 

A separate cess levied by Zamind&rs in part of Behar over 
and above the regular Jama/ Thej generaUj do this when 
short of fimds. — W. 

-^iltamgha,* lUJT iU<j | fl4|JM 

A royal grant, which the British Government have declared 
to convey a title to a rent-free tenure in perpetuity. 

Altamghd is derived from two Turkish words, Al and Tamgh& : 
both of which signify the royal signet. Al in Persian implies 
also a scarlet colour, *^jf]j (^^j f^ r/^* ^^^ therefore it has 
been supposed to mean the Emperor's red signet (Gladwin says, 
"a red patent," and Harington, in his *' Analysis," I., 4, "a 
red seal — ^from which its name is derived") : but it may be 
doubted if the AltamghA seal is necessarily a red one ; and the 
«Burh&n-i Kdti'," the "Farhang-i Jahdngfri," and the "Haft 
Kulzam," while they give the meaning of scarlet to Al in Per- 
sian, and at the same time mention the Hindi Al, noticed in a 
separate article, also add that, in Turkish, "it is the seal and 
ring of the king," without any special mention of its being a 
red seal, or a red ring. It would appear, however, from the 
extract from the "Farhang-i Rashidf," given below, that Al- 
tamgh& originally meant a red seal, and that Al, by itself, was 
never taken in the sense of signet, except by reason of its 
having been coupled with Tamgh&, to imply that the Tamghd 
was red. 

* The word ib generally written UUisll aUamghd^ not dUamghd, in Persian. — B. 



'^And in Turkish it signifies the seal of the Padshah, which 
they call Altamghd, i.e., ^red seal/ and sometimes they call it JQ., 
for short, rejecting Tamghd.'* 

The assertion therefore rests upon which is the best authority 
— ^the Burh&n-i K&ti', coupled with the Jah&ngiri, or the 
Rashidi. The Haft Kulzam is a mere copy, and of no weight 
in such controversies. 

It is difficult to say when Altamghd began first to be used in 
the revenue language of India in the sense either of a seal or 
grant. In Persia and Central Asia we have notices of its use 
at an early period. Towards the close of the 13th century the 
illustrious Ghazan Ehan caused the Altamgh&, or the imperial 
seal of state, to be altered from a quadrangular to an oval shape, 
considered the most auspicious as well as most elegant of all 
forms, and on this he at the same time directed to be engraved 
the Mahomedan profession of faith. — Price's ''Retrospect of 
Mahomedan History,*' Vol. II., p. 612. 

Again, Timtir bestows upon the son of Bajazet the Govern- 
ment of Anatolia, under a patent containing the impression of 
his hand in red ink (Ibid. Vol. III., p. 423 ; and " Sherefeddin,'* 
Lib. v.. Cap. 60) ; but it is not stated whether the title of this 
patent was Altamghd. In the Institutes of this tyrant, we find 
no mention of anything but Tamghd, and that with a different 

But, with respect to India, the term certainly does not appear 
to have been in common and practical use in the fiscid language 
of the country in Akbar's time ; though, as we have seen from 
the extract just quoted, that it is mentioned in the '' Farhang-i 
Jah&ngiri," which was compiled at his dictation and dedicated 
to his son ; but then it is to be considered that the authority of 
certain poets is given for its use ; — which would of itself seem 
to imply that the word was a foreign importation, and up to 
that time had merely foimd admission into dictionaries and 
literary compositions. It is not once mentioned in the passage 


on Saydrghaly in his Institutes ; tlie perusal of which chapter, 
by the way, would afford an instructiYe lesson to those who 
assert that the Mughal Government never resumed rent-free 
tenures, for in it we have the very founder of the system 
enjoining resumption, and getting more and more exasperated 
at the shameless frauds practised upon the exchequer even by 
his own officers. Yet, notwithstanding this apparently modem 
introduction of the word, it is to be feared that some grants, 
purporting to be Altamghi of his reign, have been released by 
our officials. 

We find frequent mention of the word Tamgh4 in his time, 
but so &r from conferring a privilege 6t immunity, it meant 
only a tax, or tribute, when applied fiscally. 

In the following passage B&j ^V ''tax,'' is coupled with 
Tamghi : — ''And it was ordered that the B&j and Tamgh& were 
not to be ooUected except from arms and horses, elephants and 
camels, cows, sheep and goats and silken cloth, on which a 
small sum was to be levied in each Suba." 

Tamgh& is again called a tax .which is raised in excess of 
the land revenue : — " Umr levied a tax on foreigners in three 
classes ..... which they called Jazia, and in every kingdom 
they demand something from every man's property except 
peasants, and that they call Tamghd ; and in Ir&a and Tur&n 
they take some little in proportion to the wealth of the taxed*" 

In one of the general Farm4ns issued by him in the 37th 
year of his reign, by which he justly earned the love of his 
subjects and admiration of posterity, he remits the Tamgh&, 
B&j, and Zik&t, on all articles, with a few exceptions.* 

* It i^paan that profioui to Akbar'9 time the tamgh& had been remitted by 
Jah&ngtr, and before that by B&bar. Possibly the remissioii of a tax by any 
soTereign was oonddeied to hold good only during his reign, and to require a fresh 
aot of remission on the accession of another emperor. Jah&ngir's reracity, howerer, 
is not beyond nspiciom.~B. mU. 


• ' ^ Jtfi J ^ s^V- ^^=--^ r^^ ^ ^^^ c:-^*-^ co* ^ 

^ U»«J A-fj^.«r* u^Ub/t lytUJ jJ ^ r/i^ J ^L«r*^l ^ ji J *^^^^j^ 

<< And other gocids and chatteb whicli are the means of live- 
lihood of the people in general, except horses and elephants and 
camels and sheep and goats and arms and silk, which in all my 
dominions are liable to B&j and Tamghd and Zik&t, and that 
which they took from small and great, are entirely remitted and 
struck off." 

This is differently translated by Dr. Bird in his ^'History 
of Guzerat/' in which he calls Tamghd " vested interests," and 
it mnst be confessed it is used in that sense in one of Akbar's 
letters to Abdu'Uah Ehan Uzbek. 

In '' Timiir's Institutes" (Book 11., p. 808) Tamgh& is spoken 
of as pay, or personal allowance of a soldier, and therefore ap- 
proaches nearer to our modem meaning.— ^See also ^'B&bar's 
Memoirs," p. 354. 

In the following passage it also means a stipend, according 
to ''White's Translation," p. 361 : or, a body-mark, according 
to Colonel, Ghdloway's " Law and Constitution of India," p. 87. 
The context shews that either may be correct :— - 

*y:JLji/) ifSM JL ^ \j ^Uul jcjUJ ^\^ iJuijj\ ^J\ 

''And I commanded that whatever countiy was conquered 
diey should collect the beggars thereof and make them an 
allowance that they should beg no more, and if, after being 
allowanced, they should beg again, they should be sold into 
distant countries," etc. There is apparently no reason to sup- 


pose with Galloway that the beggars were to be branded : it is 
more in consonance with the lavish generosity of an eastern 
monarch to pension them^ as the natural translation of the text 
says. — ^B. 

These passages serve to shew that the word Tamgh& must 
have somewhat altered its meaning since its first importation 
into Hindustan ; but they do not enable us to determine at what 
period Tamgh&y or Altamgh&> grants were first made. 

We have already seen that they do not appear to have been 
introduced up to Akbar's time; and with respect to his suc- 
cessor^ Jehangir, we find him in his autobiography^ so far firom 
asserting that a red o^ was exclusively devoted to Altamgh&s, 
saying expressly that he changed the seals of Jagir patents from 
mixed gold and vermilion to gold alone. 

" Instead of the seal which they made of gold with a rim of 
vermilion, I used one of gold only." 

From these remarks it is to be gleaned that the period of 
the introduction of even the word Altamghi is a problem in 
Sphragistics which still remains to be solved; and though it 
appears to have been used in its present sense in Persia and 
Turkistan before the establishment of the Mughal dynasty in 
India, yet there seems reason to conclude that some time elapsed 
before the term was generally introduced into this country ; and 
we are therefore justified in looking on any Altamghd grant 
older than Shahjahan with strong suspicion. 

That it was not necessarily a rent-free grant, the British 
Government themselves had incontrovertible evidence, in that 
they stipulated to pay 26 lacs per annum for their Altamghd 
Farman from Shah Alam, a.d. 1765. It was, nevertheless, 
proclaimed by our Government that a grant of this nature was 
rent-free, and conveyed, moreover, an hereditary and transfer- 
able right. That the native subordinates of our Government 


were anxious to persuade us to that effect was naturally to be 
expected, and that the European functionaries were glad to 
assent to any opinion uttered by men who professed to have a 
knowledge of the laws and customs of the country, was also to 
be expected ; but that the same opinion; should have been enter- 
tained and confirmed when the regulations came subsequently 
to be enacted, is somewhat surprising, for there was much to 
make us pause before we committed ourselyes to so positive 
a declaration. In several instances evidence had been given 
which was opposed to the construction finally adopted by the 

In the case of Jal&lu'd-din versus Mihru'n-nisd Begam, tried 
before the Provincial Council of Patna, in September, 1774, the 
Am&nat officer, whose authority should have carried with it 
some weight, says, '^from the reign of the kings of old, the 
orders of one king have continued valid, but it is now the 
ancient custom for the possessors of Altamgh&s and Madad 
Mashes to be turned out or removed.'' And we know that 
IT^aww&b Muhammad Baza' Khan resumed several Altamgh& 
grants in the year 1766, after the Diw&ni was granted to the 
Company ; which he would scarcely have ventured to do, had 
he not been authorized by the practice of the country. — (See 
" Colebrooke's Digest," III., 238, and " Extracts from Official 
Itecords regarding Mafi," p. 16), It is therefore the more re- 
markable that we gave such ready acquiescence to representa- 
tions not only entirely opposed to our own interests, and to the 
customs, laws, and records of the country, but frequently to the 
very language and tenor of the documents which purported to 
be Altamgh&. 

Am&nf, j^Ul ^RfPft 

Land managed by a collector on the part of Government : — 
called also Kham and Ehas. The Regulations have given the 
word greater currency in the Benares Province than elsewhere. 


*Aml patt&^ 4eb jAji ^RW ^JT 

'Ami sanad, «xxy« Ja£> ^RHV ^R^ 

'Ami dastak, (JL^ j Jaa "^mm i(^v« 

A deed appointing an agent, or granting authority to coUeot 
rents* From the Arabic J-^^^ action, practice, rule. 

Andy jT and UT 

A native land measure equal to 16 Bdsis. Sixteen Anas go 
to a Kancha. — Saugor. 

The sixteenth part of a rupee — ^which is usually written by 
Europeans, anna. 

Ankbandi, ^xjlJj\ ^d^m^ 

An adjustment of rents asantiw&r by the Malgtiz&r at the 
close of each harvest. — See imder Ank. 

Antarbed, ^J^^ ^*hTT^ 

The old name for the Lower Do&b, extending from about 
Etawah to Allahabad. Occasionally it is tised to signify the 
whole Do4b — ^thus, Xachwahas are said by the poet Chand to 
be in Antarbed ; and it does not seem probable that they were 
in any numbers except in the Upper Do&b (see £achwahas). 
The word is now seldom used, except by Sanskrit scholars. In 
that language it bears much the same meaning as Do&b, sig- 
nifying the level country intervening {i.e. between the Ganges 
and Jumna), from ^^\ within, and %f^ an altar, a hearth, an 
earthen platform in the courtyard of a house. 

A[oK, ^J\ ^HHrY^ 

Mode of estimating by the ascertained produce of a Bi^wa 
that of a Bigha. — ^E. Oudh. The rule is very simple. Take 
the number of seers yielded by a Biswa, halve it, and you have 


the produce per Bigha in maimds. The produce of a Biswah is 
ascertained from the produce of a Bigha, by doubling the latter, 
in maundsy and calling the product seers. 

Arari, ^^Ijfl WSVit 

The old-established measurement of a field. A man says his 
Af&jl is so much, say two blghas, and though modem measure- 
ment may rate it higher, he will not consent to any change. — 
Benares. The term is, perhaps, deriyed from A^&rd \j\j\ , a high 
bank of a riyer or tank, which may therefore be supposed to 
enclose an unalterable area* 

Arazi, ^\j\ urnft 

Lands ; plural of Arz ^^e land. In reyenue language, the 
word is chiefly applied to detached portions of land, which are 
generally either rent free, or recoyered by the recession of riyers. 
It IB therefore nearly synonymous with Ohak. 

Arsath, a5^j\ 

A kind of account which the author of the ^'Zubdatul 
Kaw&nfn'^ says is the same as a monthly Jama' kharch. 

ts^l ^Ujl^ Ji^ J ^j\yt\^ S>*^ J^ ^M *^ -At;^ 

** The arsath, which is an expression for the monthly Jama' 
kharch and abstract of the W&zkh&m." 

The ^'Diwan Fasand" also sf^ys it is a monthly entry or 
abstract of seyeral accounts, called W&zkh&m, and that it is in 
reality only another name for Jama' kharch : ^ ^Ji^^^jjbj 
OCijjf jj i3^j\. This is the meaning the word bears in the 
Printed Glossary, and the word Arsotta (Arsathd), which pre- 
cedes it, is probably an error.* 

* This word it oommon all oyer tiie eastern part of the proyinoes, and is said to be 
10 eaUed from contaiiuiig aixtj-eight (anafh) oolqmns.— B. 


^Arzdaslit, ci^lj^i^ ^<^4IV 

An address or memorial^ so called from its initial words. 

Asdmf, L5^^' ^nrnft 

Literally names. A cnltiyator^ a dependant, a culprit — all of 
which meanings we may suppose to be deriyed from such per- 
sons being entered in registers and tabular forms under the head 
of As&mi. It has been supposed, as As&mi frequently means a 
criminal, that it is derived from J\ ism, a crime ; and the practice 
commonly adopted by K&yaths of writing the word j<^^^ with 
a 66 C^ instead of sin (jm, gives some colour to this opinion. 
As&mi is the plural of the plural of Ism ff*a\ a name (De Sacy, 
" Grammaire Arabe,'* II. 275). 

There are two words, one with a ^ se means a criminal, and 
the one with a (jm sin means a cultivator ; but both words are 
Indian inventions in their present significations, and rather 
barbarous inventions too, though they have become so common 
as to be quite indispensable. — ^B. 

An As&mi Chhaparband is a resident cultivator, that is, an 
As&mi who has a Chhapar ^^^ or thatched house. 

An As&mi Maurtisi is an hereditary cultivator, that is, an 
As&mi who has Irs lUj\ or inheritance. 

An As&mi P&hik&sht is a man who cultivates land of a village 
different from that in which he resides. — See P&hik&sht and 

An As&mi Shikmi is one who cultivates the land of, and pays 
the rent to, another As&mi. 

Asamfwar^ j\^^\^\ %H\^mK 

Including all the names ; usually applied to statements, and 
to revenue settlements made with the proprietors in detail. 

Aflli, ^\ ^rer^ 

A registered village-Uterally, original, from J-^1 asal, a root. 


D&kliili ,^J^\*^ IB the term applied to liamlets included in the 
Adi Tillage. It is not known at what particular time these 
words originated, but it must have been subsequent to Todar 
Mai's settlement. Our new settlements have swept away the 
distinction, which there was no occasion for preserving in the 
revised register.* 

Xwarija, ^jl^T ^l^llR^r 

A diary, a rough note-book, an abstract account of coUec- 
tions, remittances, etc.. etc. The ^'Zubdatul Kaw&nin'' says 
the word is derived from Aw&ra, scattered, wandering, unfixed, 
because the Aw&rija is a collection of detached notes which 
would otherwise be dispersed. It is applied generally to an 
account of any description. 

The work above-quoted says — 

It would seem, therefore, to be much the same as the Arsath, 
except that the latter is more strictly confined to a monthly 

The ^'Farhang-i Bashldi'' also states that the word is derived 
firom Aw&ra, scattered. The same work adds that Abar, Abara, 
Aw&ra, and Aw&rija, mean not only an account, but an office of 
account, an exchequer : — 

''Aw&ra, an office of account, so called because they write 
there the scattered accoimts of the D(w&n and caU them 
Aw&rija : also the office in which they transact the revenue 
business, and in both meanings it is written without madda over 
the alifr 

• This is not quite conrect : the tenns tuU and ddkhUi aie Btill retained in many 
districte, not merely in the montha of the people, but on the n^gistera. — ^B. 


See Awerja in the Printed Glossary, which appears a mistake 
for Aw&rija, though closely following Aw&rija Jama Eharch. 

A remission on account of deficient produce. One of the 
many meanings of the word in Persian is '' annihilated/' 
jb&b ,^ ^ *^^^ (^y^^ according to the '^Burh&n-i K&ti' " and 
''Haft Kulzam/' and has thus been extended in the reyenue 
language of India to signify remissions occasioned by annihila- 
tion (of crops). 

B&dsh&hf, ^Lijb ^l<1(li^ 

Literally, royal, from ^fLIjU a king. In the language of 
revenue officers it is generally applied to royal grants of rent- 
free land. Thus we say, ''B&dsh&hi Sanad,'' ''B&dsh&hi 
Tenures." The conditions of their validity are given in Reg. 
XXXYI. of 1803, and the corresponding enactments Beg. 
XIII. of 1795, and Reg. VIII. of 1805 : the first being ap- 
plicable to the Ceded Provinces, the second to Benares^ and 
the third to the Conquered Provinces. 

See above, under Benaudha. 

Bhdbar, ^l^ mwK. 

The forest under the Sewalik Hills. The tract varies in 
breadth from ten to twenty miles, and the slope of the ground 
varies from fifty to seventeen feet per mile, diminishing rapidly 
after the first few miles. Cultivation is confined only to the 
vicinity of the rivers issuing from the Himalayan range, but 
the soil in many parts is good, and consists of a rich black 
mould at the extreme verges of the tract, north and south. 
There are occasional patches also free from trees, but covered 


with high grass^ and many spots afford good pasturage. With 
these exceptions, the Bh&bar is a dense forest, but ahnost desti- 
tate of trees valuable for timber ; and water is at such a depth 
below the surface, that all attempts to dig wells have been fruit- 
lees.— See " Printed Report on Rohilkhand Canals," p. 107.* 

Bh&bar is also the name of a light black soil in Baitdl, in 
Central India. 

Bhdfbant, dL^^J^. HTtwiz 

A term equivalent to Bhayachara, q,v. It is derived from 
ifrtt a brother, and «ii««ii to divide. 

Bhdg, i^f\i) iipr 

Tax ; duty ; share in kind. Also fortune, destiny. 

Bh&gnar, ^l^ HWIT 

The name given to the rich alluvial lands under the banks of 
the Jumna. — Central Do&b. 

Bent ; a proportionate share ; an instalment. Bhej is in com- 
mon use, but is not noticed in any of the Dictionaries. It may 
be a corruption of the Sanskrit Bh&g, a portion. 

Bhej-bar4r, j'^^ ^^RTTT 

A tenure frequently met with in Bundelkhand, in which the 
shares of the brotherhood are liable to periodical, or occasional, 
adjustment; and in which balances of revenue and village 
expenses, occasioned by the fraud or insolvency of a sharer, are 
made good by a rateable contribution from the other sharers. 
Strangers are often introduced in over-assessed estates on con- 
dition of paying the bar&r, but their admission by no means, 

• See " Selections from Eec. N. W. P.," IV., 874. 


as is sometimes supposed^ forms a necessary incident of the 
tenure^ of whidi the chief characteristic is the re-adjustment of 
the bar&r. At the late settlement of Bundelkhand it was 
stipulated in many instances that this liability to re-adjustment 
shoidd cease ; and practically, for some time previous, the re- 
adjustment had not been demanded, except upon occasions of a 
new settlement. It is probable that in a short time, as the 
value of property increases, the Bhej -bar&r tenure will alto- 
gether cease to exist. 

Is the name of a tax levied by the Eaja of Bijaypdr on part 
of the forest produce of Tappa Saktisgarh, in zillah Mirzapur. 
In the Official Report of the Settlement of the Tappa, the word 
is said to be derived from Bhdnga, a mallet. 

Tang&i is another of these taxes ; from Tanga, an axe. 

Bharaf, ^^ ^TCt; 

A cess levied in the Province of Benares, of which one-half 
was given to the Amil for charges of remittance, and the other 
carried to the credit of Government. — See Sec. 6 and 7 of Beg. 
II. of 1795. 

Bharat, ci^ iT^ 

Amount of revenue paid by an individual or party. The word 
is chiefly used in Dehli, and is frequently pronounced Bharit 
and Barat. It is derived from Bham&, to pay. 

Bhattiand, lULS^ Hftwrr 

Is the name given to a large tract of land between the Hissar 
district and the Garra, which is tenanted chiefly by Bhatti 
Bajputs. Bhatt(&n&, or Bhattia, is a country of growing import- 
ance, the population and cultivation having greatly increased 
since our occupation. 


It will be observed, by referring to the map of Dasttirs, that 
the Western boandary of Sirk&r His&r Feroza has been ex- 
tended only to the bed of the War river, which runs not far to 
the Westward of the Ghaggar, the new Parganah of Wattu and 
Bhatti&n& being altogether excluded: for this tract, full of 
sandy plains and Thais,* seems to have been little known in the 
time of Akbar, nor, with the exception of Malaud, which was 
in Mult4n, does it appear to be included in any Sirk&r of the 
adjoining Subahs. It is to be observed, that Abu'l Fazl, in 
mentioning the breadth and length of the several Subahs, mea- 
sures from His&r in the Dehli Sdbah, from Ferozpur in the 
Mult&n Sdbah, from the Satlaj in the Lahore Subah, and from 
Bikanir in the Ajmfr Subah. He appears, therefore, with the 
above exception, to leave the tract between all these places 
as neutral ground. To be sure, the Bev. Mr. Benouard, in 
his article on Dehli in the '^ Encyclopaedia Metropolitana," in- 
cludes Fattihabad in Ajmir, on the sole authority, apparently, 
of Hamilton's Gazetteer ; but Abul Fazl certainly places, it in 
His&r Firoz&, and it was included in EUs&r before his time, 
as we learn from the 5th chapter of the 2nd book of Shamsi 
Sir&j's T&rikh Ffrozsh&hi, where he says — 

J^ ui^!;*^^'^*^ j*^ I; c:^.^ JT 4UjU ^j-LL. ^jf^ ^jij^ (>-j 

^ (2/^ 3 ^r^^ ^\^'^\ '^^^j ifji;i:i jUd^ jmI j\i ^j^ ^j!,j\ 

* Thai or thar is the name giyen to the Tarions deBerts in Rajpnt&na, and is 
probably a oomxption of the latter half of the word ^f^^diH nuarutthali^ or desert 
r^on, applied to this tract. — B. 

t This passage, as it stood in the original work, puzzled me considerably, and eyen 
now, after a comparison of three mannscriptB, I am not quite sure how the text should 
really stand : the reading giyen aboye is, howeyer, the most probable. In Sir H. 



" Before Ibis, in the times of ih& ancient kings, that district 
in the records of the revenue officer* stands as Shakk H&nsi. 
When he built the city of His&r Firozi, Sultan Firoz com- 
manded that from that time forth they should write is as Shakk 
Eisdr Firozi, and the kitta's of H&nsi, Agroha, Fattih&b&d, 
Sirsuti as far as S&laurah, and £hizr&b&dy and other entire 
kitta's, were included in Shakk His&r Firoz&." This Shakk 
must therefore have included Akbar's Sirk&r of Sirhind, as well 
as His&r, for Salaurd is under the Sewalik Hills and Khizr&b&d 
is on the Jumna.* 

BUiof 8 0^ <»py of Slia«ri Sirij's wcn:^^^ 

the last word, though without the diacritioal notes, is clearly meant for ^^mO I din ; but 
in MS. No. 1002 of the India Office Library, I find ^ V"' (^^ without dots), 
which is probably for t^jiy^^ dawdwin, plural of diivdn, which seems to me the best 
reading of the two. The copy lately purdhased by the India Office at the Marquis of 
HaBtings* sale wants forty or forty-five pages at this point, and the next page begins 
in the middle of tiiis very quotation. The paasage as it stood in former editions 
went on SsJ^y ^^mj\Sb ^Jb and in the author's copy the words are JCjuLfc ^^^ 

which has no meaning. In MS. No. 1002 we hare the correct reading AlJu.) ^J/f *<^it 

sits" (or as we should say ** stands") : further on, for the reading of the first eidition, 
ff%S\ agroh, we have in the author's copy )(£\ akrah, in No. 1002 ^(-Spl akr(KUih, 

and in the Hastings' MS. by an evident error ^J^j^ f\ akar Jiroea, Lastly, for 
i« w in the first edition, which made nonsense of the passage, we find in all the 
other MfiS. /^Ucj batamdtn, '< entirely." These variations, though slight in them- 
selves, are noticed here as an example of the very corrupt state in which we fijid 
many Persian MSS. of great historical value, and to shew the necessity for a recon- 
•tmction of our texts in accosdance with principles of sound and enlightened 
criticism. — ^B. 

* It was from the vicinity of these towna 'that the &mous Firoz Shah'« Lat was 
taken and placed in its present position in Dehli. A very particular and interesting 
account of the removal of the Lat, and of the first discovery of Indian osteological 
remains in the neighbourhood is given by the same author ; who, notwithstanding the 
adulatory tone of his history, gives us mAre vakflble details respecting the eonaition 
of Hind(istan in his time than any other hiitoiian of that or my subsequent period. 

S&laur& and Ehizr&b&d are two places on the road from Bopaar to Siiliiiid. The 
two places mentioned in the text are quite different and have aothiog to do with the 
matter. — E. add. And as the MSS. genesEaUy have U instead of j there is no reason 
to suppose that Sfilaork was included, — ^B. 


We WAj, perhaps^ attribate the little Imowledge eirtertained 
oi iSiese tracts by Abul Fazl to the depc^ulation eauaed by 
'« the firebrand of the universe/' Timur. There is not a place 
in these parts which was not the scene of his wanton cruelly. 
Bhatnir, Ahrunf^ Fattihabad and Tohana, all suffered at his 
hands. Sirsa was also attadced and plundered, if we may be 
allowed, as there seems reason, to look upon Sirsa as the town 
of Sirsuti. Indeed, it ia still called Sirstiti by men that come 
from these pa^ts; and Timur's Sirsuti is represented as being 
precisely the same distance and direction from Bhatnir, Fattih- 
abad, Tohana and Ahruni, as Sirsa is. If this really be the 
old Sirsuti, the town must have changed its name before Akbar's 
time, as he only mentions Sirsa, stating that Firoz Shah's canal 
passes near the town of that name. 

It does not appear that the extensiye desiccation which this 
country has undergone, and the further progress of which it is 
now hoped will cease (our attention being directed to im^x>Ting 
the means* of irrigation), had proceeded to such an extent as 
we now view it, when Timdr invaded India. Mirkhond, Abdul 
Bazsdk, Sharfu'd-din, and all the other historians (^ his time, 
though they mention that he had to cross one continuous desert 
from the Satlaj to Bhatnir, yet describe the great populousness 
of that town in terms which but ill accord with its present 
state. Sirsuti is also said to be on the banks of the river of the 
same name, so that it had not ceased to flow in those days, and 
had not yielded to the Ghaggar, by which the dry river bed 
under Sirsa is now known. A short time before, also, Ibn 
Batuta,t while he states he had to cross a desert to Abohar, 

* One of the fint measnreB should be the opening of tiie dams in tiie natiTe etaitei. 
There are at thia time no leea than twen^-foor Bands on the Siiadtf from Thaneear to 
Sagan^ where it joins the Ghaggar. 

t It is much to be regretted that we have not a perfect copy of tiiis entarpciaing 
tniTeUer*s work. The abridgment translaied by Dr. Lee increases the desire to see 
the entire work aa well edited. Froftssor De Gayangoe, in a note to the fizat Tolvme 


'Hhe first city in Hindustan/' says of Sirsuti, ^^It is large, 
and abounds with rice, which they carry hence to Dehli ;" so 
that neither in his time could the means of irrigation have 
been deficient. The river, indeed, up to the commencement of 
Akbar's time, seems to have b^n flowing, and to have been 
still called Sirsuti, for in the ''Akbamama" we read that in 
Humayun's re-conquest of Dehli, he bestowed upon the young 
Prince Akbar the GoTemment of His&r, and the provinces on 
the river Sirsiiti ; which, had they been the provinces on the 
modem Sirs6ti, would most probably have been called Sirhind. 
Yet it must be confessed that Abul Fazl, in his detailed descrip- 
tion of the Stibah of Dehli, gives prominent notice to the 
Ghaggar river, and he may therefore have considered the 
Ghaggar and Sirsuti to be the same. 

Major Brown, in his survey of His&r, feU in with a part of 
that which is now called the old Sirsfiti. "The Sirsiiti river 
was come upon quite imexpectedly. Hie best maps shew this 
river as joining the Ghaggar, between Murak and Sam&uah in 
the Pati&la state. As the survey approached Tohanah, the 
zamf nd&rs and native officers brought it to notice, and directed 

of his " Mahomedan Dynasties in Spun," states that he has obtained a perfect copy, 
and that he has it in contemplation to publish a translation of it^ — a declaration which 
it is to be hoped he will shortiy fdlfil. The period of Ibn Batata's visit to India 
(A.D. 1332-1342) is highly interesting, and makes ns regret the more that the geo- 
graphical details have been mnch confused by the epitomator. After leaving Dehli 
he goes to Biana (Baran P) — ^thence to Kol, — ^thence to Jalali, a place seven days' 
journey (P) distant fix>m Kol — back to Dehli — ^back again to Kol, — ^thence to Yieh 
Barah (MainpOriP) thence to the shores of a hike called <Hhe Water of Life" 
(Talgram P) — ^thence to Kananj, — ^thence to Merwa (P) — ^thence to Gwalior. The Chinese 
Embassy which he accompanied on its return, appears to have come with a view to 
the restoration of some Buddhist place of worship below the Hills, and perhaps in 
the district of Sambhal, which had been destroyed by the Mahometans, who "had 
also prevented the Hindus from cultivating the plains which were necessary to their 
subsistence." Hence we may perhaps obtain some information of the precise period 
when the depopulation of the country below the Sewalik Hills commenced; a 
question which has been cursorily noticed in the article Des. 



our enquiries to this sulject. It was stated tliat formerly this 
river flooded and enriched the lands to a great extent, and that 
even within the last ten years many villages derived great 
benefits firom it. The bed of the river, however, has for som6 
years been lost sight of altogether, and it was only in a few 
villages near Hansdaha that any vestige of it could be found ; 
the remainder of its track was laid down from information from 
the zamind&rs as far as it could be depended upon.'' (Reports 
on Projected Canals in the Dehli Territory, p. 120.) 

As this bed of the Sirsdtf is nearly parallel with the course 
of the Qhaggar river, and with the Qhaggar Nalla, or Choya, 
there seems little room for doubt that it combined with the 
latter, and formed the river of Sirsdti, which was flowing under 
the walls of Sirsa (Sirsuti) in the time of Ibn Batuta and Timur. 
Whether the Ghaggar* and Sirstiti were origrnaUy two entirely 
different streams, or whether they were originally one and the 
same ; or whether, as is the case now, it has always been that 
the Sirstiti is merely a tributary of the Ghaggar, are questions 
that would lead us into too long a discussion, and are irrelevant 
to the present inquiry. 

I am aware that it is usual to ascribe the deterioration of this 
tract solely to the CSialisa famine of a.d. 1783, but there seems 
su£Bcient ground for believing it commenced before that period. 
That the tract to the east of the Hyphasis was a desert at the 

* Wilibrd says that the fiunouB DriBhadwati k the aame of the Ghaggar, but in the 
" Tirtha Tatra" of the <*Hah4bh&rat," irheie it is meationed as forming one of the 
boundaries of KnmkBhetra, it ia said, ** those who dwell SotUh of the Saraswati and 
North of ihe Drishadwati, or in Knmkshetra, dwell in heayen." So that if Wilford's 
surmise is correct) what is now ^e Sirstiti was formerly the Ghaggar, and vice vtrtA ; 
which would supply ns with a fourth sabject of enquiry. See further "Yishnu 
Parana," p. 181.— E. 

This river, which Elliot writes Cuggur, is now generally called Ghaggar, and is 
asaally admitted to be the Drishadwati. It is a few miles to the West of Amballa, 
and is generally dry. See also Edgeworth, <* Botanic Agricultural Account of Pro- 
tected Sikh States."— B. 


period of Alexander's inyaaon, we learn from Diodorus and 
Qnintus OurtiuBy and though they differ from Arrian in this 
respect, there is no doubt they r^resent truly the oondition of 
a great part of this country in the time of that conqueror. 
Bueceeding events must have increased the natural sterility of 
this region. The first Mahomedan inyasionsi which w^re fre* 
quently accompanied by extermination of the old inhabitants, 
may be considered one of the original causes of dq>opulation. 
As these occurred for 200 years, more or less, there was ample 
time fur the desert to extend its reign. These were, after a 
short space, succeeded by reiterated Mughal invasions up to 
the time of Timiir, who crowned them by his ravages. The 
tract oould have bew but little improved up to the time of 
Akbar, and whatever prosperity it subsequ^itly attained was 
reversed* by the Ghallsa &mine. It is p^haps to that period, 
when the deficiency of water was so grievously felt, that we are 
to attribute the drying up of many of the streams f which used 
to flow up to a late period in the Western Desert. It is a 
curious fiu)t that the stream (Sankar or Sankra) which in 1739 
was of sufficient volume to form the Trealyj Boundary between 

• AU BolMie of the lavftgtt oT tke Bhaitb M omitted, wlikh w^ 
aiderable caiue of depopnktioiL 

t Wiih respect to the Sin6tS, it may be doubted if at any time it eyer reached the 
Indus or any of its afflnenis. From the earliest periods it is recorded as being ab- 
sorbed by the sand. Some of the oldest legends of the country relate to this pecu- 
liarity, and alluaioBs are constantly made to it by the ancient poets: "mat aaniim 
arbcrem, in qua ignis latet, sioat BarMvatim fluTium, cojus aqua sub terra Unit." 
"Btenakr's BaghuTansa," p. 17.— ^Sae also ^'HariTansa," pp. 607, 609. 

t The words of the l^eaty un^ 


the possessions of Nadir Shah and Mahomed Shah, has not now 
even a puddle to moisten its arid bed. The further examination 
of this interesting question is foreign to the immediate subject 
of this enquiry, which is to consider the condition of Bha(ti&n& 
in Akbar's time, so as to shew what place it should occupy in 
the Dastur Map; and, all circumstances considered, there can 
be no great error in having limited the boundary of Sirkar 
His&r to the neighbourhood of the modem Ghaggar. 

Bhaiyach4r&, »^U.W ^TPfTO 

The definition in the Printed Glossary is for the most part 

Bhaiy&ch&ra is a term applied to villages owned by descend- 
ants from a common stock. From HT^ brother, and ^I^K 

In such villages the whole of the land is occupied by the 
proprietary brotherhood, and the revenue assessed l^ a rate, or 
iaehh ; and if there be non-pix^rietary cultivators, they are not 
responsible to the general body, but are introduced by some 
individual sharer, and pay him rent for land on which he pays 
by rate, or bachh. 

In many of these holdings are sub-divisions paying an ascer- 
tained amount of Jama, levied by the proprietors of each sub- 
division among themselves. They are called thok, patti, and 
various other names ; but the existence, or non-existence, of the 
interior sub-divisions does not affect the general character of the 
holding of proprietors paying by a rate. 

There are also various ways of assessing the rate, as on 
ploughs, on the actual cultivation of each year, on weUs, on 
the amount of cultivation aaoertained at the settlemcoit, etc. 
ete.» but the general distiactkai oontixuiiea unohanged.-'-See 
Par. 199-201 of the BereDue Board's PriatdL Giroular Oi:der 
on fisttlemenit^ 


Bhaibat l1^*|.> SNz 

See Bhaiwad. 

BhaiMssf, ^^^^ Afl^ 

Bhaipansl, l5**Hl5^ ^^ 

The shares of a brotherhood, especially in the lands of a 
village or township. 

BhaianS; u^^i<tf ^(^tH 

Division of property or interests among brothers. 
These three words are chiefly used in Bundelkhand, E. Oudh, 

Benares, and Lower Do&b. 

Bhaiwdd, *^1?l5^ ^^^ 

To pay and receive on the footing of one of the brotherhood. 

Bi'lmukta, ^iaA^b Oimij^ai 

A Patta or lease under which a ryot pays a certain fixed sum 
at so much per plough or per Bigh&, not being liable to any 
further demand. 

An engagement stipulating to pay a fixed money rent for the 
lands under Cultivation, not subject to enhancement during the 
currency of the lease. See the Glossary under Bilmugta. The 
word is Arabic, and means '* at a fixed or determined (rate).'' 
It is often used to mean '' in a lump sum," or ** on the whole." 

In Benares it signifies consolidated rate, including Mai and 
Abwab.— See Eeg. LL of 1795. 

Birrdbarar, j]^1^ P l <|i | <»4, 

Collection in kind. — Central Do&b. 

The expression seems derived either firom Birah ifji separa- 
tion, division, on account of the crops being divided before 
appropriation; or from the Birra of the Fatwari's account 


books^ which is applied to the entry of every crop under a dis- 
tinct head. The proper word in book-keeping is Beora ]j^, 
explanation ; detail ; knowledge ; which is frequently corrupted 
into Birra. 

Birt,* cy^ fW* 

A tenure held on condition of the performance of officeSi 
whether religious or secular. Proprietary right. The tenure in 
Gorakhpur, under which the Birtlas pay a fixed yearly sum 
equivalent to twenty per cent, of the Gtovemment revenue, on 
account of the Baja or superior ; but are the owners of the soil, 
entitled to the entire management of the Mauzas, not liable to 
be ousted, holding a hereditary and transferable tenure, and 
subject to enhancement of the rent only when the G-ovemment 
Juma shoald be increased. 

The Sankalap (^l^[^ " expectation of advantage from a holy 
work.'' Benfey) Birt is a religious grant made to a Brahman, in 
order to secure the merit of sacrifices and ceremonies performed 
by him, and held at first free, but in almost all these cases the 
necessities of the Baja of Gorakhptir had compelled him to 
demand a small rent from the holder. 

The Marwat (H^) Birt was a compensation made by the Baja 
to the family of any man who was killed in his service in open 
fight, either with a neighbouring chief or in resistance to the 
Government, and is also called Khun Bah& (i.^. ^'washing away 
blood,'' from ^jiy>- "blood," and UL^ to "wash away"); it was 
chargeable, according to the custom of the Baj, with half the 
rent demandable for a regular Birt village. 

Jewan (ihRT "to eat") Birt is an assignment made by the 
Baja of the day to a younger son, of a certain number of villages 
in the Taluka for subdstance, to be held by such son and his 

• From the Saxukrit ^ vraUh ft tow, aoooiding to some, but Wilflon deriyeB it 


desoendants as Jewan Birt for ever. The assigaee was accns- 
tomed to take a Patta from the Raja for these villages, paying 
a oertain sum as rent. — See Talukdar* 

The term Birta is applied in I^epal to rent-free land, of which 
there are four kinds in that principality^ Jagir, Manachanl, 
Bekhy and Birta. By the last a perpetual title is conTcyed^ 
and the land is at the absolute dii^osal of the grantee and his 

Birtiy4, U^j t^lf^ 

A tenant who holds his land upon a fixed annual assessment 
which cannot be altered^ except on certain conditions previously 
stipulated ; nor can the land held by him be claimed by the 
donor. The definition in the Printed Gk)S8ary is corre6t.''*-See 

Biswabaxar, j]ji^y^ V^HmmjK 

Oollecting by the Biswm. — Central Do&b. 

The Biswa, fix>m (^/«mU twenty, is the twentieth pari of a 
Bigha; and besides being a measure of knd, is also used to 
signify the extent of proprietary right in an estate. Each 
estate or village is considered an integer of one Bigha, which 
is subdivided into imaginary Biswas and Biswansis, to shew 
the right of any particular party. Thus, the holder of five 
Biswas is a holder to the extent of one-fourth of the entire 

Biswadiri^ ^^Ijir^ fl|M4l4lO 

A name given to the tenure of independent village commu- 
nities holding under a superior Taltikdar ; as in Aligarh, 

* I am not sore that this definition ia correct ; in Behar, certainly, a birt grant 
can be Nmmed. EUiot baualf aaemi to h$m ltf4 doidrta an thii anbjee^ snd naftra 
to Bnchanan'a '< India," II. 646.— B. 


p^j and Gorakhptir. It is in some places, as in Dehli, used 
as equiyalent to Zamind&ri and Pattid&ri. If a man's share in 
an estate is sold, he says his Biswa is sold. (See Sel. from Itec 
N.W.P. i. 119.) 

Biswf, 4^^ f%9^ 

The alienatioa of land assessed at low rates on the payment 
of fines in adrance.— E. Oudk 

In the North-west it generally means two Biswas deducted 
£rom each Bigha cultivated by under tenants, which are taken 
by the landlord as his right. — See Bobiswi. 

Bold, t^ ^tUT 

The rerbal agreement (from Uy to speak) between the village 
lessees and the As&mfs, either P&hik&sht (non-resident) or 
Khtidkfisht (resident). Any agreement between the Lumberd&r 
(head man of the village) and As&mi (cultivator). — DehU. 

Bolans, c/^^ ^fWlI 

Making over one's share to another. — ^Benares and E. Oudh. 

Bolansl, \j^ji ^^^ 

The holder of another's share or inheritance. An adopted 
heir. — ^Benares and E. Oudh. 

These words are derived from 41v^l to speak, and mf 
portion, share. 

Bolahd&r, j^*^^ ^^KK 

An occupant of land under a verbal agreement with the 
proprietor or tillage community. In Hisir the bolahd&rs are 
of two kinds; the band^bolahddr, who pays a fixed rent per 
annum for the land ho cultivates, and the bolahdir Wl mukta% 
who pays a quit-rent for a oertain amount of land whether ha 


culidvates it or not. Both classes are entered in the settlement 
record or band, and both hold their lands at the stipulated rates 
during the present settlement (Sel. Rec. N-W.?. iv. 15). — W* 

Biirli Qangd, l^ *«j T^P'^ 

Bdrh Gang&, from ^|^ old^ is the name given to the bed of 
the old Gunges where it has shifted its stream ; more especially 
to the two old courses, of which one is traced below Hastin&ptir, 
and the other below Soron and £ampil. These changes appear 
to have occurred since the time of Akbar, and I haye therefore 
in the Map of Dasturs restored the old stream as it probably 
ran in his time. 

This has not been done without cause. The reasons for re- 
storing the Eastin&ptir stream, and throwing Taraptir to the 
eastern side of the Qunges are the following. 

When Timtir marched from Mirath, he is said in the ^' Matla' 
us Sa'din/' and " Zafamama/' and other histories nearly con- 
temporary, to reach Ferozpur, which is distinctly described 
as being ''on the banks of the Ganges.'' The course of the 
Ganges, then, in his time must have flowed in the bed of the 
present Bu^h Gang&. In the ''Khul^tu'l Taw&rikh'' also, 
written in the fortieth year of Aurangzeb's reign, copied by 
Shore Ali Afsos in the "Araish-i-Mahfil" (which professes to 
be a more original work than it really is), the Ganges is 
described as flowing under Barha, which would show that at 
a much later period the Ghmges preserved its old course ; for 
this does not mean indefinitely that it flowed under the ex- 
tensive tract of country in the possession of the Barha Sadat, 
q,v. but literally, under the town of Barha, which was then 
in a flourishing condition, before it was sacked in a.d. 1748, 
by the rabble army of Safdar Jang. Moreover, in the Revenue 
Board's Records of the year 1819, there is a correspondence 
respecting several villages then within the area of Taraptir, 


but included originally in Azamptir B&shta, which is still on 
the Eastern side of iie Ganges. 

From the Dastur Map it will also be seen that the Soron and 
Eampil branch has been restored, by giving Faizpdr Badaria 
to Sahesw&n, and Nidhpur and Aol&i to Badaon : to which I 
haye been led by the following considerations. They may be 
thought perhaps of no great force, but where, as in Oriental 
History, we are neyer indulged with topographical details, and 
have no accounts of the habits and pursuits of the people, nor 
of the intercourse and relations of social life, we must be con- 
tent with the remotest allusions, and rejoice if, after a whole 
day's perusal of some almost illegible Yolume, we can extract a 
single fact worthy of record. 

When the heroic PirthI Baj retreats from Ejmauj, he is 
represented in the '' Kanauj Khand,'' as following the course of 
the Ganges, till he reaches Soron. 

In the somewhat apocryphal biography of Shah Azizu'd- 
dfn, contained in one of the many collections of the lives of 
Mahomedan Saints, he is represented as being aided by the 
Emperor Shamsu'd-din in the capture of Kasba Khor, in a 
nayal battle under the walls of that town with the Baja, who 
after his defeat fled to Kamaon. Now we know that Khor is 
on the bank of the Burh Gang&, dose to Shamsabad, which 
city was (it is said) built by Shamsu'd-din from the ruins of 
Khor. There may possibly be a shadow of truth in this ac- 
count, which is also preserved in the traditions of the common 
people; though, as Khor is mentioned later than the time of 
Shamsu'd-din, his building Shamsabad may be doubted. 

Let us come to a later period, and we find the Emperor 
Muhammad Tughlak in one of his mad schemes removing his 
capital to Sargdw&ri, ''near Kampil and Pati&li on the banks 
of the Ganges,'' according to ''Ferishta;" and ''near Kasba 
Khor on the Ganges" according to "Zi&u'd-din Bami." Either 
way it shows that the course of the river was then unchanged. 

80 suppLraftiincAL ^LoesART. 

Still later, in the reign of Sayyid Ehizr Ehaa, when Hieie 
was unusual communication with Katehar^ or Bohilkhand, we 
find the following allusions which may assist us in our in- 
Testigation. Ttjul-mulk, after subduing Eai Harsingh of 
Katehar, " arrived at the ferry of Sargdw&ri, and passing the 
Ganges, punished ihe Kafirs of Khor and E^mpil/' 

The same General, after another campaign, marching from 
Badfion and Etawah, passes the Ganges at Pachlana. 

In the same year the Emperor himself, after plundering 
Sambhal, crossed the Ganges near Patifili. 

■r^u^ J^. ^-*e;^ 

These quotations are taken from the " Tabak&t-i-Akbari/' 
The *^T&rikh-i-Bad&oni" uses precisely the same expression 
in two of these instances : and it is important to obserre it, for 
the author was himself a great traveller, and was constantly on 
the move between Agra, Sambhal, and Bad&on. Both he 
and the author of '^Tabak&t-i-Akbari^' were contemporaries of 
Akbar, and could not fail, if any changes in the course of the 
Ganges had occurred up to their time, to give prominent notice 
of the circumstance. 

All the places noted above are on the right bank of the old 
Ganges, and would most probably not have been mentioned 
had the Ganges not run under them. At least in these days 
there are no such ferries as those of Pachlana, Pati&lf, and 
Sargdw&ri. But as it may perhaps be said that, notwithstand- 
ing the change in the river's bed, the expressions quoted above 
would not altogether have been inapplicable, other more de- 
cisive testimony may be adduced from a document in an old 
'' Dasturu'l-'Amal,'' in which mention is made of a Mauza in 
Tappa Aul&i, Parganah Bad&on, which, though the document 
may not be an exact copy of one publicly issued (it being 
merely inserted as a model for imitation), may yet serve to 
show without further question, that Atil&i was once an integral 


part of Parganah* Badion. If it be remarked iliat the change 
in the course of the river is too great to have occurred within 
the period which has elapsed since the compilation of the i^in-i 
Akbari, it may be replied that in our own time the change is 
almost every year perceptible, and that the Ghtnges has shifted 
its bed so much since the two opposite banks were measured, 
that although only five years elapsed between the surveys, they 
cannot be combined with any accuracy. 

It is to be hoped therefore that the reasons given above may 
be considered to justify the innovation which has been ventured 
in the map. 

Bujhaxat, ^jW? TJ^m 

Adjustment of accounts. From ^«ii«ii bujh&na, to cause to 
comprehend. In some districts it has a special significance. 

** This audit of accounts (or Bujh&rat as it is called) is a most 
important process to the whole of the community. The right 
of admission to the audit is the criterion of proprietary right" 
(SeL Eec. N.W.P. iv. 143, from report on Azimgairh by 
Thomason). — ^B. 

Burd, \jy, ^ 

Bedeemable mortgage. — ^Eastern Oudh. 

A grant, generally of land, to a religious person, or to a 
tenant on certain stipulations. See Birt, and the Printed 
Glossary under Burt. 

* HoreoTer, in the book entitled the " A^wfil-i Snbaj&t/' a new Parganah under 
the name of Nidhpdr, is entered aa "in the time of the Sirk&r of Badann." Thia 
work was written before the final disruption of the empire, and is a highly interest 
ing memorial of the state of India at the time of its composition. It was obtained 
from the library of Nawwab Mohammad Mfr Khan, whose £Eunily has had close con- 
Mction with the house of Tiaitfr ainoe its dedine. 


Brittdntpattar, ^ui-Olj^ tinrhnrffT 

The record of a decision given by a Panchayet. From ^^tfl 
circumstance, narration ; and tni a leaf, a deed. 

Bachhauntit, ^^¥^. W^^fTT 

Distribution of an aggregate sum on several individuals. 
(See Behri). — Upper Do&b. 

Bahf, ^ ^ 

An account book ; a register ; a ledger. 
Thus, Bahi £hata is the day book kept by merchants, and 
Bahi Patw&ri, the village accountant's, or Patw&ri's register. 

Bakdr, jUj ^wttt 

Amount fixed by the appraiser. — See Bak. 

Bakhshndmd, i^\jjiasr ^^mynPJ 

A deed of gift : from ijj*-asr gift, and ^l3 a letter, a document. 

B& farzand&n^ u^*^jj^ ^ ^IMi^^^l^ 
Bd anlad, jSjl b ^l^m^ 

Literally, with sons, with children : words inserted in a grant, 
when it was intended that the land should be inherited by the 
heirs of the grantee. The opinion of the Supreme Government , 

(in the famous case of Farzand Ali) was that these terms refer ' 

to the immediate heirs of the grantee's body, whether male or i 

female, not to descendants generally; and this, no doubt, is 
correct; but according to the lenient interpretation of the i 

officers concerned in the investigations respecting Maaf( tenures, | 

the words are now generally declared to convey an hereditary j 

title, without any restriction. I 

The Judges of the Sudder Dewanny Adaulat have also ruled | 


that a B& farzandan. grant is descendable to the heirs general 
(Beports, VoL IV. p. 222): being opposed to the opinion of 
their law officers^ who declared that the words in themselves, 
and apart from other expressions in the grant, created a joint 
interest with benefit of survivorship in the grantee and his 
children ; or in the event of his having at the time of grant 
no children, but only grand-children, in the grantee and his 
grand-children. — (See '' Macnaghten's Precedents of Mahomedan 
Law," p. 332, and pp. 48-62 of "Extracts from Official Records 
on Maafi Investigations.") 

Baith. iSJ ^ 

Value of Oovemment share of produce. The amount settkd 
on the land, from haithnd l:»fi*; to sit : thus besuing the same 
etymological meaning as assessment. The word is used in many 
varieties of application in commercial transactions ; thus, kitnd 
baithtd is ''how much does it come to" (in reckoning or appor- 
tioning various items). 

Bajantari, s&r^V ^NdO 

B&jantari, or rather B&jantarl Mahal, was an item of collec- 
tion under the Mahomedan regime, derived from h. «ii^i a 
musical instrument ; Sanskrit ^T^* 

Bak, C/b ^[^ 

B&k is used in the North West to signify an estimate of the 
produce without measuring the field. 

There are men who make a profession of this, and it is won- 
derful with what accuracy they will guess the probable outturn 
of a crop by merely looking at it. In cases in my own experi- 
ence it has happened that when the crop has been cut and 
threshed the valuer has not been more than one or two seers 
out. — ^B. 

TOL. n. 8 


Baklotd, U^ ^4)41^1 

A list of arrears of revenue due from fSEurmers. — Behar. 

Baluburd, ^J\j '^f^^S^ 

From jIb sand, and Persian J^ cut : a term appUed to a tract 
of land. which is covered with a deposit of sand after an inunda- 
tion. An item of remission of revenue on this account. 

Bangar, Jj\) wtT^ 

High ground, or uplands. Thus, "P&nipat B&ngar/* "Sonpat 
B&ngar/' are the elevated portions of those parganahs, in dis- 
tinction to " P&nfpat Khadir," " Sonpat Khadir." 

Bdrah, Xj\j ^ITTf 

Land next to, or surrounding, the village, generally enriched 
by manure. The term is chiefly used in Dehli and the Upper 
Do&b, and is probably derived from jb or JfV an enclosure.* 

Baranf, ^\j[) H\i}^\ 

Unirrigated land ; land dependant on the seasons ; from the 
Persian J\j\i bdrdn, rain. Also a coat or cloak for keeping off 
rain, which Europeans usually corrupt into " brandy.'' 

*^* In addition to its numerous other meanings, it is used in 
the provinces, under the perpetual settlement, to imply an order 
to pay issued by a zamind&r on a must&jir thikad&r or lessee. It 
is in this way : — Say a zamindar wants to buy a lot of shawls, 
jewels, or such things, instead of paying the merchant in cash, 
he gives him a Bar&t or order on one of his lessees, the lessee 
pays the merchant, and at the next audit of accoimts produces 
the Bar&t as a set-off against the rent due from him. In this 

* Called Goh&n in Oudli, and Goenf or Gwen4 in Behar. — ^B. 


way some of our zamind&rs contriye to anticipate the whole of 
their rents for several years to come. — ^B. 

Barbatdi, J\SjJj ^K^dli 

Division of the crops by sheaves or shocks^ before the com is 
trodden out. From the Persian^ U bdr, a load. In Bohilkhand 
it is more usually called by the Hindi synonym of Bojh-bat&i* 

B&rambdy ^j\j Wrtyn 

Literally^ fruit of mangoes. Eevenue derived from the lease 
of mangoe-groves. From jb fruit, and /%! a mangoe.* 

Bagam, ^\j WRR! 

Said, in the Printed Glossary, to be the most .productive 
lands in the Southern Division of Dehli, situate on the banks of 
canals; but this must be a mistake, as there are no canals in 
the Southern Division. The word, whatever it is, is most pro- 
bably derived from bdgh, a garden, or any richly cultivated and 
irrigated spot. 

Ba'zl zamin daftar, jxij ^^j^j ^^^om ^wt ^fi¥tT ^pWTC 

An office established in a.d. 1782, before the enactment of 
the Begulations, for the purpose of enquiring into improper 
alienation of land. Literally, ''the office of certain lands.^' 
The plan for the institution of this office is given at p. 224 of 
"Colebrooke's Digest of the Regulations,'' Vol. III. 

Bebdk, jb^^-j %wni 

Without arrears ; paid up in full. — See Baki. 

Interest on money. Bi&ju is the capital put out to interest. 
* This would be more correctly written as two words. — ^B. 


Bidh bandf^ s^"^ ^'ht ^'^^^ 4^ 

This is a peculiar system of calculating the amount to be paid 
by a cultivator. It is peculiar to Chibr&man^ a parganah of 
Farrakbabad, in the Central Do&b. It is thus described by Mr. 
Wynyardy the settlement officer, " By this system the As&mi 
pays his rent for the land in the aggregate, no matter whether 
he cultivates it or not." Kali Bai calls it ^ft^ bid. — £. add. 

Bidhi, Ujui ifhilT 

Sjmonymous with Bandobast. Determination of the amount 
to be paid as Government revenue. — ^Upper Do&b and Bohil- 

Bigha, l|^ Whn or ^^iTfT 

A measure of land, subject to local variation. In the Upper 
Provinces it is usually considered in the English surveys to be 
3,025 square yards, or |ths of an acre. In Bengal it is 1,600 
square yards, or little more than Jrd of an acre. A Kachcha 
B(gh& is in some places Jrd, in others ^th, of a full Bigh&. 
Akbar's Bighd contained 3,600 Ilahi Gaz (see that article). 
The following are some of the local variations of the Bigh& 
in the Upper Provinces : — 

BIOHAB. B. 0. 

In Farrakhabad, 100 acres, = 175 12 

In the E. and S. parts of Gorakhptir, = 192 19 7 
In the W. and N. parts the Bigh&s are much smaller. 
In Allahabad and part of Azimgarh, = 177 5 15 
In part of Azimgarh and Ghazipur, = 154 6 8 
In Bijnor, = 187 19 15 

In the Upper Do&b it was found that the average measure- 
ment of the side of a Bighd, deduced from the paces of 148 
zamind&rs, who were accustomed to practice this kind of men- 
suratioUf amounted to 28^ English yards; making the local 


(kachcha) bigh& equal to 831^; and 100 statute acres equal 
to 582 kachcha bigh&s, 3 biswas. 

It is needless to continue the comparisons ; but see for further 
information " Prinsep's Fseful Tables," p. 89.— E. 

*«* There seems to be some connection between the size of 
the kachcha, or local, bigh& and the yalue of land in different 
districts. The official bigh& consists of twenty cottahs or biswas, 
each side of which is measured by a rod of four cubits in length, 
thus called the ehah&r dasti, or ch&r h&th ke katt& ; but in the 
remoter parts of Gorakhpdr and the wild tracts bordering on 
Nepal the bf gh& increases in size, till in some places we have it 
consisting of twenty katt&s of as much as ten cubits in length 
each ! and returning from the frontier back again to the more 
thickly peopled parts of the country, the cottah sinks by degrees 
to 9, 8, 7, 7|, and 6 h&ths in the various parganahs. — B. 

Bighoto, y^ f^NWt 

The name given to a tract of country bordered by Mewat 
on the East, Loh&rti on the West, Hari&na, Dhundhoti, and 
Chand&n on the North, and Bath on the South. It indudes 
Bewari, Bawal, Kanon, Patodi, Eot Easim, and a great part 
of the Bahraich Jagir. The word is only of local application, 
and does not appear to be known much beyond its own limits. 

ft^hit ^ i[t vft ^0 ''frc ^Ifw 

That is, " Bighoto has two lords, Ehoros (amongst Ahirs), and 
Chauh&ns (amongst Bajputs).'' 

The name of Bighoto, or Bighota as it is sometimes called, 
is derived from Bigha Baj, a worthy descendant of the illus- 
trious Chauh&n, Pirthi Baj. — See Dhundhoti and Ghauh&n. 

Bigahtl, ,JL^ fWiff^ 

Bent fixed on lands per b(gh&. The same as Bigoti in the 
OloBsary, which is also correct. 


Bljak, ili^e^ 'f^Tl 

A memo, deposited with grain when stored, specifying its 
amount ; an invoice, a list ; also an inscription. 

The derivation is probably ^^[^nVy the causal form of the 
Sanskrit f^ to know. 

Bfsl, ^^ wWft 

A term peculiar to Eam&on. 

Mr. TraS, the English Commissioner of the Province, reduced 
all the miscellaneous measures of quantity of land to nominal 
(not actually measured) Bisis. The Bisi is equal to twenty 
Pathas of Garhw&I, or twenty Nalis of Kamfion. The Patha, 
or Nali, represents a measure of seed with a capacity of about 
two seers, and the number of Pathas in any area is estimated by 
the quantity of seed (generally wheat) required to sow it. The 
actual extent varies according to the quality and position of the 
land. The grain is sown much wider in the poor TJpar&nw 
lands near the summit, than in the rich Tal&nw lands near the 
base.— ^See As. Bes«, xvi., 178. 

Behrf, v,^^ ^f<t 

A subscription ; an assessment on a share. Instalments paid 
by ujider tenants to the landlord. Distribution of an aggregate 
sum on several individuals. A monthly collection according to 
their respective circumstances. Term given to a division of a 
Bhayachara estate. The share or interest of one of the brother- 
hood in an estate. The Persian Bahra has the same meaning, 
and is probably the origin of the word. 

Behriddr, J'^^j^. ^fft^^ 

Holder of a share, denominated Behri. — See Glossary, Beraidar. 

Benaudh&, Ujyj ihift^ 

A name commonly given by the natives to the country be- 


tween Allahabad and Sarwar, ue. Saijupar, the other side of the 
Sorjd (ancient Sarayu), the present district of Gorakhpur; and 
between the Ganges and the Chhuab Nala^ by which it is sepa- 
rated on the North- West from Baiswara. Benaudha appears 
to include the Western part« of Jaunpdr, Azimgarh, and Benares, 
and the Southern part of Oudh. Ind^, some authorities make 
it extend from Baiswara to Bijaypiir, and from Gorakhpdr to 
Bhojpdr. The common saying is that Benaudha, or Ben&wat as 
it is sometimes called, contained twelve Bajas, who comprised 
one Faut, and were considered to have common interests. Ist, 
the Gaharw&r of Bijaypur ; 2nd, the Kh&nzada Bachgoti ; 3rd, 
Bais; 4th, Samet; 5th, Haiobans of Hardi; 6th, TJjjain of 
Dumr&nw ; 7th, Bajkumar of Teorl Bhagwanpfir ; 8th, Chandel 
of Agor( ; 9th, Ealhans of Sarw&r ; 10th, Gautam of Nagra ; 
11th, Hindu Bachgoti of Earwar; 12th, Bisen of Majhauli. 
These dimensions would imply that Benaudha was an extensive 
province, including the whole of Benares and Eastern Oudh ; 
but I believe the limits first mentioned are the correct ones, 
and out of this narrower space it would be easy to construct the 
fifty-two parganahs, of which Benaudha is said to consist. 

The name of a division of the Jaunpiir Sirk&r mentioned in 
Regulation II. of 1795. This Farganah no longer exists as a 
separate division. Its former history and the derivation of its 
name are very obscure; apparently, however, the designation 
of "Bakhshi&t," or "Dihdt BakhsWgari," prior to the Cession, 
applied only to certain villages which were assigned to the 
BakshI of the Fort at Jaunpiir, for repairs and other necessary 
expences, and it was not till after we got possession of the 
country, that the Taldkas of Soetha, Karf&wan, Naw&i, and 
BhadI, all of which are Peshkashi Mahals, were included in 
the Farganah called Bakhshf&t. Under these circumstances, 
there was no objection at the late settlement to absorb the 


Bub-diyision in the maimer most conyenienty and the Tillages 
were accordingly distributed between Ghiisu&i Haveli^ Kar&kat, 
and AngU Mahal. 

Baldih&f, ^\j^^ ^^<fllw 

Compensation for pasture ground. — ^Rohilkhand. 
It is usually called Bardaihi to the Eastward. — See Ang. 

Balkat, l!L^ 

Bent taken in advance. — ^Lower Do&b, Bundelkhand, and 

The word is also applied to the cutting of ears of com with- 
out going through the usual process of reaping. Katdl is 
likewise used in this sense in Benares. 

From this word is derived the name of the old Mahomedan 
tax b&Ikatf, which used to be demanded on commencement of 
reaping. From WTW an ear of com, and «iii6«ii to cut. 

Bandbehrfy i^j^,^ 

Statement of the amount of each money instalment or share 
of a village. The word Band is used in many other combina- 
tions in the sense of statement, account, ledger ; thus Band- 
bardasht or Bandbat&i is a statement of the amount of each 
instalment in grain. Band-his&b is an abstract account. Band- 
phfintah is a paper like the Bandbehrf which shows the liabilities 
of each sharer of a village. 

Bapans^ c/>*^ W4l( 

Father's share. — ^Benares and Eastern Oudh. 
Bapauti is more usual in the N. West and Bundelkhand. 
The word is derived from WR a father, and "^Ik share. 

Bak&y&^ \i\li 

Old balances of Bevenue ; plural of the Arabic ^\ an arrear, 
a residue. 


A shareholder paying his portion of the Jama according to 
the Bar&r. 

Barawurd, Cfj^j '^KJ^ 

An estimate ; calculating ; casting up. From the Persian ji 
above, and (j;*^^^ to bring. 

Barhf, ^y^ ipft 

Profits, a corruption of Barhotari : firom U>^ to increase. 

Barmhotar/ J^ji ^TCHJ^ 

A free grant given to Brahmins for religious purposes. 

Batnan-bad-batnan, l:lij juu Llaj ^THPf WT^ ^nPRf 

Literally, " body after body," — words frequently inserted in 
grants, after the corresponding expression of Nasalan ba'd 
Nasalan, to signify that the tenure is heritable by lineal de» 
scendants in the male line. Under the present interpretation 
of the resumption laws, the expression is construed to convey 
the right of perpetuity, without this restriction. 

Battd, l^ iljT 

Difference of exchange ; anything extra ; an extra allowance ; 
discount on uncurrent or short weight coins: usually called 
Batta. The word has been supposed to be a corruption of 
Bharta, increase, but it is a pure Hindi vocable, and is more 
usually applied to discount than premium. 

Baid&r, j^«^^ ^4K 

A proprietor by purchase; firom the Arabic ^ selling. 
Hence Bain&ma, a deed of sale. 

• Also ipelt HfR^TI^, and ^^fftn^. 


Bai'bi'l wafa dar, jblijlbj^ ^ft^qHil<K 


A person having the possession and usufruct of a property 
on its conditional sale to him ; the stipulation being that if a 
sum of money borrowed from him be not repaid by a fixed 
periodi the sale shall become absolute; from ^^f sale, and \ij 
performance of a promise. 

Chahf, L5^V ^rnft 

Lands irrigated from wells (from the Persian Ch&h if\>- a 
well)^ as distinguished from i/bV B&r&ni^ or land dependent 
on rain for its moisture; Ch&hi land pays a higher revenue 
than B&r&ni, because it has a certain supply of water, while 
the supply from rain is of course uncertain. 

\* The extreme uncertainty of the supply of rain is the cause 
of the terrible famines to which India is peculiarly subject ; 
and which it is now proposed to combat by a larger system of 
irrigation derived from canals. The system of irrigation from 
weUs is defective in many ways. It necessitates the keeping 
by each cultivator of extra bullocks to work the welL Besides 
which to dig a well is a costly operation, and can therefore 
only be done by rich men or by the joint act of the community. 
A well is like an estate, the joint property of a large body of 
men, each of whom has his stated number of hours in the week 
for using the water. In the hot weather the necessity of 
getting water for the fields is so great that the weUs are kept 
at work all day and all night, the water being led along con- 
duits of earth sometimes for miles. When worked so incessantly 
the well will sometimes dry up for a time, because the water 
is taken out faster than it runs in, and the ryot has to stop 
working till it fills again. All the uncertainty, expense, and 
other inconveniences of the ch&hi system will be obviated by 

In many parts of Behar there are no weUs for agricultural 


purpoeeSy and the people are entirely dependent on rain or 

It is carious to observe how the wells vary in size in different 
parts of the country. In the Fanj&b the weUs.are often from 
fifteen to twenty feet in diameter^ there is one at Amritsar 
which admits four rahats or Persian wheels at once. Lower 
down^ in the N.W. Provinces, six or seven feet is the average 
diameter, and the well is generally worked by the charas or 
chars&y a large leathern sack, which is drawn up by bullocks 
walking down an incline. This requires two men to work 
it, one to drive the bullocks and another to tilt the charas 
when it comes up ; whereas the rahat requires only a man or 
boy to drive the buffalo round (f . Arhat). 

Lower down again in Behar the wells diminish to two or 
three feet in diameter, and are worked by a kunr or small 
bucket of iron or earth, fastened by a long rope to a pole, the 
pole works on a pivot in a post four or five feet high and is 
balanced at the other end by a heavy log or mass of earth. 
This also requires only one man to work it. It is chiefly used 
by Koerfs (or Kachhis) to irrigate their fields of poppy or 
other rare and costly crops. The labour of using it is hard, 
and the amount of water raised is less than by any other pro- 
cess ; but in Behar, especially in -the eastern parts of it, the 
soil is often so loose that a permanent well cannot be made, 
and the little temporary wells are therefore more economical. 
In Pumeah they are very small, often not above a foot across, 
and are supported by rings of burnt clay called p&t. A well of 
this kind costs two rupees only, and lasts a couple of years. 

It IB the western part of these Provinces and in the Panj&b 
that canal irrigation is peculiarly needed ; in the eastern dis- 
tricts and in Bengal the land is low and full of marshes, tanks, 
and rivers, and the main staple is rice, which grows in three 
or four feet of water, and during the rainy season, when the 
country is generally submerged ; but in the upper provinces 


the land is high and dry, and the wheat and other staples 
require constant irrigation to make them grow at all. — ^B. 

Chdkari, ^A^ ^wCt 

Grant for personal sendees in the village ; from ji\>^ a 

Chhfr, -^ iftr 

The lessee's own cultivation ; corrupted from Sir. — Saugor. 

Chhutauti, yjjkr^ iffhft 

Bemissions allowed either on the Bfgh&y or in rupees, by 
Malgtiz&rs, after forming an estimate of a field. Also, gene- 
rally, any remission of Revenue by Government ; from '^[ZWT 
Chhutn&, to be dismissed, to escape. 

Chhut, Chhut M&'fi, or Mujr&i, are terms specially applied 
in Benares to the reductions which have been made in the 
assessment of 1197 Fasli. Some of these have been authorized 
by the Government, but most of them have been granted with- 
out any such authority. Some of those in the former category 
are alluded to in Sect. 22, Eeg. II. of 1795. 

Chhorchitthf \^jf^j}^ Wtlrf^T^ 

A deed of release, from ^ftV^ chhornd, to abandon, and 
f^^ chitthi, a note. 

Chitthf, ^ f^ 

A note ; a paper containing an order or demand. From this 
word are formed chitthi talab or talab chitthi, meaning a pro- 
cess or precept ; a summons ; from the Arabic k^JW search, 
demand ; and dutnavis (written Chitnis in the Printed Glos- 
sary), a writer of notes or precepts; a secretary; from the 
Persian jsj^y to write. — E. 


Ghittlii taksiiii is a note or memorandum of allotment or 
partition of an estate by Batw&ra. — ^W. 

Chitthi tankhw&biy is a note containing a demand for pay- 
ment of rent ; also the same as Bar&t q.v. — ^W. 

Cliiik4r4, ^y^ ipnxi 

Customs duty. — Saugor. 

Chukauta, \3/j>^ ^ifhfT 

Field rates of rent ; money rate ; from ^^fPTT Chuk&n&, to 
settle or complete. Also an agreement for the delivery free of 
cost of a stipulated share of an estimated crop to the principal 
shareholder on the part of the rest. — ^Moradabad. — ^W. 

Chnkri, ^g^ ^if^ 

A fractional division of land. — Garhwdl and Eam&on. 

Chukat, u:.Jl^ ^W! 

A settlement ; from x|«ii«ii Chuk&nd^ to settle. — Dehli and 
Upper Do&b. 

Chimgi, ^^^ ^^ 

Illegal abstraction of handfuls of market produce. It is 
frequently, however, given voluntarily as a sort of rent for 
the use of market conveniences, such as booths, sheds, etc. ; 
and in this sense is equivalent to the Baitak of the Deccan. 

Chungi is also sometimes given to Fakirs, Zamind&rs, or 
Banias, for the establishment of new markets. — £. 

In the Panj&b it is the name of a tax levied in kind on all 
produce that enters the city gates, an octroi in fact; and has 
been continued imder British government. — ^B. 

Chimgi mahal, a place where grain may be landed from boats 
and stored on payment of a portion of it to the owners of the 
ground. — ^Behar. — W. 


A levy of Bevenue on four tlungs, under the ancient regime, 
in the Dehli territory; namely, pag, tag, kori, or kt^i, and 
punchhi : i.e. pagri,* a turban, tag, a rag or thread worn by a 
child roimd its waist, kori, a hearth, and pitnchhi, animals' tails, 
as of buffaloes, bullocks, etc. 

As tag may be considered to be included in pag, another tax 
is substituted for it according to some authorities. T\i\i& palkati 
a cess on the pala cuttings (see Jharberi), or a cess on the 
daranti or sickle, or on the khurpa or grass-scraper; but the 
insertion of tagiA correct, for the tax upon ihQ^ag, or -men, was 
double of that upon the tag, or children. 

Chaubfsa, ^ ^y*»^y>' ^^\^\ 

From Chaubis, twenty-four ; is a name applied to a tract of 
country containing that number of villages in the occupation of 
a particular tribe. There are several of them scattered over our 
Provinces, but they may perhaps be considered more frequent 
in the neighbourhood of Mathur& than elsewhere. Thus, we 
have within a circuit of about thirty miles round that city — 

A Chaubisa of Jaes Bajputs. 

A Chaubisa of Jadon Bajputs. 

A Chaubisa of Bachhal Bajputs. 

A Chaubisa of £achhw&ha Rajputs. 

A Chaubisa of Jaiswar Bajputs. — See Chaur&sl. 

Chaudharaf, ^l^*^^ 'ft^JlTrt^ 

The jurisdiction of a Chaudhari, whose occupation has been 
correctly described in the Printed Glossary. 

* Called by our early trayeUers puekery, " To scold lustily and to pull one another's 
puekeriea or turbats off, being proTerbially termed a banyan fight." — "Fryer's Tray.*' 
Lett. III. Chap. 3. 


Ghaudhardit, vj:^\^j^ tf^M^lM 
A Chaudliari's fees of office. 

Changadda, \S^^ ^t'l^T 

The place where the boundaries of four villages meet. It is 
known also by the names of Chauhadda, Chausinghd^ Chaukh&, 
Chaur&ha^ and Chompta. 

Chaumds, {j*'\^y>' ^TtfTO 

Lands tilled from Asarh to Kuar^ that is^ during the Chau- 
m&sa (four months)^ or rainj season^ and prepared for the Babi 

Chaumasa, LU^ ^ftfWT 

The Indian seasons are, according to the Shasters, six in 
number^ each comprising .two months. These divisions are 
more fanciful than real; and the common people are content 
to adopt the more definite division of three. Chaum&sa^ or 
Barkha, constitutes the four months of the rainy season. The 
rest of the year is comprised in Sy&l&^ J&r&, or Moh&sa^ the 
cold season ; and Dhupk&l^ or Xharsd^ the hot season. 

Chaumasiya, Wv?" ^t^lfi l ^ T 

A ploughman hired for the season. — Saugor. 

Chaur or Chaunr, jj^ ^^ 

A long low marsh lying between high banks, fit for growing 
rice, and generally full of water in the rains. — ^Behar. — ^B. 

Chaurasi, v/^W '''Hrift 

The word means, literally, eighty-four : and is territorially 
applied to a sub-division of a parganah, or district, amounting 
to eighty-four villages. Tod, in his "Annals of Bajputana,'' 


where Chaur&sis are numerous^ remarks that thej are tanta- 
mount to the Saxon Hundreds (Yol. I. p. 141). This may be 
the case in some respects, but it is evident that Hundreds rarely 
contained a hundred villages, and sometimes not even half a 
hundred. Spelman, in his Glossary, says, " Nusquam quod scio, 
reperiuntur 100 vilicB in aliquo Hundredo per totamAngliam, Magni 
habentur qui vel 40, vel 30, numerant. Multi ne 10 : Quidam 
dtias tantum" Hallam also observes (" Middle Ages," Vol. II. 
p. 390), that the great divisions of the Northern counties had 
originaUy a different name, and that in course of time many of 
them have improperly acquired the name of Hundreds, which 
is conjectured to be a mere political division more peculiarly 
belonging to the South of England. Lingard also (Yol. I. 
p. 335) gives an extract from Doomsday Book to show how 
little imiformity prevailed with respect to the area and number 
of manors contained within each Hundred. Thus we see that 
Hundreds were never originally equally partitioned, and in this 
respect they differ from Chaur&sis ; for there is no Chaur&si, even 
though it may have dwindled down to ten or twelve villages, of 
which every originally component village could not, according to 
local tradition, be pointed out by the neighbouring zamind&rs ; so 
that Chaur&sis once comprised — theoretically, however inexactly 
in certain cases, — as the name implies, eighty-four villages. 

I took occasion, when reporting the Mirat Settlements, to 
remark that I had discovered some Chaur&sis in that district, 
and expressed my surprise that their existence had not been 
previously observed. The assertion, I well remember, was 
received with some degree of incredulity, and the existence of 
Chaur&sis in any part of these Provinces was altogether denied. 
I have therefore taken some trouble to ascertain if I was de- 
ceived, and the following list, which is the result of my enquiries, 
will perhaps be considered to establish their existence beyond a 
question, not only in Mirat, but in almost every district in this 



In Deoli, now included in tlie Parganah of Bibamiyu in 
Etawah, there is a Chaurasi of Tilokchandi Bais Bajputs. 

The Parganah of Kuraoli, in Mainpuri^ constitutes a Chaur&sl 
of Bathor Kajputs. 

In Jewar of Bulandshahr, tlie Chaukarzada Jadon Bajputs 
have a Chaur&ai. 

In the Parganah of Chandaus in Aligarli, there is a Chaurfisi 
of Chauh&n Bajputs. 

In Parganah Kantit, of Zillali Mirzapur, there is a Chaur&al 
of Grarhw&r Bajputs, of which most of the villages are now in 
the possession of Brahmans. 

In Parganah Khairabad, of Zillah Allahabad, there is another 
Chatirdsi of Gaharw&r Bajputs. 

The Loh&in Jats have a Ohaur&si in Hari&na. 

One of the Tappas in Atrauli of Aligarh is a Chaur&si. 

The Parganahs of Malaut and Bharangi in Bhatti&na are 
each a Chaur&si. 

There is also in the neighbourhood of Kars&na, Sirp&na, and 
Sah&war a Chaur&si of Balde Brahmans, and in Saheswan and 
TTjhani one of Tuar Bajputs. — See also article Jangh&ra. 

The Solankhi Bajputs have a Chaur&si in Nidhpur and 
Sah&war, on the borders of the Mainpuri and Bad&on districts. 
They are the descendants of the princes of the sacred Soron, 
before the Bathers conquered Elanauj. 

From Allahabad to Karra there is a Chaur&si of Johya Bajputs, 
who have been for a long time converted to Mahomedanism. 

In the Parganah of Hansi there is a Chaur&sl of J&ts, com- 
prising the Gets of Seil, Bongi, Bora and Satraungi. 

In Parganah Sheoli of Cawnpore there is a Chaur&sl of 
Chandel Bajputs. 

In Oudh, opposite to SheorajpAr, there is a Fattihpiir Chaur&si 
tenanted by Bisen Bajputs. 

There is a Chaur&si of Chandel Bajputs in Elariat Dost, in 
ZSlsii Jaunpur. 



There is a Ghanr&sf of Tuar lUtjpuis in Dasna and Jalalabad, 
Zillah Miiat. 

Hiere is lialf a Ghanr&si of the same tribe in Path, in the 
same district. 

The Nagri (Hjars have a Ohanrdsl in Dankanr, Zillah 

The Parganah of Loni was formerlj a Chaur4si. 

The Parganah of Ghazipur, in Fattihp6r, was formerly a 

In Mahomedabad Gohna, of Zillah Azimgarh, there was also 
formerly a Chaur&si. 

The Bal&in J&ts, the Salakldh J&ts^ and the Ealsean Gtijars, 
have each a Chaur&si in the Western Division of the Muzaffar- 
nagar District. 

The I^irwal J&ts have a Chanrisi to the South of Dehli. 

In Baghpat the Gaur Tag&s had a Chaur&si| of which but 
few villages now remain in their possession. 

Garra Kota in Damoh of Saugor is a Bundela Chaur&si. 

In the same Parganah the Deswal Ahirs had half a Chaur&si. 

Parganah Jhillo in Saugor is a Chaur&si. 

The Titwal Tagas of the Upper Do&b had formerly a Chaur&si. 

There is a Taluka Chaur&si to the North of the Son (Soane), 
in Agori Barhar of Mirzapur. 

There is a Chaur&si of Badgdjar Hajputs in Mahendwar, the 
local name of a tract of country between the Mewat Hills and 
the Jumna.* 

There is also a Chaur&si of the same clan of Bajputs, now 
Musulman, on the banks of the Hindan, to the South West of 

This branch of Rajputs had also a Chaur&si in Bajptira, and 
in Nerauliy Parganahs of Rohilkhand, and another on the oppo- 
site side of the Ganges at Aniipshahr. These, however, are 

* Mare correcily the name of a nnaU river now dammed np. — ^E. 


only Bub-diyisioiiA of tike much more eztenEive posseasions they 
had on either side of the Ganges. 

There is a Chaur&si of Hangars in Parganah Kata of Seha«- 

There is a Ghanrfisf of Ehubar Gdjars in Bampdr in the same 

The Bun&phar Bajpnts haye a Ghanr&si in Ghirra Mandla. 

There is a Ghanrfisi of Ghtutam Bajpnts^ now Musulman^ in 
Tappa Jar^ 2iiUah Fattihpur. 

There is a Ghaorfisi also in Hatgaon, in the same District. 

The ]£ahesara Tagas have a Ohaur&s( in Either, Zillah Mlrat. 

The Basian and Datean Tagas have each a Ghaur&sf in Path 
and Siana, on the borders of Bulandshahr. 

There is a CSianr&sf of Sakarwal Bajpnts in Parganah Ghain- 
piir of Arrah. 

The Parganah of Bohtak is a Chaur&si. 

The Parganah of Tezgarh, in Damoh, is a Ghanr&sL 

There is a Ghanr&sl of Ghauh&ns in Aonla, a Parganah of 

There is a Ghaurfisi of Thnkarel J&ts in the Western parts 
of Aligafh. 

There is a C9ianrfisi near the Gantonment ef ITr&i in Jalann. 

The Sabaran Brahmana haTC a Ghaur&si in Parganah Etawah. 

The Ahirs have a Ghaurfisf in the Northern parts of Shekoha- 
bady in Mainpiiri. 

There is a Chaurfisi neav Bhojpur, at a short distance from Far- 
rakhabad, known generally by the name of the Chaur&sf of Sirauli. 

There is a Chauh&n Chaur&si of Jhilmili in Sirgtija. 

There is a Ghuk Chaur&si between Ghiswa and Jaunpiir. 

There is a Chaur&si of Palwar Bajpnts in Anania of Gorakhp6r. 

There is also another kind of Chaur&si in Anaula. When 
Chandersen, the Samet Baja, divided his acquisitions among 
his three sons^ he gave a Chaur&si (in Eoes) to his eldest son, 
constituting the Baj of Gorakhptk ; half a Ghaur&si (in Eoss) 


to his second, constitating the Baj of Hasanpiir Maghar ; and 
a quarter Chaor&si (also in Koss) to the third, constituting the 
Baj of Anaula. 

There are two Chaurfisis in Parganah Chandpdr, Zillah Bijnor. 

There are also two Ghaur&sis of Mew&tis, one called the 
Eam6 Chaur&si in Bhurtpur, and the other the Dehli Chaur&si, 
near Sonah.* 

Siirajpdry in Ghosi of Azimgarh, is a Chaur&si Taluka, be- 
longing to Kurhanya Bhtiinhars. 

The Suksenaf Kayeths had formerly a ChaurAsi around 
Sankisa, on the Kalinadi, between Mainpuri and Farrakhabad. 

• The existence of thia Sonah Chaurfisf is donbtfid. — E. add. 

t The Sokfena Kayeths hare now entirely deserted Sankisa (Sankasya). From 
this plaee hare also sprang the Soksena Nais, EachhSs, and Bharbhdnjas; and it 
is highly interesting as being mentioned in the E&m&yana, and by the Chinese 
trareller Fa-Hian (a.d. 400), who speaks in terms of high approbation of Seng-kia-shi 
and its neighbourhood. 

^ Ce royame est fertile et abondant en toutes sortes de prodnctions. Le penple y 
est nombrenz, riche, et sans comparaison plus joyenx que partout ailleurs " (p. 126). 
There is nothing in the present appearance of the country to warrant this high enlogium. 

In tiie 14ih Number of the Journal of the Boyal Asiatic Society, there is an 
interesting account of a visit paid to Sankisa by the M6ni:hi of Lieutenant Cunning- 
ham, Bengal Engineers, which seems to call for a few rem irks. The ruins of San- 
kisa (not called now Samkassa) can enter into no comparison with those of Eanauj, 
eyen if we include the ancient khera of Sarai Agath. The Gosain*s Temple, more- 
OTer, can scarcely be said to be built of the ancient large bricks ; as there are but 
yery few in the whole structure. There is also an important misapprehension to be 
corrected, as lieutenant Cunningham and Colonel Sykes both lay too much stress 
iq;>on it It is stated as an extraordinary fact that the worship of the identical Naga 
mentioned by Fa^Hian is still annually performed ; but the truth is, that the mound 
where this worship takes place is nothing more than the common heap of bricks, or 
earth, which we see in erery Tillage, erected for worship during the Nag-Panchami. 
The only loeal Deity of Sankish is Bisarl, whose favour is supposed to be efficadous 
in removing diseases of the eyes. 

The Elephant, mentioned at page 242, is the most interesting object at Sankisa. 
It is carved out of precisely the same description of stone as the Lat of Dehli and 
AUahabad. The body, which is about three feet high and on a pedestal sunk into the 
gioimd to the «une deptii, is well formed, bat the snout has been knocked off by some 


There is a Chaur&si of Chauli&n Eajputs in BhopaL 

There is a Chaur&si of Sakarwal Bajputs in Paliargarh in 

There is a Chaur&si of Jatrani J&ts in Khera Bijwasan. 

There is a Chaur&si in the Northern parts of Gadarptir, 
Zillah Bareilly. It belonged to the race called Gobr( ; but the 
E^ce is, perhaps, too small to have comprised a Chaur&si of 
Tillages, and it may therefore have represented a Chanr&si of 

sealoQB iconodasi It bears inscriptioDs, or raiher scratches, on its two flanks, and 
on the front of the right thigh. 

The outer wall of the town, which does not appear to haye a greater dreuit than 
flye miles, has been washed down, and nothing of it is now left but a snooesdon of 
doping mounds with seyeral large gaps, which appear to represent the old gates. 
Sarai Agath, which is indebted for its name to the famous Huni Agastya, the fabled 
r^enerator of the Dekkhan, is about a mile to the North of Sankisa, and has eyery 
appearance of being equally old. In 1843 about 20,000 rupees worth of coins were 
found at Sarai Agath, but there were none among them of any type preyioudy un- 
known. Sarai Agath appears to haye been an outwork of Sankisa, for it is beyond 
the wall aboye-mentioned. There are mounds beyond the wall in the same direction, 
which seem to haye been rather fortifications than Stupas, though it is not improbable 
that dose search will reward the enquirer with Buddhist remains. Seyeral images of 
Bodhisatwas, and beautiful specimens of double-glazed pottery, strew the ground in 
various directions. It was in a yase of this description that the coins latdy dis- 
ooyered were enclosed. Lieutenant Cunningham is probably correct in thinking that 
Sankisa was destroyed in the wars between Prithi Baj and Jaichand, but there seemA 
reason to conclude that the town must haye belonged to the latter when it was 
captured, for it is to the East of the Kalinadi, and is familiarly known as one of 
the gates of Eanauj. Hence, perhaps, we deriye the story of the area of Kanauj 
being so large as to contain 30,000 shops of betd-seUers. 

As the determination of the dte of Seng-kia-shi confirms the truth of Fa-Hian'« 
narratiye, the European public are much indebted to Lieutenant Cunningham for his 
communication. It is only strange that Professor Wilson, who must haye traydled 
dose to, or oyer, its remains, and must haye heard of the Suksena diyidon of K&yetha 
and their original abode, should haye doubted at all respecting its podtion, for 
BankiBa is generally recognized amongst the learned natiyes of these proyinces to be 
the dte of the Sankasya of the "Bfim&yana ;" and it is not unimportant to add that^ 
when any inhabitant of Sankisa yidts Nepal or Kam&on, he is treated with marked 
respect by the Pandits and men of influence, as a traditional story of some original 
oonneetion with this andent dty is still presenred in those remote regions. 


tankfli which are in that spot very numerous. There is one 
Tillage in the tract which still goes by the name of Ghaor&si. 
But here we appear to have a Chaur&sf within a Chaurftsi ; for 
the whole tract from the Pira Kaddi to the Sardah, when it was 
onder Hill-jurisdiction, was called the Ohaur&si Mai (t.^. sub- 
montane region — see Des), because it extended eighty koss in 
length and four in breadth, or, according to some authorities^ 
because it extended eighty-four koss in length. 

The old Parganah of Alamgdpfir, in the district of Amballa, 
in the Ois-Satlaj states, of which the modem district of Mani 
majra was a portion, was a Chaurfisl. 

The Parganah of Gohana, in the Dehli Territory, constitutes 
a Ghaurisi. 

Eariat Sikhar, in the Province of BenaieSy also constittttes a 

The Jaur&sis have, no doubt, the same origin. There is a 
Parganah Jaur&si in Seharanpur, a Jaur&si Khalsa in Panipat, 
and a Jaur&sl near the Maha Bali temple in (Jarhw&L There 
is a Jaur&si range in the Himalaya (J.A.S.B. No. 138, p. 469). 

In Jaunpur, the Parganah of By&ls( is an abbreviation of 
By&lisI, or half a Chaur&sl, of Eaghubansi Bajputs. 

The Parganahs of E6tia and Gdnir in Fattihpur also form a 
By&lisi * or half Chaurasi. 

Parganah Dariabad in Oudh contains five By&lisis, of which 
three belong to Sayyids, Kurmis, and Bisen Bajputs respectively. 

Besides those enumerated in the North West, and those which 
are known to exist in Bajpdtana, we find indications of Ohaur&sis 
in several distant parts of the country. 

There is a Parganah Chaur&sl in Surat^ and a Siam Chaur&si 
between the Biah and the Satlaj. 

There is a Chaur&sl of Dh&kar& Bajputs in Fattihpdr of 
Hoshang&b&d, and in Sobhapur of the same district there is one 
of Gdjars. 

• From IVn^ "ftwtyjtwo.** 


Chaar&si is one of the sevea dlBtricts into wMch the hill state 
of Sukat is divided. 

The Eyaida Ddn is said formerly to have contained eighty- 
four villages. 

The Upades pras&d says there are eighty-four cities in Giijar 
DaSy or Ghizerat. 

In the Dekkan, eighty-four villages constitute a Desmukh, or 
Pargaoah. This can scarcely be universal^ but it is so stated 
(" Joum. R.A.S." No. IV. p. 208) on the authority of Colonel 
Sykes. Elphinstone, on the contrary, says the Dekkan Par- 
ganahs contain 100 villages C' Hist, of India," YoL I. 120). 

Gniere is a Ghaur&si Jurah in Orissa (''As. Bes.'' XY. 213). 

Captain Blunt (''As. Ees.'' YIL 92), in Parganah Mahtin, on 
his way to Battanpur, meets with a Tfauhair chief, of whom he 
says, "All that I could collect from this chief was, that in these 
mountains there are seven small Districts, called Chaur&sis, con- 
taining nominally eighty-four villages, but that, u^ reality, not 
more than fifteen were then in existence.'' 

There is a Chaur&si marked on the Surveyor-Q-eneral's Map 
at a short distance to the South of Eiibul, which shews that all 
vestiges of ancient Hindu occupation are not yet erased from 
that country. 

I proceed now to adduce instances of the existence in these 
Provinces, or a least the traditionary remembrance^ of the still 
larger division of 360 villages, which niunber, as will hereafter 
be shewn, bears an intimate relation to the Chaur6si, and is based 
on the same principle of computation. I will merely premise 
here (what is well worthy of remark) that for territorial sub- 
divisions there is no intermediate number between 84 and 360. 

Amongst the six Cantons of J&ts on the borders of Hariana 
end Bikanir, there are no less than four which have each 360 
villages, viz., Punya, £asstia, Saran, and Gadarra. 

Panlpat Bangar and Khadar are considered to constitute 
360 vUlagea 


Sonepar Bangar and Khadar are also considered to constitute 
360 villages. 

In and around SIrsa in the Bhatti territory, there are, or 
rather were, 360 villages of Chauh&n Rajputs. 

The Bisen Kajputs have 360 villages in Oudh. 

The Parganah of Barah, in Allahabad, is reckoned to com- 
prise 360 villages. 

The Parganah of Bhoeli, in the Province of Benares, con- 
sisted of 360 villages. 

The Ahirs of Bighoto have 360 villages. — See Bighoto. 

The Parganah of Mirat is said to have consisted of 360 villages. 

The Bhatti Gujars have 360 villages in the Western side of 
the Bulandshahr District. 

The Pundir Rajputs, most of whom are now Musulman, have 
360 villages in the North East of Sah&ranpur. 

The Kachhwaha Rajputs had formerly 360 villages in the 
Northern Dodb. 

The Chandel Rajputs in Bithdr and the neighbourhood, for- 
merly had 360 villages. 

The R&thi Gujars are said to have had 360 villages in the 
Upper Do&b ; but though they claim this number for them- 
selves, it is questionable if they ever had so many. 

In the old Province called Nardak, to the West of Kam&l, 
the Mund&har Rajputs (now Musulman) have 360 villages. 

In Parganah Katehar, of Benares, the Raghubansi Rajputs 
have 360 villages. 

The Xatherya Raja of Madhar, in Serauli, of District Mor- 
adabad, claims as the ancient possession of his tribe 360 villages 
in Ramptir. This, however, could only have been a sub-division, 
as the Katheryas had many more villages in their possession. 

Raja Ram, Baghel, is said to have given 360 villages to the 
Brahmans of Arail. 

The Dhangal Mewatfs, who were formerly Kachhwaha Raj- 
puts, have 360 villages. 


The Dulaut, and the Sarban Mewatis have also each 360 villages. 

The larger division of 1,440, or 360 x 4, such as the Mohils 
have at Aurint (" Annals of Rajasthan/' Vol. I. p. 627), does 
not seem to exist anywhere in these Provinces, though it is 
claimed by the Pundir Rajputs near Hardwar^ the Juria Ladhis 
of B&mgarh in Jubbulpur, the Qaur Brahmins and the Jutfi 
Bajputs of Hariana, and sometimes by the Bais of Baiswara. — 
(See Gautam.) 

The £onkan or country between the "Western Ghats and the 
sea, in the Bombay Presidency, is said to contain 1400 villages 
("As. Res.*' I. 361). 

It is not, however, with respect to the occupation of land only 
that the numbers of 84 and 360 are regarded with such favour. 
We find them entering into the whole scheme of the Hindu, 
Buddhist, and Jain religions, cosmogonies, rituals, and legendary 
tales ; so much so, as to shew that they are not taken by mere 
chance, as arbitrary numbers to fill up some of their extrava- 
gant fictions, but with a designed purpose of veiling a remote 
allusion under a type of ordinary character. 

Thus, within the sacred precincts of Brij there are considered 
to be 84 Forests (" Smyth's Diet. v. Banjatra.") 

Chitterkote (Chittor) is the chief among 84 castles, and has 
84 bazars (Khaman Rasa).* 

The country of Brij is 84 1 Koss round Mathura. When Maha- 

• See Tod's «« Western India,'* pp. 156, 204, 213, 248, 268, 326.— E. add, 
t There appears to be a double Cbaur&sf in Brij. The Parkarma, or annual per- 
ambulation, extends in circumference 84 koss, and does not come nearer to Agra than 
Oao-Ghat : but the ^'Bh&gayata" says that Brij is shaped like a Singhara, or pignut ; 
and the three comers of it are thus given in a familiar couplet, 

That is, the Chaur&sl of Brij extends on one side to Sonah ; on another to the lake of 
Bana (on the Isan, near Bijaygafh) ; and on another to Sursen ka Gaftw, or Batesar. 

It is strange, that notwithstanding the mention of Sursen ka Ganw in these trite 
ines^ Colonel Tod should so often take credit to himself for being the discoyerer of 


deo stole Sri KriBlma's cows, the sportiye God created new ones 
which grazed within this precise limit; and from that period, 
according to the Indian legend, the boondaries of Brij have 
been fixed, and to this day they are annually perambulated in 
the month of Bhadon (Brij Bilas). 

The Mercantile tribes are 84 (Tod's '' Baj." YoL I. p. 120). 

The Tribes of Sudras are also 84* (Price's '' Hindi and Hin- 
d^tani Selections/' YoL I. p. 265). 

Mount Meru is described as being 84,000 Yojans aboye the 
earth (Bhagavata ; 5th Ehand ; and As. Bes. YoL YIII. pp. 273, 

The important places of Hindii Pilgrimage are reckoned to 
be 84. It is the popular belief, which does not appear to rest 
on written authority. 

thU capital, which he identifles with ike Cleiaobaraa of Arrian {" Trans. E. A. Soc 
To?. III. p. 146). Even in the *< T&rlkh-i-Sher Shahi'' (and MiiBulmans are rarely 
antiquarians) " Snrseni, opposite to Bapri," is spoken of as the scene of an important 
engagement. In the first Tolome of the <* Transactions,'' Colonel Tod announces his 
discoyery in these words : << By the acquisition of this coin of Apollodotns, I made a 
doable discoyery, namely, of the coin itself and of the ancient capital city. Con- 
yersing with the principal disciple of a celebrated Jain priest of Gwalior about ancient 
cities, he related to me an anecdote of a poor man, about thirty-flye years ago, haying 
disooyered, amidst the few fragments left of Surapura on the Yamun&, a bit of 
(what he deemed) glass : shewing it to a silyersmith, he sold it for one rupee ; the 
purchaser carried his prize to Agra and sold it for 6,000, for it was a diamond. The 
finder naturally wished to haye a portion of the profit, and on refusal, waylaid and 
slew the silyersmitii. The assassin was carried to Agra to be tried, and thus the 
name of Surapura became known beyond its inunediate yicinity. This was a sufficient 
inducement to me to dispatch one of my coin-hunters, and I was rewarded by an 
ApoUodotus and seyeral Parthian coins. The remains of Surapura are close to the 
sacred place of pilgrimage, called by us ** Batisur," on the Yamun&, between Agra 
and Etawah. Tradition tells us that it was an ancient city, and most probably was 
founded by Surasena, the grandfather of Krishna, and consequentiy the capital of the 
Suraseni of the historians of Alexander." — See also Vol. II. p. 286. 

* I know no other authority for this statement than the one quoted, which is Tery 
poor. The whole Jatimala in the ** Selections" is entirely wrong ; and though it 
pinst be confessed that it would be no easy matter to compile a correct one, yet the 
nunv obnoos «iTWi should be expunged, as the work is intended to be eduoatioiMd. 


Yallabha, the founder of the Budra Sampraddja aect^ had 84 
followers (As. Bos. YoL XYL p. 95). 

There are 84 Gurusi or spiritual chiefis, of the sect of B&m4- 
nuj (Buchanan's Mysore). 

There is an ankle ring called a Chaur&si^ from that number of 
hells upon it (K6ndn-i Isl&m). 

The same name is given to the bells on an elephant's howdah 
doth {Xin-i Akbarf ). 

The temples of Mahadeo at IJjjayin are 84 (Joum.A.S.B. 
YoL YI. p. 289). 

The Hindti Hell is called Chaur&si, signifying that 84 places 
of punishment exist in Narak lok.* 

The grand palace at Dattiah, which was built by Nar Singh 
Deo, was a series of ascending Chaur&s(s (on pillars). (Bad- 
shanama, by Abdu'l Hamid Lahori : 9ih Jalus). 

A Chaur&si of minor fortifications is said to haye been con- 
tained within Bhotas (Jehangimama, YoL I). 

The different postures of Jogis are 84 (As. Bes. YoL XYII. 
p. 184). These are called Asan; and the same name and 
number is given to the attitudes illustrated in the Eoh Shastras 
(Tohfat-ul Hind). 

The perfect Jogis, or Siddhas, are 84 (As. Bes. YoL XYII. 
p. 191). 

The Gotras of the Gdjars are 84 (BansaoK). 

The Gotras of the Ahirs are 84 (Tashrih-ul Akw&m). 

There are reckoned to be 8,400^000 species of animals ; and 
these are comprised in four grand divisions, containing each a 

* Thif Sb the popular belief; bat it if not oonfimed by the SbMten. In the 
•'Tuhnu Parana,*' p. 207, a list of twenty-eigbt Karakas is giren. The '<Bh6gaTata" 
ako ennmeratee twenty-eight, but the names differ from thoee of the "Vishnu Parana." 
In the "M&rkandeya Parana" and in <<Mena" (B. lY. Y. 88-92) a list of twenty- 
one is giren, t.#., a quarter ChaurftsL In the same Poranas a list of forty-two is 
giTen, or half a Ghaorfisi. Wilson, in his <<Sanskrit Diet" Art. VfC^l^pV' ny* 
there are eighty-six pits in Tartarus, and the same is asserted by Badha Kanta Deo 
in the " Sabda Kalpa Drama," on the authority of the ^ Brahma Yaiyartta Porana." 


quarter Chaur&si, or 2,100,000 — yiz. jarduj, those which are 
produced from the belly ; andaj, from eggs ; seodaj, Arom perspi- 
ration; and udbhid, from the earth (Garuda Purana,*Pret Khand). 

The third grade of Bengal Brahmans is divided into 84 
fEimilies (Colebrooke^s Misc. Essays, Yol. II. p. 188). 

There is also a Chaur&si division among the Gaur Brahmans. 

There are 84 dijBPerent sects of Brahmans in Central India 
(Malcolm's Central India, Vol. II. p. 122). 

The Bh&ts have a Chaur&s( sub*division. 

There is a Chaur&sl sub-division also among the Hindu Kam- 
bohs of Fpper India. 

The Kahars, or bearers, of Parganahs Khair and Koel con- 
stitute a Chaur&si. 

There are 84 Nayat, or families of Brahmans, in Guzerat 
(Enc. Metrop. Vol XXIII. p. 33). 

There is a Chaur&si sub-division among Tambolis (Martin's 
Buchanan, Vol. I. p. 164). 

There is a Chaur&si sub-division also among Bar&is, or betel- 
sellers (lb. p. 165). 

There is another among Koerls (lb. Vol. II. p. 470). 

Amongst the 12 divisions of K&yeths, the Mathur and Bh&t- 
nagar have each 84 sub-divisions. The Siribastam say they 
also have 84, but this is not confirmed. 

Siva has, like Krishna, 1008 names, i.e. 12 x 84 (Linga 

In the Vayu Purana we are told that the water of the ocean, 
coming down from heaven on Meru, encircles it through seven 

* The usual sub-diyision is somewhat different— 9,00,000 fish, 10,00,000 birds, 
11,00,000 reptiles, 20,00,000 plants, 30,00,000 quadrupeds, and 40,00,000 different 
species of men. This division is confirmed in popular credit by the following memo- 
rial \e.^.eo: 

^Kf WR ^ftz ^f??? ^t^ 'iiMmflif'Rrm 


clianiiels for the space of 84,000 Yojans (As. Res. Vol. VIII. 
p. 322 ; see also p. 353). 

One of the four Vikramas lived, or reigned, 84 years* (As, 
Ees. Vol. X. p. 43). 

The following Musical Chaur&si may be considered more 
artificial than natural, notwithstanding Sir W. Jones' opinion 
to the contrary. 

''Now, since each of the tones may be divided, we find 
twelve semitones in the whole series ; and, since each semitone 
may in its turn become the leader of a series formed after the 
model of every primary mode, we have seven times twelve, or 
eighty-four^ modes in all, of which seventy-seven may be named 
secondary ; and we shall see accordingly that the Persians and 
the Hindus (at least in their most popular system) have exactly 
eighty-four modes, though distinguished by different appella- 
tions and arranged in different classes : but, since many of 
them are unpleasing to the ear, others difficult in execution, 
and few sufficiently marked by a character of sentiment and 
expression, which the higher music always requires, the genius 
of the Indians has enabled them to retain the number of modes 
which nature seems to have indicated, and to give each of them 

* Col. WQford considers this Vikramaditya to be the same as the S&liT&hana 
mentioned below; and adds, ''It is not obvioos at first why SUiT&hana is made 
to hATe liyed eighty^four years ; but it appears to me that this number was in some 
measnre a sacred period among the Christians, and also the Jews, and introduced in 
order to regulate Easter day ; and it is the opinion of the learned that it began five 
years before the Christian era, and the fifth year of that cycle was reaUy the fifth of 
Christ, but the first only of his manifestation to the world, according to the Apocryphal 
GospeU : and it was also the first of the Christian era. In this manner the cycle of 
tighty-fowr years ended on the seyenty-ninth of the Christian, which was the first of 
SftliTfthana's era, and was probably mistaken for the period of his Ufe. It is men- 
tioned by St. Epiphanius, who UTed about the middle of the fourth century." — (As. 
Res. YoL X. p. 93.) 

It is scarcely to be wondered at that this imaginatiTO writer should hare noticed 
file Tery questionable ezistenoe of Chaurftsis amongst Christians and Jews, and should 
harv altogether passed orer their obrioui preralenoe amongst the Hindnf, 


a cliaracter of its own by a happy and beautiful contriyanoe*' 
(Sir W. Jones on the Musical Modes of the Hindus). 

It may not be unimportant to add, with reference to the par- 
ticular purposes of our enquiry, that the year is distributed by 
the Hindus into six Bitus,* or seasons, each consisting of two 
months, i.e. two Springs^ Summer, Autumn, and two Winters ; 
and an original Rag, or Ood of the mode, is conceived to pre- 
side over a particular season. ^^By appropriating a different 
mode to each of the different seasons^ the artists of India con- 
nected certain strains with certain ideas, and were able to recal 
the memory of autumnal merriment at the close of the harvest, 
or of separation and melancholy during the cold months; or 
reviying hilarity on the appearance of blossoms, and complete 
vernal delight in the month of Madhu, or honey ; of languor 
during the dry heats, and of refreshment by the first rains 
which cause in this climate a second spring. Yet farther : since 
the lunar year, by which festivals and superstitious duties are 
constantly regulated, proceeds concurrently with the solar year, 
to which the seasons are necessarily referred, devotion comes 
also to the aid of music, and all the powers of nature, allegori- 
cally worshipped as gods and goddesses on their several holidays, 
contribute to the influence of song on minds naturally sus- 
ceptible of religious emotions. Hence it was that Pavan, or the 
inventor of his musical system, reduced the number of original 
modes from seven to six" (Ibid.). And here we cannot but in- 
vite attention to the assertion of Dion Cassius, that the planetary 
theory from which the denomination of the days of the week 
has been derived (see note to p. 73) is itself foimded upon the 
doctrine of musical intervals. A highly curious exposition of 
this idea has been given in the '^M^moires de Tr^voux," 
A.D. 1770 and 1771. 

The following are a few instances of the use of 360. 

* SeeOhanmaM; and note to p. 68 of Babingtoa's "Gara Paramarfaui." 


Tbe Sun's car is 3600000 Yojans long, and the joke is a 
qnaiter of that amount (Bhagavata, 5th Khand). 

Kevati, the wife of Bala Ram, was so tall that her stature 
reached as high as the hands clapped seven times coidd be heard, 
and her age at the time of her marriage was 3,888,000 years. 
Her age, therefore, was 360 X 10800 years (Coleman's Hind. 
Myth. p. 49). 

The wiyes of S&liy&hana, the foonder of one of the most 
noted Indian eras, were 360. — See Bais. 

There are 360 chief places of pilgrimage at Gya (GyaMahatmya). 

There are 360 chief places of pilgrimage at Misrakh Nimkhar, 
Oodh (Nimkhar Mahatmya). 

There are also 360 at Sambhal, in Moradabad (Sambhal Ma* 

The respirations of a healthy man are said by the Jogis to be 
360 in the coarse of a Gharri (Mu&lij&t-i Dara Shekohi ; and 
Sarode, 1st Khand). 

A Chakravartl Baja has 360,000,000 cooks in his dominions, 
and 360 for his special use (Ain-i Akbari). 

Baja Bikramajit is said to have raised 360 temples near 
Ajndhya on the places sanctified by the extraordinary actions of 
Bama (Buchanan's Eastern India, YoL II. p. 334). 

In the Mah&bh&rata we read, ''Oh twin AswinasI There 
are 360 milch cows. There is a wheel without an axis, which 
rcTolyeth without decay. It hath one name, and its felloes are 
fixed 720, 1.1?., 2 x 360, spokes" (Annals Or. Lit. p. 287). 

Again, "In this wheel, furnished with twenty-four critical 
divisions, and turned in perpetual motion round about this axis 
by six boys, are placed in the midst of it 360 ; " (ib. 294), 
which is afterwards (p. 450) explained to mean, that the wheel 
with twelve spokes, turned by six boys, signifies the year divided 
into six seasons. 

Bama's auxiliaries, in his attack on Lanka, amounted to 
360,000 monkeys (B&m&yana). 


But, to revert to Ghaur&sis:* amongst the Buddhists there 
is a still more systematic use of them than we have seen to 
prevail amongst the Hindus. 

Thus, in a translation by the Honorable Mr. Tumour ( Joum. 
As. Society for 1837, p. 526) we read, "How does it by the 
Dhamma Khando division consist of 84,000 portions P" 

"It comprises the whole of Buddho. It has been said by 
Anando, I received from Buddho himself 82,000, and from the 
bhikkhua 2,000; these are the 84,000 Dhamma maintained by 
me. By this explanation of the Dhamma Khando it consists of 
84,000 divisions." Again (at p. 792), "Having learned that 
there were 84,000 discourses on the tenets of Buddha, I will 
dedicate a mliarOy or monastery,! to each." 

" Then bestowing 6,000 Eotis of treasure on 84,000 towns in 
Jambudipo, at those places he caused the construction of temples 
to be commenced by the Rajas" (Ibid. p. 792). 

Again, "From 84 cities despatches were brought on the 
same day, announcing that the viharos were completed" (Ibid, 
p. 793). 

Asoko raised also 84,000 columns throughout India. These 
are supposed by M. Remusat to have been the same as the viharos 
above-mentioned; but the two seem quito distinct (Nouveau 
Joum. Asiatique, Tom. XII. p. 417 ; Fa Hian, Ch. XXIII. and 
XXVII. and As. Res. Vol. VII. p. 423). 

* It is extremely donbtful whether the Chaur&sis mentioned in the text did always 
consist of exactly eighty-four Tillages. In the cases of which I have had personal 
cognizance, I have had reason to doubt the fact. I think the most reasonable sup- 
position is that as the territories of some powerful clans did really contain eighty-four 
Tillages, it grew to be a habit with others who had a laige settlement in one place to 
call it a Chaur&si also. — ^B. 

t Yiharo is rather a temple or pleasure ground than monastery. See a definition by 
Wilson (Joum. E.A.8. No. IX. p. 110) ; by Mr. JoinviUe (As. Res. Vol. VII. p. 
422), and by B. Hodgson (Trans. E.A.S. Vol. II. p. 246). This word Viharo ia 
the origin of the name of the city at Behar, an important seat of Buddhism (see 
Badik lafahani, p. 24}. 


In the extracts from the Dipavsaisa, we read : 

'* The last of these was Ajitajano ; his descendants, 84,000 in 
number, ruled in Kapilanagaram" (Joum. Asiat. See. Yol. YII. 
p. 926). 

The descendants of Makh&deva were 84,000 monarchs, who 
reigned supreme at Mithil& (Ibid. p. 926). 

Asoko's descendants were 84,000 rulers, who reigned supreme 
in the capital Bar&nasi (Ibid. p. 927). 

In the opinion of Buddhists the life of man reached at one 
period 84,000 years. This was the highest it attained after 
successive augmentations (Enc. Jap. Cap. lY. p. 32. See 
also note 14 by M. Landresse to Ch. XXXIX. of Fa Hian's 

Maitreya was to live 84,000 years, and the law which he was 
to deliver after his nirvan was also to endure for 84,000 years 
(Ibid. Ch. YI. note 8). 

In the third heaven they lived to the number of 1344,000,000 
years ; i.e. 16 x 84,000,000 (Alphab. Tibet, p. 484, and Journal 
Asiatique, Tom. YIII. p. 44). 

The life of other gods in the Buddhist mythologic hierarchy 
was equal to 360,000,000 years (Ibid. ; and As. Res. Yol. YI. 
p. 210). 

Buddha had 84,000 wives (Sieon hing pen kei King, quoted 
by Bemusat). 

The Buddhists assign to Brahma a Ufe of 1008,000,000 years ; 
i,€, 12 X 84,000,000 (Foe-tsou-toung-ki, quoted also by Berausat 
in the Foe koue ki). 

The fourth kind of Arupa, a species of spirit residing in the 
xipi)ermost heaven, live 84,000 Mah&kalpas (Trans, Boyal A. S* 
YoL m. p. 91 ; and As. Res. Yol. YI. p, 214). 

The Cingalese historians say that 84,000 rocks encircle the 
great rock Mah&meru. The height of this rock is 168,000 (i.e. 
2 X 84,000) Yaduns (Annals of Orient. Lit. pp. 385, 386). 

VOL. u. 5 


Mem is generally considered with the Oingalese> as with the 
Hindus, to be 84,000 Yojiinas high, and its ranges, according 
to the following progressive scale, shew the value attached eyen 
to sub-divisions of the Chaur&si. 

Sumeru, or Meru, is in height 84,000 Yojanas 

1st. Yokhunthara, the first hill, is in height 42,000 * „ 

2nd. Isinthara, the second ditto 21,000 „ 

3rd. K&raveka, the third ditto 10,500 „ 

4th. The Hill Sudhatsana 6,250 „ 

5th. Ditto Nimethara 2,625 „ 

6th. Ditto Vimantaka 1,312 „ 

7tL Ditto Atsak&na 656 „ 

(Trans. R.A.S. Vol. III. p. 78.) 

The Cingalese fabulous histories also treat us with periods 
regulated according to this mysterious number. The "Raja^ 
Tali" says the most powerful king amongst them was called 
Mah& Dewa, who remained in the wilderness for 84,000 years. 
There were also, notwithstanding this pre-eminence, 84,000 
kings who had this title (Annals of Or. Lit. p. 393). 

Four brothers of king Mahfilinde had 84,000 children and 
grandchildren (lb. p. 391). 

Amongst the Burmese also, the mountain Mienxno is 84,000 
jazina high. The Jag&nto is also 84,000 high, and the first 
river 84,000 Jazinaa wide and deep. The seas, in the midst of 
which the great islands lie, have a depth of 8i,000 jasinas. 
The seats of the N&t are placed one above the other at the 
distance of 42,000 (84,000 -=- 2) jazinas. The second chain of 
mountains is 42,000 jazinas high, and the second river 42,000 
jazinas wide and deep. The eastern and western islands are 
each 21,000 (84,000 -r- 4) jazinas in circumference, and so on 
(Tandy's Birman Empire, Chap. 2 and 3 ; and As. Res. Vol. VI. 
pp. 175-186). 


The Buddhists of Nepatd assert that the original body of their 
sacred Scriptures amounted, when complete, to 84,000 volumes 
(As. Ees. Vol. XVII. p. 42). 

The Shastras, or brief aphorisms of Buddha, comprise half a 
Chaur&si, or 42 ; and the book in which they are contained is 
the first which was translated from the Sanskrit into Chinese 
(C. F. Neumann's Catechism of the Shamans, p. 150). 

This is, perhaps, the Book of Foe„ contained in forty-two 
chapters (Foe koue ki, pp. 44 and 263). 

In the Jain religion, also> the prevalence of Chaur&sls is sur- 
prisingly great.' Thus, Sishabdeo sent 84 teachers to instruct 
other countries in the principles of his faith (Ward's Hindus, 
Vol. II. p. 244). 

Kear him were 84,000 Jains (Ibid. p. 244). 

The Boy Buddha taught 42,000 boys, i.e., 84,000 -r 2 (Ibid. 
p. 261). 

The same holy personage retained 84,000 concubines (stated 
above to bo wives), and be lived 84,00,000 great years (As. Bes; 
Vol. XVIII. p. 250). 

Sakra, the regent of the north in the Jain Mythology, has 
84,000 feUow gods (Ibid. p. 275). 

In their cosmogony also, as in the Cingalese, the height of 
the mountains bears an evident reference to this mystic number. 
Himavat is twice as broad as Bharata varsha (ue., omitting 
fractions, 1052 yojanas) : the valley beyond it is double its 
breadth (2105) ; the mountain Mahd Himavat is twice as much 
(4210) ; its valley is again double (8421) ; and the mountain 
Kishadha has twice that breadth (16,842). (Colebrooke's Misc. 
Ess. Vol. II. p. 223.) 

The Swetambaras have 84 Siddh&ntas (As. Bes. Vol. XVII. 
p. 242), 

There are 84 points of difference between the Digambaras and 
Swetambaras, regarded as of infinite importance (Ibid. p. 289 


They have 84 Gachchos, or Gotes, of which a list is given in 
detail (Ibid. p. 293 ; and Trans. R.A.S. Vol. III. p. 337). 

Mahavira, in one of his births, reigned victoriously 84,00,000 
years (As. Res. Vol. XVIII. p. 251). 

Bishabdeo Uved 84,00,000 great years (Colebrooke's Misc. 
Essays, Vol. II. p. 208). 

The ages of many other Jin&s, besides Bishabdeo and Mah&- 
vira, are based on the number 84. Thus, the eleventh Uved 
84,00,000 of common years ; the eighteenth lived 84,000 ; the 
nineteenth was deified 65,84,000 years before the close of the 
fourth age; the twentieth 11,84,000 ditto; the 21st 5,84,000 
ditto ; the 22nd died 84,000 years before the close of the fourth 
age (Ibid. pp. 310-312). 

It is to be hoped that these many instances of the use of 84 
will not be considered to rank with the Trinads, Septads, and 
Enneads of Varro, Bungus, Fabritius, Morel, and a host of other 
laborious triflers, who have occupied themselves in philosophising 
about the properties of numbers, and have exercised their time 
and talents in endeavouring to prove that Numero Dem impure 
gaudet. The thought may not improbably occur to some, that 
if works on Indian History and Antiquities were ransacked, it 
would be as easy to trace a predilection for any other number as 
for 84 ; but a little examination would soon end in disappoint- 
ment. Seven and ttpeke, as might reasonably be expected, and 
will be hereafter shewn, come in for a good share of attention ; 
but any higher numbers it would be in vain to look for. 
Popular sentiment has, to be sure, invested the numbers 24, 
32, 52, 60, and 64* with some slight degree of favour, and a 

* There ia also a yery remarkable use of Beyenty-fonr in epistolary correspondence. 
It ii an almost nniyersal practice in India to write this number on the outside of 
letters ; it being intended to convey the meaning that nobody is to read the letter but 
the person to whom it is addressed. The practice was originally Hindu, but has been 
adopted by the Musulmans. There is nothing like an intelligible account of its origin 
and object^ but it is a cuxious &ct that, when correctly written, it represents an integral 


oommiiiie of villages comprising one of these numbers is occa- 
sionally to be found, but very rarely ; and there are also two 
instances of 87 ; that is, if the large tracts of Sat&sl in Badaon 
and Gorakhpdr derive their names from that number, which 
may be doubted ; but to get any number that can be at all con- 
sidered to rival 84, it must be shown that it pervades not only 
the tenures of land, but the mythology, theogony, and literature 
of India. That this is the case with 84, must be considered 
sufficiently established from the concurrent proofs collected from 
different parts of India. It is evident from the firequency of its 
adoption that these manifold coincidences are anything but for- 
tuitous ; and we cannot therefore resist the cumulative evidence 
here adduced to show that they must have had some esoteric 
meaning, and been designed with a view to impress the initiated 
with peculiar veneration for this number. 

It becomes, then, a question to consider what is the cause of 
the selection of the number 84 for such a marked preference ; 
and in doing so it will first be necessary to revert to the number 
360, with which it stands in a kind of reciprocal relation. 

It is evident that the selection of 360 rests upon astronomical 
considerations, and it is important to observe what a clue this 
interpretation affords to unravel some of the chief difficulties of 
*Hindu chronology, which so perplex the student at his first 
contemplation of the subject, as frequently to deter him alto- 
gether from the further prosecution of his enquiries. 

number of seTenty-fonr and a fractional number of ten ; thua, ^S I * •* These ad^ 
ditional strokes being now oonsideied, except by well-educated men, merely ornamental, 

we find it frequently written I ^ ({ I • The Musuhnans usually write the seyenty-four 

with two strokes across, or after, the number, with the addition of the words i^\^*^ 
ha dUfotdHf which makes it assume the form of an imprecation. May not, then, after 
all, this seyenty-four and ten haye been originally intended to oonyey a mystic symbol 

* Thcw four lines repiwmt ten ibm in the Hindu meroantile syitem of notetlon, the two 
vpii^t ttrokee stand for foor annas eaeh, and the two horiaontal ooea faSc one anna eaeh.— B. 


70 bupplehsktjll glossary. 

, Thus we have the following astounding numbers assigned to 
the four ages :*-*- 

SatyaTug 17,28,000 years. 

Treta 12,96,000 

Dwapara , 8,64,000 

KaK 4,32,000 „ 

Making a Mahayuga of . . . 43,20,000 
But it has been declared (Manu, Chap. L 67 to 71) "That 
a year of mortals is a day and night of the gods." Hence^ 
if we divide each of the numbers mentioned above by 860^ we 
obtain the following more rational periods. 

SatyaTug 4,800 

Treta 3,600 

Dwapara 2,400 

Kali 1,200 

which gives a regular decrement in arithmetical progression, 
according to the notions of diminishing virtue in the several 
ages (Wilson's Note to Mill's India, VoL L p. 167). 

Here the actual divisor* is evidently based on the days 
comprised in the lesser equal year, which was adopted by most 
eastern nations, f and founded, as Scaliger^ conceives, on the 
natural lunar year, before the exact period of a lunation was« 
fully understood. It is true that the Indians were acquainted 
with the equinoctial year, but, in their arbitrary and fanciful 

, * F. Schlegel ia of opinion that the nnmben in the Yugs decidedly poeseeB an 
aftroBomical import (Philosophy of Histozy^ YoL I. p. 88). WilBon, howsTor, layi 
it does not Mem necesaaiy to reSa tike inyention of these peiiodB to any sstronomioal 
computations, or to any attempt to represent actual chronology (Yishnn Pnrana, 
p. 2i). 

t The great year of these nations iras also, according to Anqnetil dn Perron, com- 
posed of 860 ordinary years. ** Or les Astronomes Arahes, particnli^ment Albumasar, 
oomme les ChaldSens, lea Orecs, reoonnoiasent de grandes ann^es dn Monde, com- 
post chacune de 360 ann^es solaires; celles*ci n'en fiusant alors qu'im jour'* 
(Antiqiiit^ de Tlnde, Introd. 2XII. See alao pp. U9, 699). 

t (Da «mendaftioni TeBq[K)nm}. 

PART m. — lasr&vt ahb official terms. 71 

computational they mighty nevertheless, on account of the 
roundness of the number, and its possessing so many con- 
venient divisors, have adopted the luni-solar, the first approxi- 
mation to a true solar year, and the one with which they first 
became acquainted ; particularly as they had divided the circle 
into 360 degrees,* and had assigned a degree, or Mandala, to 
each day of the year (Maurice's History of Hindustdn, Yol. I. 
p« 91). In other countries, besides India, we find the con- 
current use of these two years ; and occasionally we find one 
used to the supersession of the other, either by interpolation, or 
by some other mode available to those in search of the means of 

A remarkable instance of the endeavour of the Chaldeans to 
reconcile the periods of the two years is given in the second 
Book of Diodoms Siculus, and shows how astronomical periods 
influenced even the architectural designs of the early ages. He 
says that Semiramis is stated to have built the walla of Babylon 
of the extent of 360 stadia, to mark the number of dayi of the 
year. Yet he states that, in Alexander's time, the circuit of the 
walls was 865 stadia ; shewing that a subsequent correction had 
been applied, after the annual revolution had been more accu- 
rately ascertained. 

Another curious instance of this system of. accommodation 
occurs in the Egyptian year. A f&ble respecting the birth of 

• It Unit be bome in mind ihftt this diTlsioii of the circle is a matter purely con- 
yentional, and the 360 parts into which it was divided by the Indians^ as well as the 
Greeks, are evidently dependent on the number of the days of the early year ; just 
as the Chinese, with a more perfbct knowledge, divide their circle into 366 parts and 
one-lbnrth. '*The division of the eirole into 360"* seems to have been pointed out to 
the earlier astronomers, by its being an articulate number nearly equal to the days in 
die year ; and consequently one of the degrees was nearly equal to the portion of the 
ediptio described by the sun in one day. Whatever, however, were the grounds oa 
which this division was adopted in the first instance, it was adhered to afterwards in 
the most improved methods of aneieni and modem astronomy, firom a sense of the 
eoiiTeaienoe presented by the number 860 itf the great number of its diYisorB."-r- 
<« Peacock's Arithmetic" (30). 


three gods and two goddesses was devised, in order to account 
for the insertion of the five intercalary days, which were super- 
added to the 360 contained in the old year of twelvemonths.* 
"We may therefore readily admit the supposition that the know- 
ledge of the true year is not incompatible with the occasional 
application of the lesser year in such instances as those under 

After this instance from Jablonski, it may be needless to add 
that the Egyptian theology was replete with these allusions to 
siderial revolutions ; and the Ghiostics, who frequently borrowed 
from the Egyptians, apply the mystic numbers of their prede- 
cessors^ without, probably, being aware of the original purpose 
for which they were framed. Thus, in the system of Basilides 
the number of primary ^ons is, as in the Persian system, 
seven; these went on producing and multiplying, till they 
reached the nimiber 365. f The total number formed, according 
t.o the Grecian numeration, the cabalistic { word Abraxas (Mil- 
man's History of Christianity, VoL II. 116). This number has 
evidently an astronomical reference, as much as the 360 has in 
the Indian System. In the system of Bardesanes, there were 
36 Decani, who ruled the 360 days of the year (lb. 125). 
Other instances need not be adduced to shew the value attached 
to 360, in consequence of its being connected with the supposed 
period of the year, and therefore based on siderial computation. 
Let us now see whether the mystical number 84 may not be 
found to rest on a similar foimdation. 

♦ " JabloDBld Pantb. -Egyp." Lib. II. C. L p. 143. 

t Tbifl is not an exact multiple of 7, but 7 is more nearly than any other sihort 
term an aliquot part of 366. 

I The Somans adopted a strange conceit of representing the period of an annual 
TBTolution bj indigitation. Pliny tells us the image of Janus was so placed as to 
indicate with bis fingers the number 365. 

Janus geminus a Numa rege dictus, qui pacis bellique argumento colitur, digitis ita 
figuiatis, nt treoentorum sexaginta quinque dierum nota per significationem anni tem- 
ponim et »Ti se Deum indicaiet.~"Hist. Nat." lib. XZXIV. 7. 


As 360 is the multiple of the number of months in a year, 
with the number of days in a Savana, or solar, month, or the 
number of lunations, or tithis, in a Savinya, or lunar, month ; 
so is 84 the multiple of the number of months with the number 
of days in the week ;* the multiple of the number of the planets 
with the signs of the zodiac ; or the multiple of the days of a 
quarter lunation (in which period the moon passes through 
seven Nakshatras, or asterisms) with the years of Jupiter's 
siderial revolution (Bentley on Hindu Astronomy, p. 129). That 
this is no extravagant supposition may be seen in Colonel 
Warren's "Kala Sankalita" (212), where he says, "In the 
cycle of 60 years are contained 5 cycles of 12 years each, sup- 

* We are bo accustomed to regard the week as a natural diyision of time, that, if 
there were room, it would be useful to consider the speculations of the learned on its 
origin. The question is not unimportant as regards the time of the introduction of 
Chaur&ds, and it may therefore be as well to mention that it is to the quarter luna- 
tions that Bailly ascribes the origin of the Indian week. Prof. Wallace, on the con- 
trary, says it was most probably fixed with relation to the number of planets." 
<< British India," 111.^79. The following passages from A. W. Schlegel's Frefftce 
to '^Prichard's Egyptian Mythology" are also subjoined for consideration: — 

"Among the Greeks and Bomans the obsenration of the days of the week was 
introduced very late : although the custom had made some inroads even before the 
Christian era, through the influence of Egyptian and Chaldee astrologers, and also of 
the Jews, who were dispersed here and there throughout the Boman Empire. Ideler, 
in his excellent Manual of Chronology, remarks that the week had a natural origin 
in the accidental duration of the phases of the moon. Ideler passes over the Indians, 
and with good reason ; for they had not the week, and could not haye had it, since 
they divided the nychthemtnm into thirty hours." 

'* Besides the twelve signs of the zodiac, the Indians had also frx>m early times 
another division of it into the seven-and-twenty Nakshatrtu^ or houses of the moon. 
In order to fill up the breach, which had been neglected, they were increased, as often 
as was necessary, to eight-and-twenty by an intercalation." 

It may be also proper to add that the order in which the names of the days of 
the week foUow each other is dependent, not upon the size, period, or distance 
of &e planets respectively, but solely upon an astrological conceit. The doctrine was 
that a planet presides over each of the hours, according to the natural order from 
Saturn down to the Moon, and that planet to which the first hour belonged was also 
regent of the whole day. 


posed equal to one year of the planet Jupiter :'' sliewing tKat 
Jupiter's revolution was used in counting cyclar periods. 

It is needless to particularize all the instances in which the 
partiality of the natives of India for the numbers 7^ 12, and 30 
is shewn.* It will be sufficient to adduce in detail only two 
instances of the allegorical uses to which the numbers 7 and 12 
are applied. 

In Masudi's valuable Historical EncydopsediA) entitled '* The 
Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems/' he says, " In the reign 
of B&lkit, king of India, the game of chess was invented. He 
studied the numbers (of the product of the squares) of this 
game> and wrote a work on the subject for the Hindds^ which is 
known under the title lJu3lx:.». ^^. He laid also an allegory 
of the higher bodies in the chess, that is to say, of the stars of 
the heavens, observing the numbers 7 and 12. Every piece was 
consecrated to a star.^' " He preferred it to back- 
gammon {*^^)f in which game the 12 points of the tables 
answer to the 12 months of the year, and the 30 tablemen are 
expressive of the 30 days of the month.'' Here, then, we have 
not only a Chaur&si on a chess-board, but the larger symbolical 
number of 360 on a backgammon board. Masudi wrote in the 
early part of the tenth century, and as he frequently exercises 
a critical acumen which is highly commendable, his statements 
may be received with confidence, though it is not quite evident 
what potentate may be meant by B&lkit. 

Let us take also the emblematical figure of Surya, the Indian 
Sun. He is represented with 12 spokes to his wheel, indicating, 
as the Bh&gavata expressly says, the number of months, and 

• See << Ward's HinduB," YoL I. Fftfkce 98, and pp. 56, 56, 266 ; YoL IL pp. 
70, 74, 76 ; YoL III. Proleg. p. 24, Introd. Bern. p. 4, and pp. 7 and 40 ; and 
YoL rV. pp. 17, 20, 316, 467. "Coleman's Hindu Mythology," pp. 196 and 209. 
« Moor's Pantheon," p. 803. <« As. Bes." Yol. YI. p. 210 ; YII. p. 274 ; and 
YIII. pp. 289, 290. (' Foe Kone Ei," pp. 126, 160, 166, 176, 186, 288. <<Wilson'a 
Oxibrd Lectures," p. 65, ''Fishnn Poxana," Book IL o. 2 and 4; Book lU. o. I 
and 2, and pp. 214, 233, 236. 


flitting under a canopy formed by the 7 heads of the Coluber 
Naga. He is also represented driving 7 steeds, or one steed with 
7 heads, and also has 12 titles, forms, or manifestations, which 
denote his distinct powers (Adityas*) in each of the 12 months 
throughout his passage through the ecliptic. (See As. Ros. 
Vol. I. p. 263, and " Brahma Puran,'* quoted by Vans Kennedy 
in his Ancient and Hindu Mythology, p. S49). The allegorical 
import of this Chaur&si is so evident, that we need go no further 
to assign causes for the selection of this multiple of 7 and 12, 
to represent territorial sub-divisions in India : no numbers being 
considered more appropriate for that purpose than those which 
bear reference to the motion of the earth, the revolving seasons^ 
and the succession of seed-time and harvest ; especially f among 

* Wf^M m. Bol. (Ant ab ^iH^ et IV9 aff. quo adjeco. formanhtr e pnepoM. 
et adverbb. looalibiu, ita ut rit initium anni Ikciens yel a cajns eonsteQatione aimi 
militDii ftictom rit; pro menrinm enim mimero ml duodena nomina acdipit, et in 
isodenoa Adiffas diMeimtnr ; primus Aditjat VT^ est, quo nomine Brahmft, primi- 
geaias deonim, dicitnr ; MahSbhUr : I., t. 2524, hnnc denm Bolarem ab initio Adi^am 
dictum ftiiBse enspieor, nomine ad.ceteroB poethac extenso; ant rera est Indomm 
deriyatio ab ^n^fJi qnee est cnnctonim deornm mater ; est ^li^tm etiam dena 
ia vaiTenom). — ^Lassen's « Anihologia Sanseritica," p. 172. 

t That this mnltipUeation of nmnbers having in ihemselres a rational basis, and 
fevBded on o'bsenration, is at the root of all the extraragant epochs of the Hindns, has 
been weU shewn in an article on their Astronomy in No. II. of the '< Calcutta 
Renew." In shewing that the fiictors which enter into the period of tiie Kaii^Yug 
arc derired from the eyde of precesrion, the author obeerves :— 

*l%e amount of this preoesrion is, according to the best modem observations, 
•ovaewhat more than 50" annually; but, according to the Hindu system as stated by 
BaiUy and all other writers on the subject, it is taken as 54". Whether this is owing 
to aay aetual change in the amount since tiieir epoch, or is due to errors in their obserr- 
ations, we shall have to conrider immediately ; at present wa bave only to do with the fkct 
This preoesrion being obserred, it would naturally occur to every astronomer to enquire 
into the length of the period in the course of which this point would make a complete 
N?el«tion of the whole equinoctial dreie. At the Hindu rate of preoesrion this period 
wiU be immediately found to be 24,000 years, the quotient resulting from dividing the 
whole circle, or 360* by 54", tiie assumed preoesrion for one year. Now, the duration 
•f the KaU-Tug is just 18 times this period of 24,000 years; or the Kali-Tug is 
the period during which tiie equinox will have been 18 times at each point of the 


a people whose worship was directed towards physical objects, 
and the manifold powers and departments of nature ; and who 
in their contemplative moments were fond of marking 

" The mighty hand 
That, ever busy, wheels the silent spheres ; 
And as on earth this grateful change revolves, 
With transport touches all the springs of life." 

— Thomson^ Seasons. 

equinoctial circle. Why 18 should haye been chosen as a multiplier rather than any 
other number, we are not able positively to determine. It might have been chosen 
arbitrarily, merely on the ground that 24,000 years being too short a period to satisfy 
Hindu notions, some number must be chosen as a multiplier ; or it might be selected 
as being the greatest common measure of 360 and 54 ; or it might be for the following 
reason : — The position of the moon's node, or the point in which her orbit cuts the 
ecliptic, goes round the ecliptic in a little more than 18 years, just as the intersection 
of the earth's equator with the ecliptic goes round it in about 25,700 years in reality, 
but according to the Hindu estimate of the precession, in 24,000 years. If, then, the 
Hindu rate of precession were correct, and if the period of the reyolution of the moon's 
node were 18 years, instead of about 18 years and 7 months, then if the sun and moon 
were in conjunction at any point in the ecliptic, they would be in conjunction again 

at the same point in the ecliptic after a period of 432,000 yean The length 

of the Eali-Yug being thus determined, a short process would lead to the assignment 
of its commencement. If a point was assigned from which to measure the precession, 
as we measure it from the first point of Aries, the commencement of the epoch would 
be at once determined by dividing the distance between that first point and the actual 
position of the equinox at the period of observation by the annual precession, say 54". 
Now it is obvious that any point might be assumed arbitrarily aa the first point of the 
zodiac, or the astronomer might be led by some peculiar coincidence to fix upon some 
particular point in preference to all others. The latter was the fact in the actual 
case before us. On calculating backwards the position of the planets, they found that 
on a particular day in the month of February, in the year 3102 b.c., the Sun, Moon, 
Saturn, Mars, Jupiter, and Mercury were, not indeed in actual conjunction, but at 
least in the same quarter of the heavens, the greatest distance between any two of 
them probably not exceeding 17^ or 18°. ... It is true that at this period Yenus was 
in a different quarter of the heavens, being about 62'' in longitude apart from Saturn ; 
but what theorist would allow a single planet to stand in the way of the establishment 
of so grand an epoch P Not, certainly, the fismers of the Hindu Astronomy ; and 
accordingly they did determine that, at the commencement of the Kali-Yug, all the 
planets were in conjunction at the first point of the zodiac, and thus was the funous 
epoch fixed." 


This is not the place to enter^ as fully as the interesting 
nature of the subject demands, into the enquiry when Ghaur&sis 
were first introduced into the mythology and administrative 
details of India ; but it is obvious to remark that the Buddhists 
and Jains are more partial to the number than the Brahmans ; 
and that the Hajputs, of whom the Agnikula portion appear to 
have been supporters of the Buddhist doctrines (see Gaur Taga), 
as well as their congeners, the Gujars and J&ts, more particu- 
larly affect that number than any other tribes at present found 
in occupation of the soil. It does not necessarily follow that 
the Buddhists introduced Chaur&sis ; but it may fairly be con- 
ceded that, if we deduct from the Chaur&sis mentioned above, 
those which may perhaps be considered exclusively Brahmanical, 
the greater part may be ascribed to Buddhism, and may have 
been readily adopted and incorporated at some subsequent period 
by the Hindus, according to the usual accommodating spirit of 
polytheism. Even the emblematical solar Chaur&si may have 
been a subsequent importation, as it is questionable if Surya's 
chariot is represented in the Yedas* as it is in the Puranas. 

It is, moreover, very remarkable that Manu (YII. 115) uses 

• It must be confessed, howerer, that the Sun has 7 steeds and 7 rays, according 
to the Big Veda. ** Seven yellow mares bove thee in a chariot, Oh shining Sun!" 
(Chap. IX. Hymn YII.) — according to the nnmbering in Dr. Boson's translation of 
the Bigreda Sanhita. Again, the Sun has seven rays, <* These are the seven rays of 
the Sun, and my abode is in the midst of them" (0. XY. H. XII.). There is also 
ponibly some indication of a quarter Chaur&si in an address to Agni. " Thrice seven 
•eeret names the priests have found in thee" (C. XII. H. YIII.). According to the 
Yedas, also, 21 pieces of Pulas wood are to be got ready against a sacrifice (Stevenson's 
« Sanhita of the S&ma Yeda," p. viL and <*As. Bes." YII. 274). A fast of 21 days 
also is enjoined as an austerity previous to singing the Sama Yeda (Stevenson's 
Sanhita, p. ix.), and 21 milch cows "yield the true milk in the super-excellent place 
of Sacrifice" (lb. p. 217). See also another instance of a quarter ChaurfrsS from the 
Yedas, in "As. Bes." YII. p. 252. In the Puranas, as might be expected, the 
number is very common (See Langlois' Harivansa, I. p. 112, and II. pp. 6S, 440 ; 
fitenzler's Baghuvansa, C. II. 26 ; and Surya Karayan Upamshad, quoted by Yans 
Kennedy, in his "Ancient and Hindu Mythology," p. 346), 


only the decimal division when speaking of tlie civil adminisf ra- 
tion, " Let him appoint a lord of 10 towns» a lord of 20 towns, 
a lord of 100, and a lord of 1000/* 

It must not be forgotten also, in the attempt to fix the time 
of the introduction of Chaur&sis into India, that in the compila- 
tion of Par&sara, who, by the position of the colures recorded 
by him, is ascertaLned to have lived not earlier than 1200 years 
before Christ, the estimate of the lunation is erroneous, nor is 
any mention made of the days of the week, or of the twelve 
signs, which seem to have been introduced into India at a much 
later period ; so that if Chaur&sis do depend on the astronomical 
basis which has been assigned to them, they could not hayq 
existed in his time. 

As, therefore, neither in the time of Par&sara, nor in that of 
Manu, who is supposed to have flourished about three centuries 
after Par&sara, or in the ninth century before Christ, is there 
anything which can be construed into the remotest allusion to 
Chaur&sis, we must look for their introduction to some subse* 
quent period ; and in the midst of so much uncertainty, it seems 
lawful at least to conjecture, that the most probable date is that, 
when the Buddhists from Scythia, following that tide which 
from the earliest ages has been setting in towards the South 
East, immigrated to India, and became incorporated with the 
tribes who were in previous occupation of the country. 

Chans, u^y^ ''^ 

Land four times tilled. — Bohilkhand. 

Cbausinghd, ^«^^ ^ftftNT 

A raised mound indicating where the boundaries of four vil- 
lages meet. — See Chaugadda. 

CShauthiya, L^^ ^^Mwm 

A measure in general use for grain, and about equal to a seer 


of wheat ; Chaukarf is a quarter, and Adheli is a half, Chan- 
thijL Five Chauthiy&s are equal to a Kuro or Pasera (i.e. 
pdnch ser, five seers), and twenty Kuros to one Khanri. These 
words are equally used in superficial measures. Thus, an area 
which would require five Paserl of seed to sow it, is about equal 
to a Bigha (which in Hoshangabad is a little more than a statute 
acre, being 4,900 square yards), and was rated at about a Rupee 
of revenue. A Khanri would be about equal to four rupees, and 
a M&ni to twice that amoimt. — Saugor. See Bisi and Jarib. 

Chak, lK>. M^ 

A portion of land divided off. It is applied to detached fielda 
of a village, and to a patch of rent-free land. In old revenue 
account books it is the name given to that part of the township 
which is taken from the residents of the village and assigned to 
a stranger to cultivate. A passage in the ''Zubdatu'l Kaw&nin'' 
runs as follows : — ''And in a village the whole of whose area is 
not really cultivated by the m&Uks and most&jir, they leave 
them as much as they can manage, and make the rest into a 
'chak' under a complete sanad, giving it into the possession of 
some one else to cultivate." 

Chak bandi, j^jcj CSj^- ^m^i^ 

The fixing or registering the boundaries of a chak, showing 
the comers or points where it abuts on other lands. 

In Dakhini Hindi the equivalent is '^gtlTtn or ''foqr bounda- 
ries" (see Journal R.A.S. VI. 368). 

Chakbarar, jl^dxj- innnjT 

Collecting rents according to the size or productiveness of 
chaks. — Central Do&b. 


The loss of a whole plot of ground by diluvion : the contrary 
of ritkat. 


A Chakl& is a sub-division of a Sirk&r, comprising several 
parganahs. The only Chakl&s familiarly known in these Pro- 
vinces are those of Azimgarh and £orah. The designation is 
not uncommon in Oudh. 

Chakl&s were first instituted in the reign of Shahjah&n, by 
Sa'dullah Khan, the minister (see Karon), and therefore there 
is reason to apprehend that the Sanads given at p. 253, Yol. III., 
of '' Harington's Analysis," are forgeries. Much stress was laid 
upon these documents at the time of their publication, but as 
they purport to be of the time of Akbar, and at the same time 
mention Ghakl&s, they are open to dispute. 

Chaknamd, ^U^ 

A deed, or statement, shewing the area and boundaries of a 
Chak. The word is as old as the time of Akbar. It is men- 
tioned in his instructions to Amilgazars. 

Chal4n, ^5U- 

An invoice ; an announcement of despatch (from ^TWHIT to 
cause to go). 

Chanchar, -aci^. ^f^T 

Land left imtilled for one, two, or three years. 

Chaniyaddy yjLx>. ^Ol^l^f 

Land under a crop of Ghana, or gram. — Rohilkhand. In 
Dehli the same is called Chanial and XJmri, and in some other 
Provinces Chanara ; in Lower Do&b, Onr. 

Charhwi, s^^^-?" ^TW^ 

Baising rent (from ^^VT^ to raise). 


Ddin, ^^\^ ^Tl?f 

The eight D&ins in the Dun are hill estates, each containing 
a certain number of hamlets, of which the fields and the lands 
of one adjoin to, and mix with, the fields of another. The 
Mokaddams of these D&ins are probably the ancient zamind&rs 
of the Dun. 

A receipt (from the Arabic j£»^<3 dakhl, arriving, entering). 
In the Printed Glossary it is called Dachela, as well as Dakhila. 

Dakhilnamay ^Ll^b ^Tf^snRWr 

A warrant of possession ; also derived from J^s^- J dakhl. 

Dam, Jj '^m 

The D&m in the ** Ain-i Akbari,'' and consequently in most 
revenue accounts, is considered to be the fortieth part of a 
rupee; but to the common people it is known as the fiftieth 
part of a Taka : twenty-five therefore go to a Paisa, and twelve 
and a half to an Adhela. — ^See Damri and Chhadam. 

D&mi w&sil&t, cjIijI^ ^\j ^Tift ^nftrwnf 

Oross assets of a village (from the D4m of accoimt, mentioned 
above, and the Arabic root Ju0^ joining, arriving). 

Danabandf, ^^jcj^Ij ^I*II^«^ 

Cursoiy euryey, or partial measurement, or weighment, to 
ascertain the produce of each field. The usual method of 
D&nabandi, under the Native Governments, was to divide the 
crop into three or four kinds, and then for the Government 
Officer to select from each kind a biswa of the best looking 
crop, and for the cultivator to select a biswa of the worst 
looking crop. The produce of the two was carefully cut and 
Toii. n. 6 


weighed, and the average prodace estimated accordingly. This 
would go on as long as there was any variety of crop^ or quality 
of produce, which could occasion dispute. 

^ r^ ^^^^ ^^-^ '^-^ ^y^j^. »^ cXt (^ uX[ ji bu, 

(Kitib-i ¥4ii<iii) « jj^ j^ joJb f^^j 4^ ayyJ 

''Let him divide the cultivated land into four kinds, first, 
second, third, and fourth, after that in presence of the ryots 
let him select himself one biswah of the best of one kind and 
let the ryots themselves select from the same kind one biswah 
which they consider worst." 

Ddnadar, jlj<Gb ^TfT^TT 

Apportionment of Jama, or of any other contribution, accord- 
ing to the actual produce. — ^Benares. 

D&npattar, ^u'*^ ^THHI 

A deed of gift by which land is conveyed to Brahmans. 

Danpattardar, j^*iriu^*^ <I^M1<K 

Grantee of Brahman caste, to whom lands have been assigned 
for religious purposes. 

Dasttir, jyu-J ^^* 

As this word, which is perhaps a mere abbreviation of 
Dastdr ul 'Ami, has been fully explained under Sirk&r, this 
article will be devoted to a detailed consideration of the Map 

* The author's principle of keeping strictly within the limits of the North-Westem 
ProTinces as then constituted, renders this article imperfect, as it refers to an 
earlier political diyision of the country. The map will he found in some cases not 
to tally with the lists given in the article. For instance, under Sirk&r Agra, we are 
told that it contains four DastQrs, but in the map only three are given, the fourth, 
that of Mand&war, not being in the N.W.P., but in a natiye state. — B. 





of Dastdrs, and of the territorial changes which have occurred 
since Akbar'stime. 



SibkIe Agra. 

\/\ ^^^ 1 JBaveli Agnk. 

jjJyhJ 17 BiholpLr. 

9^Z\ 2 Etdwahi 


i^ji\j 18 JWprt. 

Jjl 3 Od. 


j^^j 19 Bqfohar. 

^J,\ 4 Odhi. 

i^gj^^j^y^ 20 8<mihar-8on- 

Jjl b m. 



»j\^. 6 Bqfwdrah. 

jy^Ji 21 JPfl«*^r. 

^Lj TBidnah. 

^y;^ 22 JP^^omar. 

^j\j, 8 BM. 

^l^ 28 Mdhdhan. 

j^y^, 9 Bhosdwar. 

\jf^ 24 Mathurd. 

j^Uj 10 Bandwar. 


Jt^y^ 25 ifaAo/i. 

*^ iJy 11 Tbc^aA i^Aim. 

^jfx^ 26 Mangotdlah. 

^jljo^ 27 Ifanddwar. 

j»**t^ ^^ /oZmot. 

JMAJ} 28 FbsifyAr. 

j<y^ 14 Janwdr* 

^j«XJ^ 29 f iiu^tfii. 

<<|IL»^>> 15 Chausafh. 

V£^l^ 80 ITa^itaii^. 

jyU. 16 jOdntraA. 

COub 81 B[UaL 

This Sirk&r is said to contain thirty-three Mah&Ls, but none of 
the copies of the '^ Ain-i Akbar{."giTe the names of more than 
thirty-one. The discrepancy is cleared up by referring to the 
Dasttir Statement, where we find the Baldah and Haveli Agra, 
and the Baldah and Hayell Bianah, given each as two Mah&ls.* 

* HaTeli and Baldah mean respectiTely ''home" and "abroad," or literally, ^'hoiue" 
tad "eoimiry :" the former alludes to the district close to the capital, and the latter 
to that at a distance. — B. 


There are four Dastdrs in this Sirk&r, viz., Eaveli Agra, 
Etawah, Bianah, and Mand&war, of which the only perfect one 
which we retain is Etawah. 

It will be observed that there are in this list several names 
of which we have now no knowledge, and Agra is consequently 
a very difficult Sirk&r to restore. The changes which have 
affected Agra more than other Sirk&rs are attributable to the 
different dynasties to which this portion of the country has been 
subjected. J&ts, Imperialists, and Mar&thas have at different 
times imposed names of their own creation on their acquisitions, 
and have served thus to confuse the records of Akbar's reign. 

After excluding the Parganahs which belong to the now 
foreign* territories of Bhartpur, Jaypur, and Dholpur, we have 
in our own dominions the following of which the name no 
longer exists — Numbers 1, 5, 14, 16, 18, 25, 26, and 30. 

1.— Haveli Agra was divided by the J&ts into several Chaklas, 
the distribution of which will be explained hereafter. Many 
of them appear as separate Parganahs in the records of our 
first settlements. 

5. — 01 is a large village in the Parganah of Farrah, held 
rent-free with others in the neighbourhood, in virtue of a Sanad 
given by Maharaja Daulat E4i Sindhi& to Munshi Chait Singh. 
This tenure is sometimes known as Parganah Beri. 01 no 
longer gives name to a Parganah, Farrah having succeeded to 
its importance, as Sdraj Mai removed the Tehsildarf Katcherry 
to it, after he had plimdered 01, on account of the opposition he 
experienced from the Zamind&r of that place. A portion of the 
Parganah of 01 is included in the Bhartpur territory. 

* By this expresdon miisi be nndentood those states which formed part of the 
Mughal empire, but are now ruled by natiTe feudatories, and whose internal affairs 
are not managed directly by British o£Sicials. — ^B. 


14. — Janwar. All the copies concur in writing the word 
thus, but there can be no question that it is properly Chandw&r. 
It has been succeeded as a Parganah by Ferozabad. Chandw&r 
was built among the ravines of the Jumna by Ohandar Sen^ a 
Chauh&n, whose fort is still to be seen on the banks of the 
river, and is early conspicuous in Musulman annals. The 
"Tdju'l Ma'&sir"* tells us that it was near this place that Jay 
Ghand encountered his fatal defeat. Shortly after the invasion 
of Timtir, we find the Chandwar Bajputs in occupation of 
Jalesar, from which they were not expelled again till a.d. 1413. 
The precise date of the decline of Chandw&r cannot be ascer- 
tained. The legends of the neighbourhood are completely con- 
tradicted by authentic history. 

16. — ^Eh&nwah. The greater part of Khinwah is in Sirhindi, 
but the town of Eh&nwah is in the Bhartp6r territory. As 
the J&t 'Amil resided at Sirhindl, the name of that town was 
imposed on the Parganah. 

18. — ^R&pri has been superseded as a Parganah by Shikoh- 
abad, its position on the Jumna being more calculated for 
defence than for controlling collections. In aU the copies of 
the ^'jCia-i Akbarf/' B&pri is recorded as in the Dastur of 
Bifinah ; but as this is impossible, on account of the intervention 
of Ghandw&r and Hatk&nt, we must presume it is a mistake; 
more particularly as a Dumri is inserted in the Etawah Dasttir, 
which should of course be B&pri. In the early Mahometan 
Histoiy of India, B&pri obtains frequent notice, and appears 
usually to have been united with Chandw&r under one govern- 
ment. The ruins of B&pri opposite to Batesar still remain to 
testify its former importance, but they are more of a Mahometan 
than a Hindu character. 

25. — ^MahoU is now included in the Parganah of Mathuri 

• There if some doubt ai to this reference. It u probably a mistake for **Taba^&t-i 
N68iri.->£. add. 



(Muttra) ; a&d ike village of MahoM is still extant about four 
miles to the South of that city. 

26. — Mangotlah is still the site of a Thana in the Southern 
angle of Aring. The Talukas of Sonk and Sonsa were included 
in it. 

30. — Hatk&nt is on the left bank of the Chambal, and has 
been noticed in the article Bhadauria. On account of its incon- 
venient situation, the J&ts removed the Tehsildari Eatcherry 
to Bah. 

The Farganahs now included within the boundaries -of Sirk&r 
Agra, and of which no mention occurs in the "Ainri Akbari/' 
form an unusually long list. 

jUTjjc^ 1 Sa'ddhdd. 

jbTJii 2 FattiUhdd. 

^(JL^S\j\ 3 Irddatnoffor. 

" jya>^ 4 2r<wAr TahsU* 

_)jjji^ 5 Klumdauli. 

^ 6 Farrah. 

\ I u^ l^- 8 Jdnibrdst. 

^U^ 9 Lahndn. 
obT^ 10 SMhoUhdd. 

jju^ 11 Gihror. 

JibJ 12 Zarhal 

>^Lo 13 JBibdmau. 
(J^Ij 2rb 14 BdhFandhat. 

jUTjjj^ 16 Firmdhdd. 
jbTj^ik^ 16 Musfafdhdd. 
cS^ijS 17 ^r«w^(part). 

\l\j 19 Edyd. 

U^5^ lj^]ji*^ ^ JBdthrasMur' 

CjU 21 Ifdt. 
^JCJb^ 22 Sirhindi, 
y*^ 23 Sdhpo, 

* It ifl perhaps hardly necessary to explain that in all districts in the N.W.P. the 
Hazi&r Tahsil is that in which the chief town of the district lies, and which is there- 
fore in the HaztSr, or "presence," of the Collector and other GoYemment officials. It 
is sometimes also called the Sadr, or " chief/' Tahsil.<— B. 


Sa'dabad. — In the time of Sa'dullah Shan, Wazir^ who has 
acquired notoriety for his proceedings in Afghanistan, and the 
general ability of his administration during the reign of Shah- 
jehan, this Parganah was formed from about 200 villages of 
Jalesar, and eighty from Mahaban, with a few from Khandauli ; 
and a town was built in the centre of them, which he called 
after his own name, Sa'dabad. 

Fattihabad, known also by the name of Zafamagar, was in- 
cluded in the Haveli of Agra, and formed part of the Tappa 
of Shamsabad. The town and sarai of Fattihabad were founded 
by Aurangzeb in 1067 a.h., in commemoration of the victory 
obtained by him over his brother Dara Shikoh. 

Iradatnagar is formed from part of Shamsabad, and from 
Sanya, one of the Tappas of Haveli Agra. The towns of 
Sanya and Shamsabad are both within the Parganah. 

Hazur Tahsil is formed from part of Gtioghat and of Ka- 
k&raid, or Paltaura, and from Merhakar, Tappas of Haveli 

Ehandauli was one of the Chaklas, or Tappas, of Haveli 
Agra. It is frequently entered in the old records as little 
K&bul, or Tappa K&bul Khurd. More than half of the pre- 
sent Parganah of Khandauli has been taken from Chandwar. 

Farrah is formed from 01 and part of Gttogh&t, a Tappa of 
Haveli Agra. Achnera, one of the many Parganahs inter- 
mediately formed from Haveli Agra by the J&ts, is included 
in Farrah. 

Sfkri, or Fattihpiir Sikrf, contains the Parganah of Fattih- 
p6r, and parts of Karauli and Karahra, Tappas of Haveli 
Agra. It is a mistake to suppose that SIkri was a mere village 
before Akbar btdlt his palace there. We find mention of 
Governors of that place long before his time. Thus, in the 
^'Taw&rikh-i-Mub&rik Sh&hi'' we find Malik £hairu'd-din 
Tuhfa recorded as Governor of Sikrf, even as early as the 
time of Sayyid Mub&rik; and we find it also mentioned in 


that Toluminoas compilation^ the '^ Akbamama/' that shortly 
before the battle of Khanwa, which established the empire of 
the Mughalsy B&bar, having obtained in the neighboarhood of 
Sikri some important advantages over Rana Sanka, directed 
that the name should be changed from Sikri to Shukari, or 
''place of thanks/' It is strange that the addition of Fattih- 
pur should have been imposed upon it by his son on similar 

Janibrast. — This Parganah, so called from being on the right 
bank of the Jumna, and known also as Bareiptira, comprises 
other inferior Pattfs and Talukas. Kamait Pattl, opposite 
the town of Etawah, and Chakamagar were included in Indawa 
and Bakipdr, Tappis of the Haveli of Etawah. The Taltika 
of SandauSy known also as Parh&ra, will be treated of under 

Laknan remained attached to Etawah up to the time of Go- 
vind Pandit. It was separated when this tract of country came 
into the hands of the Nawab Wazir. The Haveli of Etawah 
comprised seven Tappas — 1, Eh&s Haveli ; 2, Sataura ; 3, In- 
dawa; 4, Bakiptir; 5, Dehli; 6, Jakhan; and 7, Earhal. Lak- 
nan is composed of portions of the two Tappas of Indawa and 
Bakip6r. Sataura, as well as Haveli Khds, are included in the 
present Parganah of Etawah. 

Shikohabad is composed of R&pri and parts of Tappas Dehli 
and Jakhan in Etawah. Shikohabad was not founded till the 
time of Dara Shekoh, the eldest brother of Aurangzeb. 

Gihror, now a Parganah of Mainptiri, was included in B&pri. 

Earhal, also a Parganah of Mainpuri, was one of the seven 
Tappas of Haveli Etawah. 

Bibamau is composed of parts of the Tappas of Dehli and 
Jakhan in Haveli Etawah. Bibamau (Bibameyti}, where the 
Tahsildar's Eatcherry is fixed, is a small village situated on 
the Sars6 river, in the Parganah of Jakhan. Dehli (Deoli) 
lies between the Sarsti and the Saingur Naddis. Jakhan is 


now tininliabitedy but the ruins of tlie Eliei^ are on the Jumna. 
I should have been disposed to give the whole of Jakhan to 
Bdpri, in which it certainly was included before the time of 
Akbar, for we find it expressly said to be a Farganah of R&prf 
at p. 336 of *' B&bar's Memoirs/' but the local records distinctly 
state that Jakhan has been from time immemorial considered a 
Tappa of Hayeli Etawah. 

B&h Pan&hat was originally Hatk&nt.* Bdh and Pan&hat 
were rated as two separate Parganahs during the early period 
of our administration. 

Ferozabad succeeded to B&pri, being in a more convenient 
position to control the collections. It was built in the reign 
of Shah Jahan by a nobleman called Feroz Ehan^ on the lands 
of the five Mauzas^ Fempur, Easulptir^ Datauli, Muhammad- 
ptir, and Sukhmalptir ; and the J&ts subsequently raised a fort 
here to the South of the town^— one of the bastions of which 
has now been converted into a Trigonometrical Survey Tower. 

Mustafabady sometimes called the second division of Shikoha- 
bady forms part of R&prf . 

Arfng (part). — ^About one-third of the present Farganah of 
Aring was originally included in Mangotlah. The remainder 
has been noticed under Sirk&r Sahar. 

Soneyi was originally a portion of Mahaban, — or Mah&wan, 
as it is generally written by the Musxdmans. 

Baya. — ^The same remark applies. Both these Talukas were 
subsequently included in the Mursan Taluka. 

Hathras and Murs&n were detached from Jalesar chiefly. 
They were till lately considered as two separate Parganahs. 

M&t formed part of Mahaban. 

Sirhindi has been formed from portions of Kh&nwah and 
Haveli Agra. 

Sahpo formed part of Jalesar. It has lately been increased 
by annexations from Sa'dabad. 

• For Hfttkftnt^ see artide Bhadaari& in Fart L-^B. 



Si&kIs Kakaw. 


1 BMLigdnw. 

^^^ 17 Saurakh. 


2 BhajpUr. 

ybjjljiy^jj^ 18 Sikandarpiir 


8 rc%ran«^. 



4 ^iVA^. 

jyjf) 19 PiriTiW. 


5 BilhiLr. 

^-flfC/'ji^j*^^ 20 Sikandarpiir 


6 Pafiaa. 


J3i.yJ^ l/i 

7 Paffi 'Alipiir. 

jbT^^^M^ 21 Shamsdbdd. 


8 Ptff^i JVW^^. 

Vir€f- 2^ CAAo^dmotf. 


9 Bamah. 

Ujj J 23 i>M>A<i. 


10 P^A^fk^. 

_L^ U ^^ 24 Eanauj ha 


11 i^aili^. 



12 /^ony. 

J^ 25 Zami^. 


18 ^A^/i. 

^^\J 26 Kardoli. 


14 SahOpiir. 

^uyjyX* 27 JUalkansah.* 


15 Sakrdnw. 

*^\j\j 28 iTdytamoM. 


16 /9aA<ir. 

];b 29 Prfra. 

Jy^ 80 


Sirk&r Eanauj contains 30 J 

Ilali&ls^ and is divided into the 

three Dasttirs of Eanauj, Bhdig&nw, and Sakit. 

The Farganahs of which there is now no longer any mention 
are— Numbers 8, 18, 20, 23, 27, 28, and 29. 

8. — Patti Nakhat is now included in the North of Parganah 
XJriy&, and was considered a separate Parganah till the com- 
mencement of our administration. The chief town was Babar- 
pdr, near Sar&i Ajit Mai. 

Kali Bai writes this L» <o^ti* mdlkon tdy in two words. 


18. — Sikandarpdr XJdliu is now included in GhhabrAman, 
and is mentioned as a separate Parganah in the reports of 
the three first Settlements. The town of Sikandarptir still 

20. — Sikandarpur Atreji, which one copy says was called 
also Malikpur Sikandarp&r, was subsequently known by the 
name of Karsanah, and is now included in Sah&war. The re- 
mains of Atreji still exist in Parganah Marehra on the right 
bank of the K411 Nadi ; and Sikandarpur on the opposite bank 
is now known as Sikandar&b&d. It is reported in the neigh- 
bourhood^ that in consequence of some quarrel between the 
ZamindarSy a Goyemment Officer was sent from Dehli to in- 
stitute enquiries into the cause, and the result of his mission 
was that 60 villages of Solanki Bajputs were detached from 
Sah&war, and made into a separate Parganah by the name of 
Sikandarpdr Atreji. 

23. — Deoha is included in Bilhaur, and was mentioned in the 
early Settlements as a separate Parganah, under the name of 
Dewa. The town of Dewa still exists near Bilhaur. 

27. — Malkonsd is the old name of Bastilabad. The names 
are still firequently united, as Easulabad Malkonsd. 

28. — ^N&n&mau is on the Ganges, and was the head town of 
a Parganah, till it was included in Bilhaur by Almas Ali Kh&n. 

29. — "Birk is now included in Akbarpiir. 

The new parganahs within the old Sirk&r of Kanauj are — 

\jj 1 TiHid. 

LSfl 2Thattid. 

oUTJ^ ^Basiildbdd. 

[jjj\ 6 Ifriyd (part). 

<d^ 6Belah. 

8 KithniNahigar^. 
yU^ 9 Pkpargdnw* 
i^\S\^ 10 Muhammaddbdd 


1^1^ 4Lj 11 TappaPaMrd. 
^}^k0aasr jya^^ 12 Sdzdr TahsiL 
<2^^U 13 Kdimganj, 
jly}j*«i 14 Sanhdr, 

jLT^ Id MOrdhdd. 
ylT^b 16 Bdngdnw. 
^^U 17 IMmga^. 
JijJas] 18 A^tamnagar. 

Tirtid and Thattia. — ^These were not rated as separate Par- 
ganahs till the commencement of our administration, and have 
now been thrown again into a single Parganah. They were 
formerly within the Parganah of Talgr&m, or Talgr&nw (the 
Tillage of lakes). 

Basulabad has been explained under Malkonsd. 

Sheorajptir was formerly within the area of Bithtir. 

TTriyd (part) has been explained under Patti Nakhat. 

Belah was originally merely a Tillage of Sah&r, and was for 
a long time the seat of a Sub-Collectorship. 

Akbarpdr gaye name to a Parganah, when it was made the 
chief town of Sirk&r Shahptir ; and now frequently goes by the 
name of Akbarpur Shahpdr, in consequence. See forther, 
under Shahpur, Sirk&r £&lpi. 

Ktshni Nabiganj was formerly in Bhdig&nw. As on the 
British accession it was held by Chandhari IJday Chand under 
a different tenure from the rest of Bhd(g&nw, it was constituted 
a Parganah, and has eo remained. 

Pfparg&nw. — ^The villages included within Piparganw were 
given in Jagir by Mahomed Eh&n Bangash to his wife, and 
detached for that purpose from Shamsabad. On her death they 
continued imder separate management, and so remained till the 
British accession, when they were permanently formed into the 
separate Parganah of Piparganw. 

Muhammadabad, usually pronounced Mohamdabad, was also 
a Zillah of Shamsabad. 

Tappa Pahara, within which the City of Farrukhabad (Far- 
rakhabad) and Station of Fattihgarh are situated, was originally 


a portion of Bhojptir, from which it was detached by Mahomed 
Kh&n Bangash^ and its revenue assigned for the expenses of his 

The Haziir Tahsil is a large tract, detached in the year 1217 
Fasli^ for the conyenience of collection^ from Shamsabad^ and 
nnited with Piparganw, Muhammadabad^ Bhojpur, and Tappa 
Pahara under the charge of a separate Tahsildar. 

£&imganj. — ^Part of Kampil and part of Shamsabad were 
taken to make this Parganah. Certain Tillages of these two 
Parganahs were held in {arm by Jah&n Kh&n, and other 
Path&ns of Mau and K&imganj (called after K&im Jang, the 
son of Mahomed Kh&n Bangash) ; and as these villages had 
thus for a long time been held separate &om the other two 
Parganahs, they were formed into the Parganah of K&imganj, 
when the British administration commenced. 

Sonh&r formed at one time a portion of Bama. It is said in 
the annals of the Bathers, that on Jay Ohand's defeat by Ma- 
homed Ohori, the remnant of his family, which chose not to 
seek their fortunes in Bajputana, took up their abode in Bama, 
and after residing there for several generations, gave the pre- 
sent Parganah of Bama as a Sankalap (or grant for the per- 
formance of religious ceremonies, v. Birt) to Brahmans, and 
making Sonh&r their residence, it became in course of time a 
separate Parganah. 

Mihrabad was formerly included in the large Parganah of 
Shamsabad. Its name is said to be derived from Mihr-Parwar, 
the wife of Shamsu'ddin, King of Dehli. 

B&ng&nw was a Zillah of Mihrabad, and therefore originally 
in Shamsabad. 

Isl&mganj was also formerly a Zillah of Mihrabad. 

A'zamnagar* was constituted a Parganah at the commence- 
ment of the British administration. It was formerly a Tappa 

* Kali Bai calls this Aliganj, and it is so called in the map of zamindluri pof- 



of Shamsabady and was for somo time the residence of the A mil 
of that Parganah. 

Jjj\ 1 ITrai. 
■Milb 2 BUdipiir, 
3 Bhadheh 

J^icfy^ 8 SitganpiLr. 
j^aKjii 9 Shdhpdr. 

jy]ji*^ 4 Derdpiir. jli^ 11 -ff««dr. 

^^jjj 5 i>«>Jb/i. CJ'^Jc^ 12 Mundata. 

^^\J 6 5<irA. ^^ 18 JSJ^rela. 

J9^^J ^ ^^P^^* jljT«X<kc^ 14 Muhammaddhdd. 

j^j^Aib 15 2?amif^r. 

The Sirk&r of El&pi contains 16 Mah&ls, the Haveli and 
Balda of E&lpi being divided in the Dasttir Table into two 
Mah&ls. These constitute only one Dastdr. It is strange that 
the area is omitted from No. 7 to 12, but as there is no doubt 
about their present position, the omission is of no consequence. 

It will be observed that in the list above given, there are but 
few which are recognized in the present day in our own Pro- 
vinces ; the missing ones being I^umbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 
11, 12, 13, and 14. 

1. — ^IJrai is in Jalaun, and the site of a British cantonment. 

2. — ^Bilaspur still exists on the banks of the Junma, about 
six miles South from Sekandra. The Parganah of Bilasptir is 
now generally known as Sekandra, or Bilaspdr Sekandra. 

3. — Bhadhek now forms a portion of the Parganah of Kalpi, 
and is included in part of the long strip of land which runs be- 
tween Jalaim and the Jumna. The word is difficult to read in 
all the copies I have consulted. It assumes the various forms 
of Badhalsa, Badhasabad, Babban, Badangola, and Badhatasta. 

4. — Derapdr forms part of Dera Mangalpdr in Cawnpore. 


5, — Deokali is now contained within TJriya. The old town 
is about two miles South from Uriya^ on the bank of the 

7. — ^Rdipdr is on the right bank of the Jumna, and extensiye 
ruins proclaim its former importance. Only a small portion is 
included in the Hamirptir District, the rest is in Jalaun. 

8. — Sdganpur is now in TJriya, between Deokali and Patti 
Nakhat. Stinganpattf still exists in the centre of TJriya. 

9. — Shahpdr is now a deserted Tillage in Bhognipur, on 
the bank of the river Jumna, a short distance South- West from 
Bhognipur. It was formerly the residence of the A mil, till 
the Nawab of Oudh removed it to Akbarpur. In the Registers 
of the later Empire, as in the ** Hakikat-i- Jama'' of Hardi £&m 
Kayath, we find Sh&hpdr giving name to a separate Sirk&r, 
which comprised 25 Mah&ls, among which were the Farganahs 
of Patti Nakhat, Sdganpur, Bilaspur, Deraptir, and Mangalptir. 
The Sirk&r was frequently held in Jagir by a prince of the royal 
&mily. When Sh&hpur was much injured by the encroach- 
ments of the Jumna, the chief station was removed to Hajipur 
on the Seng&r, and in the course of time, in consequence of 
alarms inspired by the malice of a sprite called Bhura Deo, it 
was removed to Akbarpur. Hence it has retained the name of 
Akbarpur Shahptir ; but at the commencement of our adminis- 
tration, Bhogniptir was separated from Akbarpdr, and formed 
into a separate Parganah. 

11. — Kanar is a large Parganah of Jalaun. The old town of 
Kanar, being now in ruins, is called Kanar Khera. As Jagmo- 
hanpur is built near the site, the chief of the Seng&r Hajputs is 
frequently known as the Baja of Kanar Khera. 

12. — ^Khandaut is included in Jal&lptir, in the Hamirptir 
district. The village is on the south bank of the Betwa, about 
two miles west of Jal&lptir. 

13. — ^Kharela is also in Jal&lptir, and the town is at the 
southern extremity of that Parganah. 


14. — Muliammadabad is a Parganah of the J&laun District, 
skirtiiig the northern bank of the Betwa. 

The Parganahs of which we have no trace in the *' Ain-i 
Akbarl *' are — 

jyjixu^ 2 MangalpiLr. 

\ij!\ 8 ITriyd. 

HjXS^ 4 Sikandrah, 
jf^JJU^ 5 Jaldlpiir. 
iij4 6 Kharka. 

%Jj^^ 7 Panwdri. 

Bhognipdr was formerly contained within Sh&hptir. It was 
constituted a Parganah at the commencement of our administra- 
tion, and now includes within its area another new Parganah, 
called Mus&nagar. 

Mangalpur was formerly a village called Nera in Parganah 
Bilasptir. It was bestowed along with fifty-two villages upon 
Mangal Khan, by Muhammad Ahmad Ehan, the Jagirdar of 
Sirk&r Sh&hpur. Mangal Khan changed the name of Nera to 
Mangalpur, and thenceforward the fifty-two villages constituted 
a separate Parganah. In the year 1216 Fasli, it was imited 
with Derapur into one Parganah, now known as Dera Mangalpur. 

I/riyd. About two-thirds of Ifriyd are in this Sirk&r, con- 
taining the two Parganahs of Suganptir and Deokali. The 
remainder of l/riy& formed Patti Nakhat in Sirk&r Kanauj. 
The three were united into the Parganah of 1/riy& in 1216 

Sikandrah was formerly Bilaspur. 

Jal&lpur, sometimes called Jel&lpdr Kharela, contains two old 
Parganahs — Khandaut on the North, and Kharela on the South. 
The town of Jal&lpur, which is called after Jal&l Shah, a Fakir, 
who lies buried there, is built within the lands of Khandaut. 

Kharkah was formed from parts of Muhammadabad, XfiH, 
Khandaut and Bath. 



Panw&ri was a portion of Bath, which has an area of no less 
than 680,000 BIghas. But no certain information respecting 
this Parganah can be gleaned, except that it was originally 
called Parh&rpur; still, this gives us no clue to its position, 
unless we assume it to be the Parih&r in Sirkdr Irij. But the 
probabilities are in favour of its having been a part of Bath. 


SibkXb Eol. 


1 Atrauli. 



11 Khkfja. 


2 Akbardbdd. 


12 BalUK, 


3 Ahdr. 

^j i^j^iL* 

13 Sekandrd Mo, 


4 Pahdsii. 


14 Soron. 


5 BUrdm. 


15 SaidhUpdr. 

6 PaeUdnd. 


16 Shikdrpitr. 


7 Tappd. 


17 Ebl. 

\^jS <U\^ 

8 ThdnaFaridd. 


18 Gangeri. 


9 JMli. 


19 Mdrihrn. 


10 Chandaus, 


20 MaliJcpkr. 

^y 21 Noh. 

Tlus Sirk&r contains 21 Mah&ls, divided among the four Das- 
tdrs of Sol, M&rehra, Akbar&b&d, and Th&na Farid&. 

There are but few lost names in the above list, viz., Numbers 
6, 15, 18, and 20 ; and three even of these have only very lately 
been absorbed into other Parganahs. 

6. — ^Pachl&n& forms the eastern portion of AtrauU. 

15. — Saidhupur. — There has been great difficulty in restoring 
this Mah&l, but it appears to be no other than Sirhpura. In 
some copies, indeed, it is written Sirhpur. 

The chief objections to consider Saidhupur as Sii'hpura, arise 

VOL* u. 


from its being separated from the rest of the Dastdr of M&rehra 
by Sikandarpur Atreji and part of Sakit ; and from its being 
combined with Fachlan&, the most distant Parganah of the 
Dastdr, as two Mahals ; but on closer examination it is found 
that only by taking a portion of Sakit into M&rehra and Sirh- 
ptir, can the true area of all the neighbouring Parganahs be 
restored according to the '^ Ain-i Akbari ; " and when this is done 
the old status is represented with surprising correctness. The 
second objection yanishes when we find other distant Parganahs, 
about which we can entertain no doubt, grouped as two Mah&ls ; 
as in the instance of Tilbegampur and Jel&lpur, Sirk&r Dehli, 
and Seoh&ra and Jhalti, Sirk&r Sambhal. Under these circum- 
stances, coupled with the consideration that Saidhupur has 
Solankhi 2iamind&rs, we may safely assume Sirhpura to be in 
the Dastur of M&rehra. 

There was another cause of hesitation. In the Sirk&r of 
Eanauj, Birwar (jij^i-i) occupies the alphabetical place of, and is 
written like, Sarwar (jr^) ; and had there not been other 
instances in that Sirk&r of the alphabetical arrangement being 
disregarded, we might have supposed that Sirhpura was meant. 

18. — Ganger! forms the South-Eastem portion of Atrauli. 
Gangeri and Pachl&n& have been absorbed since the last Settle- 

20. — Malikpfir has now been converted into Anupshahr. The 
Tillage of Malikpur is about five miles South-West from Anup- 
shahr. In the first few Settlements it is spoken of as a Par- 
ganah, generally in conjunction with Ah&r. 

The new Parganahs are also few — 

j^ 1 Khair, 
2Fp^^^MA^ 2 Hamngarh, 

^j^3 Gorai, 

Ehair, Hasangarh, and Gorai have been detached from Kol. 


Anupshahr. — ^The town and fort of AntipBhahry after whicli 
this Parganah is called, were built by Antip Singh, who was 
honoured with the title of Eaja Ani Ea( Singh Ahmad Kh&ni, 
by Jahangir, and invested by him with a Jagfr of 84 villages on 
each side of the Ganges, tenanted by Sadgiijars of his own 
tribe. Baja Ani built Jahangir&b&d also, and called it after the 
name of his royal patron, as well as Ahmadgarh in Pit&mpur, 
in honour of his dignity of Ahmad Kh&ni. The present incum- 
bent has succeeded to the title, but not to the extensive posses- 
sions of his ancestors ; for B&ja Sher Sing, who was the incum- 
bent at the time of the cession, sold nearly the entire Estate, 
except the Talukas of Jah&ngir&b&d and Ahmadgarh, which 
were then possessed by another branch of the family. Anup- 
shahr was formed from the area of Malikpur, but it is only of 
late years that the entire area of Malikptir has been absorbed 
into Antipshahr, for in the first Settlements of Aligarh and 
Morad&b&d we find them recorded as separate Parganahs. 

Si&kXb TijXrah. 

j^Sj\ 1 Indor. 
Ai-:>.^\ 2 iTfina. 

\jbyu^ 6 Bhasohrd, 

* Mr. G. Oabbins says Umri Umr& are in the Noh accoiding to the old airange- 
ment, but in the map they are in Hatfn. — ^E. add. 

t There is some confiuion in the text, not only in the spelling of oertain names, 
bat also as to the situation of the mahUs. Begw&npdr is an anomalous looking word, 
and is probably a oormption of Bangwfrn, a mistake which might easily occur in 

Persian writing (^U^ and ^;|y^). The termination jpir does not belong to the 

word, which, on the authority of Mr. G. Gubbins, should be Paningw6n (^^jTjt^). 
'^ It is an old city surrounded by ruins and tombs and tamarind groves and fine old 
wells. It used to be one of the chief head-quarters of the yKa««&Hft« The houses 
there are roofed for the most part with slate set on edge." It is not in Hatln but in 
PCin&h&na.— £. add. 


ij\af 7 T^drah. 
(JL^^j^s^- 8 Chamrdu?at,' 

(jm/L 10 Bdhra*. 

^/ 14 Xo^tb. 
ifj^\^ 15 GMiera. 

^UX 17 Nagindn, 

This Sirk&r consists only of one Dastdr. It contains 18 
Mah&ls ; but the name of one between Tij&rah and Chamr&wat 
remains blank in all the copies which have been consulted. By 
referring, howeyer, to the Dastur table, it appears that the name 
of the omitted Mah&l is Pdr, which, as it is not within our ter- 
ritory, requires no fiirther notice. 

Of the old Tij&rah Parganahs within the district of Gurg&nw 
there are eight which no longer exist, viz., Numbers 1, 2, 4, 5, 
10, 14, 15, and 17. 

1. — Indor is a Farganah of which the chief town still exists 
on the Western brow of the Mewat Hills, near the source of the 
Indori river, one of the streams which fall into the S&bi. It 
Ues between Noh and Kotila. The area is represented as con- 
taining 1,30,450 Bighas, of which the British portion is in- 
cluded in Parganah Noh, the remainder in the Tij&rah country. 

2 and 4. — Ujina and Begw&npur are included within Hatin. 

5. — ^Bisru is included in Pun&h&na. 

10 and 17. — Sakras and I^agina (Nagin&n) are included in 
Firozpur ; but were considered separate Parganahs till the lapse 
of the Firozpdr Jagir to Government. 

14. — Kotila contained 71,265 Bighas, of which the greater 
part has gone to form the Parganah of Noh, and the remainder 
to form the Parganah of Hatin. Kotila still exists, eight miles 
South from Noh, but scarcely ranks above an ordinary village. 

• Or Jliimr&wat. 


It was fonnerly a place of yery considerable importance, and 
was one of the chief strongholds of the turbulent Mewatis. We 
learn from the ^^Taw&rikh-i Mubankshahi'^ that it was taken 
and destroyed by the Sayyid King, B3iizr, in a.D; 1421. 

15. — Ghasera has been thrown into Noh. It is still a re- 
spectable town, encircled with a strong wall with bastions. 

The present Parganahs included within this area, and not 
mentioned in the ^'iCin-i Akbari," 

^y 1 Ifbh. I ^^^ 2 Satin. 

<0Ul3^ 3 JHindUnah. 

Noh was formerly a Mauza within the area of Parganah Indor. 
In A.D. 1764 the J&t chief, Suraj Mai, after killing Bao Bah&ddr 
Singh, who had previously seized upon the Parganahs of Indor 
and Eotila, and after plundering the town of Ghasera, established 
his own Amil in l^oh, and placed under his charge the collec- 
tions of Indor, Ghasera and £otila; since which time it has 
remained & separate Parganah. 

Hatin, which lapsed to the British Government in 1231 Fasli, 
on the death of Faizull&h Beg Khan, was originally named after 
a Mauza of Bhagw&npfir, and now includes within its area 
XJjina and Bhagw&npur,* and parts of Sonah and Kotila. In 
the time of Mohamed Shah, Bao Badan Singh, the father of 
Suraj Mai, held a lease of this Mah&l from the Jagirdars in 
possession. His son, taking advantage of the weakness and 
decline of the Mahomedan Government, refused to fulfil the 
conditions his father had entered into, and maintained by force 
of arms possession on his own account : and building a mud fort 
in Hatin, included his acquisitions within a new Parganah of 
that name, which has been retained to this time. 

* Or Paningw6]i. 


Pun&h&nah, which was formerly incladed in Nawwab Shamsu'd- 
din's Jagir, was originally a small Mauza in Parganah Bisru. 
In A.D. 1717 Sdraj Mai built a mud fort in Pun&h&nah, and 
established it as the head quarters of a new Parganah, formed 
out of Bisrti and parts of Ohamr&wat and Pah&ri. 

SibkIb Tbu. 

The only Parganahs of f rij in our territory (excluding Jalaun, 
which, having ktely kpsed to us, I have not considered), are— 

^f 1 KkncK. I jlyjf^ 2 Parihdr. 

Kunch retains its name in the district of Hamirpur, and is 
isolated by Parganahs of the Jalaun territory. 

Parih&r, so called from the tribe of Bajputs who are its 
zamind&rs, includes in a portion of its area the Taluka of San- 
daus, now contained in the Parganah of Janibrast in Etawah. 
Its position in the midst of the ravines of the Ku&ri and 
Ghambal has always fostered the turbulence of the zamind&rs, 
and in the early period of our administration a military party 
sent out to control them was severely handled, and the officer 
in command lost his life. 

SibxIb SahIr. 

4Ul^ 4 ITdmah. 

jJbUr^ y^ 5 £bh Mujdhid. 

Jj^ 7 Eodal. 

This Sirk&r, which is sometimes called Pah&ri, contains seven 
Mah&U forming one Dastdr; but in some copies Niinhera is 
recorded as a separate Dastiir. Only two of these Parganahs 

v^^lyj 1 Pahdri. 

^^J^ 2 Bhadmdi. 

j\j^ 8 Sahdr, 


are in our territory — numbers 3 and 7, — ^but the dimensions of 
the former are much curtailed^ on aceomit of the formation of 
other PargaQahs from part of its large area. We find it stated 
in the history drawn up by Sariip Chand^ for the use of Sir J. 
Shore^ that Shahjah&n^ in the twentieth year of his reign, gave 
£&mahy Pah&ri, and the other Parganahs of this Sirk&r, to Sfrat 
Singh, the father of Baja Jai Singh, as the imperial authorities 
were not strong enough to control the turbulence of the Mewatis ; 
but I do not find it mentioned among the transactions of that 
year in the ** Shahjah&n-nama." 

The new Parganahs within this area 

i}^jiA 1 Slmgarh. \ ^/ 2 KoA. 

i^S^^\ 3 Aring fpartj. 

These three Parganahs were formerly included in Sah&r. The 
two first were separated by the J&ts, but for a long time retained 
the single name of Kosi, and the latter, at the commencement 
of our administration ; since which time the three have con- 
tinued separate Parganahs. Aring includes also the Parganahs 
of Gbvardhan and Sonsa ; and £os( includes that of Shahptir ; 
but as they were intermediately formed, and no mention is made 
of them in the ^'^in-i Akbari,'' they require no notice. 

In the Hakikat-i-Jama of Hard! R&m S&yath, which was 
written about the time of the decline of the empire (the precise 
year is not mentioned), there is no such Sirk&r as that of Sah&r, 
and we find it succeeded by Islampur (called by Aurangzeb, 
Islam&bfid) Muttra (Mathur&), containing 12 Mah&ls. There is 
also the new Sirk&r of Biana Hindaun formed according to the 
same work, containing 29 Mah&ls, while the Sirk&r of Agra is 
reduced to the mere Hayeli round the city. 





BiEzi^B IlahXbXs. 

b (jwbUl 

1 Ihhdhds hd 


6 SihandarpiLr 



7 ira;»^»^. 


2 Bhadoi. 


8 Jr<»^di. 


3 JddUhdd. 


9 KhairdgaTh, 


4 Sordhw. 


10 ifaA. 


5 Singraur. 


11 Eddidhda. 

This Sirk&r is said to contain only 11 Mah&ls, though Jaldl- 
ih&d is reckoned as 4. They are divided among the three 
Dastdrs of Ilah&b&s, Bhadoi, and Jal&l&b&d. 

The Farganahs now no longer extant are Numbers 1, 3, 5, 
and 11. 

1. — Ilah&bds. — The name of the fort and Parganah were 
subsequently, according to the Oh&r Gulshan and several other 
authorities, changed by Shah Jah&n to Ilahab&d, as the termi- 
nation of bds was presumed to savour too much of Hinduism,* 
The Parganah is now known by the name of Chail, which is 
itself a place of some antiquity, as it is mentioned in the 
"Lat&if-i Ashrafi." — See Harbong ka Raj. 

3. — Jal&l&b&d, or Jal&l&bds, is the name of Arail, which was 
imposed on it by Akbar, in commemoration of his own title of 
Jal&lu'd-din. — See note to Harbong ka Raj. 

During the time of the Naww&b Wazir's Government, Arail 
was included in Sirk&r Tarh&r,t and is so mentioned in the 

* It is fiur more probable that the name Bah&b&d was the original name as imposed 
by the Mnsulmansy and that the final syllable '*b&d," which they did not nnderstand 
the meaning of, was changed by the lower orders to *' bfts," as it is to this day always 
pronounced "Ilahb&s" by them." — B. 

t Sirk&r Tarh&r appears to haye occasionally varied its bounds. It seems at one 


Schedule of Beyenues given in the "Appendix to the 5th 
Beport.'^ It is strange that we find this Parganah, which forms 
a separate Dasttir, intervening between the Parganahs which 
form the Dastur of Haveli Ilah&b&s. The position of Bara 
would point it out as a component part of Jalal&b&d, but^ for the 
considerations given in the article Ghora, I have recorded it in 
that Sirk&r. There is no measurement to guide us in this case, 
but the Bevenue yielded is so small — being 7,37,220 Dams, with 
the small contingent of only 10 Sawars and 400 Infantry — that 
it does not admit of the addition of Bara. 

5. — Singraur is the old name of Naw&bganj. Singraur is a 
very ancient place, and is spoken of in the "B&m&yana,'' as Srin- 
gavera.* The town of Singraur is still extant on the left bank 
of the Ganges, a few miles above Allah&b&d. 

11. — ^Hadl&bds was the name of the Parganah now called 
Jhusi. — See Harbong ka Baj. 

^^ <LJ 5 Tappah Kon. 

ij^^;^ ^ 6 Tappah Chaurdsi. 

2rj^y^1 <Ujf 7 Tappah Upravdh, 

a^fjm^ui^ 8 Saktisgarh. 

The new Parganahs are — 

jjj^l 1 Arail, 
^f^\^ 2 Nawdhganj, 
i^^^ 3 Jhiiii. 
JjU- 4 Chdil. 

Arail. — See Jal&l&b&d. 

I^aw&bganj. — ^The Parganah of Singraur received its new 
name of Nawabganj from Naw&b Mansur Ali Khan, who built 
a ganj and town near Singraur, which he established as the 
chief station of the Parganah. 

time to baye included part of Chan&r. In the " Ahw&l-i |Siibaj&t," mentioned in the 
article Budhganga, Sirk&r Tarh&r is said to contain nine mah&ls, amongst which are 
to be recognised Jal&l&b&s and Chaukandi. 

• Wilson, "Theatre of the HindtSs/' I. p. 300; "R&m&yana," I. i. 28; Carey 
and MarBhman, Vol. III., p. 247.— £. add. 



Jhusi.— See Hadi&b&s. 

Ch&il is the old name of Ilah&b&s b& Haveli. The town of 
Oh&il is situated in the centre of the Parganah. 

Tappah Kon is a portion of Bhadof^ from which it was de- 
tached when Sakat Singh married the Mannas Raja's daughter, 
to whom it was given in dowry, and thenceforward became a 
Tappah of Santit, to which it did not belong when the " i^in-i 
Akbarf " was written. 

Tappah Chaurfisi is a portion of Kantit. Probably but a very 
small portion of this Tappah was known in Akbar's time, but 
we have no measurement to guide us. 

Saktisgarh. This, too, was in Kantit, and was also, perhaps, 
mostly unknown. The country was previously called Kolana, 
in consequence of the residence of the Kols in this neighbour- 
hood ; and it was not till Eaja Sakat Singh of Kantit destroyed 
their stronghold, and built Saktisgarh on its site, that the 
Tappah obtained its new name. 

The Taluka of Mirzaptir Ohauh&ri, which is in the AUah&b&d 
district, was formerly in the Parganah of Jal&lpur Bilkhar in 
Sirk&r Manikptir, the rest of which Sirk&r is in Oudh. It has 
been included in Allah&b&d since the time of Baja Mad&ri L&l, 

• •• 



SibkXb Eabba. 
\A 1 Unehhi. 
^ji'\ 2 Atharban. 
«L 2rM 3 Aydh 8dh. 

4 Haveli Eiarrd. 

\f a A) 6 Baldah Kofrrd. 
i^j\J 7 Kardrl 

<dj/ 8 Kotilah. 
\jS.\ji^ 9 i^nri, alias 

\^mib j^^ 10 Fattihpur 

ylScJb 11 MatffdhtP. 
\jmJb 12 Suwd, 


This Sirk&r has 12 Mahals comprised in one Dast4r. 

The numbers which are obsolete are 1, 4, 5^ 6^ and 9. 

1. — Enchhi. — ^This Parganah is now represented by Ghazi- 
piir. The modem histories of India convey to ns this infor- 
mation by calling the famous rebel Bhagwant, Ehichar, a 
Zamfnd&r of Parganah Enchhi (see further imder Gh&zipur). 
The Tillage of Enchhi is still extant on the bank of the 
Jumna. The old fort, which is the theme of popular story, 
is not to be seen, but the people of the neighbourhood delight 
in telling a marvellous tale how Raja Palbhan Deo was slain 
in it, with all his family, by a demon called Brimha Dano ; 
from which time it has been deserted ; but the site is visited 
during the Dahsehra, when the superstitious villagers oome 
from afar to make their annual offering at the shrine of the 

4 and 6. — ^Haveli Karr& and Baldah Karri. The distinction 
has now been lost between them as separate Parganahs. They 
are both included in Parganah !Karr&. 

5. — ^R&ri has now been changed to Ekdalla, in which place 
Naww&b Shuja'ud-daulah estabUshed his Tahsildari, but the 
Parganah retained its name of R&ri till the cession. The town 
of Ekdallah is on the Jumna, about two miles to the West of 
B&ri. Dh&tah is also a Zillah of E&ri. 

9. — K6nr&, alias Karson. — ^This is the old name of Mutaur, 
which it appears to have acquired from the course which the 
Jumna takes in this neighbourhood. The projecting patches of 
alluvial land which are formed near the banks of the river are 
called by the Zamind&rs Kunda, probably from their shape, 
which they might have conceived to bear some resemblance to a 
Eunda,* a vessel for kneading bread in ; a platter. The Mauza 
of Kunda, or Kunra, still exists on the bank of the Jumna, at 
the lITorth- Western angle of Parganah Mutaur. 

• See << Dabist&n," II. 79.— E. add. 



changes in tlie size and constitution of all these Parganahs, 
owing to the various jurisdictions to which Sirk&r Kor& has 
been subject ; but there is no occasion to record them here, as 
they have no concern with the comparison on which we are at 
present engaged. 

SibkIb KIlutjae. 

^l^t 1 Ujgidil 
iyi^\ 2 AjaigafK 
Ijj^ 3 Sihonid. 

j^f^SJ^ 5 Shddipiir. 

jsi^\i 7 Kdlif^'ar. 
dj^ 8 Ehandeh. 


9 Mahohd. 

Uj^ 10 Mdudhd. 

This Sirk&r contains eleven Mah&ls, K&linjar ba Haveli being 
counted as two. It comprises a single Dastur. 

The Farganahs either extinct or beyond British Bundelkhand 
are the following — Numbers 2, 5, 6, 7 and 9. 

2. — ^Ajaigarh. — ^This Parganah lies to the South of E&linjar. 
The fort is garrisoned by British troops. 

5. — Sh&dipdr is the old name of Parganah Pail&ni. The 
large village of Sh&diplir is still extant on the bank of the 
Jumna. When the Bundel&s built their fort in Pail&ni, and 
made it the residence of their Tehsfldar, the name of Pail&ni 
was gradually substituted for Sh&dipur. From the Sanad ap- 
pointing Bhim Sen Chaudhari of the Parganah, it appears that 
in the year 1121 f.s. the name of the Parganah was Shadip&r 

6. — Rasan is the old name of Parganah Badausa. The town 
still exists about seven miles to the South of Badausa. Tieffen- 
thaler gives us a clue to this Mah&l by telling us it is seven 
miles N.E. from E&linjar. 

7. — K&linjar ba Haveli. — See Badausa. 

9. — Mahoba is in the Jalaun territory. 



The new Parganahs 
Lo^Jj 1 Badauid, 
^JlU 2 FaOdnl. 

jfjjl) 8 Bdndah. 

Badau8&. — See Basaii. This was established by the Bun- 
delas as the site of a new Tehsildari^ in consequence of Har- 
bans Italy a Baghubansi Bajput, being in independent occupa- 
tion of Basan. The greater portion of K&linjar is included in 

Pail&ni.-^See Shidipur. 

B&ndah was originally a portion of Sihonda, but has been 
considered a separate Parganah since the time that Baja Gum&n 
Singh, the Bundela, took up his residence here. Briggs, in his 
translation of Ferishta, says that Sikandar Lodi penetrated to 
B&ndahy — ^which would imply that the town was older than the 
time of Akbar ; but '^ B&ndah" has been written by mistake for 
"B&ndhu/* or "Bfindugarh," as is evident from the "T&rlkh-i 
Af&ghana>" where a more detailed account of this difficult and 
unsuccessful expedition is given. 

Sumerptir was originally a portion of Maudha. 


See Ghora in a separate article. 

SiBkIb jAUJfPdB. 


1 Aldimau, 


6 Jaunpiir. 


2 Angll 


7 Chdnd^iir- 


8 Bhitari. 



4 Bhadakw. 

8 Chdnda. 


5 mhani. 

9 ChiriaKot. 



10 Chakesar. 

^^ C^*by 25 ^aria< iS(w^A«A 


11 i^rii. 

^/ 26 JToM. 


12 i^ci^^r 

I^^27 (?^MU7<i. 


y^^ 28 (?AMi. 


13 J^hdnpiir. 

af;|^29 Qarwdrah. 


14 JDeogdhw. 

bj/ 30 JTflwrici. 


15 i^dri. 

jl^b^ 31 GopdJpiur. 


16 %'Aatf7i. 

iJU^l/ 32 JK^rd^tf/. 


17 SikandarpUr. 

y^b^ 83 Maridhu. 


18 ififff^ri. 

jblJti.^^ 34 JftiAammoi- 



19 Surharpiir. 


20 ^^diia^cfdf. 

1/3^ 35 Jfiiw^rd. 


21 ZafardUd. 

U^^jsr* 36 Majhaurd. 


22 i£:an(f ^ i/t«ii. 


y 37 J/au. 


; 23 JTtfrid^ 


jbT(*lla3 38 iV,z<i;nel5ai. 


j^^^J 39 Negiin, 

s^:^ cub/ - 

24 KaridtMmda, 


j^^ 40 Nathdpiir. 

The Sirk&r of Jaunpur has 41 Mah&ls^ Jaunpur b& Hayeli 
being considered as 2 ; and 2 Dasturs, which in size are very 
disproportionate — one comprising only the 2 Mahdls of Mungrd 
and Garw&rah. 

This large Sirk&r has descended to us in a more perfect shape 
than any other which we have to examine. Exclusive of those 
within the Oudh territory, namely, Aldemau, Chandipur Birhar, 
Ch&ndah, Kh&spur, T&ndah, Sajhaull^ Surharpur, and Maj- 
haura, the only Mah&ls not now extant within British jurisdic- 
tion are Numbers 10, 25, 26, and 39. 

10. — Chakesar was in existence till the late settlement ; when, 


under the arrangementB then mfde for improying Parganah 
Boundaries, it was included, with a newly-formed Parganah, 
called Surajpiir, in Ghosi ; where the two united still constitute 
the Tappah of Chakesar. 

29. — Kari&t Soethah is now included in Parganah Angli of 
Jaunptir. It formed one of the Taliikas of Bakhshiat, which 
was broken up and distributed amongst several Parganahs at 
the late settlement. 

26. — ^Eolah is the old name of Kol Asli. 

29. — ^Negun is included in the modem Parganah of MahuL 

The new Parganahs are also very few. 

JibU I Mdhul. 

J^J\ 2 Atratdl. 

jl^alljb 8 Pddahdhpitr. 

\j\^ 4 Ghadra, 
Ui J/ 6 Kol AM. 
^y^Mi 6 Singrdmau. 

M&hul is formed from Parganah Negun, and parts of Angli 
and Surharpur. Although at the time of the cession M&hul is 
entered in the registers as one of the four portions into which 
the province of Gorakhpur was divided, it received no higher 
denomination than that of Taluka, which has been changed by 
us into Parganah. In the middle of the last century, two 
Sayyids of the name of Sher Jehan and Shamsh&d Jehan, 
acquired possession of l^egtin and parts of Surharpur and Angli, 
as well as a few villages of Jaunpur, and taking up their abode 
in M&hul Khfis, gave their usurpations the name of Taluka 
M&hul. The town of Negun is now known as Kasba Khas, on 
the Eastern border of M&hul. 

Atrauli was a Parganah formed a short time previous to the 
cession out of Balwant Singh's acquisitions from Tilhani, but 
was originally included in Kauria. It has now been included 
again in Tilhani, and the Parganah goes by the united name of 
Atrauli Tilhani. 

TOL. n. 8 



Badshahpiir is another name for Miingra. The Parganah is 
also known by the name of Mungra Badshahptir. 

Ghiz&ra.-*Tappa Quz&ra, including Bhainsa, was originally 
in Karakat ; and Sult&nipur, which is in the western angle of 
Bhainsa, is a Taltika of Katehar. 

Kol Aslk is the modem name of Kolah, derived £rom the 
Tillage of Asl&y which was formerly the site of a Tehsildari 

Singramau is a Taltika of Parganah Chanda^ the rest of which 
is in Oudh. 

See further under Sirk&r. 

•• • 

LL 1 Battid. 

2 Faehotar, 

^UlyL 3 BxlhdldnB. 

jbb^ 4 Bahridhdd. 

6 Bardxeh. 

6 Chaunsd. 

iAJbti 7 Bikmah. 

4^X«jjf^Ju.rf 8 8ayyidp<ir 


SirkIb Q-eazMr. 

Jj izjlj 11 Earidt 


ij>^ Ij/ 12 Kopd ChU. 

Ujf 13 Garhd. 

ir«X:j^ 14 Karmdah. 

jm»\{(\ 15 ZakkneMT. 

(juw^lij ^Jw« 16 Madan 


fc^Uljy jbTjc^^r^ 17 Muham- 

maddbdd Parhdbdri. 

jIjT;^ 9 ZaHrdhdd. 
jy*^J^ 10 Ohd%ip(ir. 

Sirk&r Gh&zipur comprises only one Dasttir. It has nineteen 
Mah&ls^ Haveli Gh&ziptir and Muhammad&b&d Parh&bari being 
each counted as two. 

This Sirk&r, after all the ill- written names have been yerified, 
is also found to have descended to us in a perfect shape. In 


the above list we miss now only tlie following Farganahs, viz., 
5, 6, 11^ and 16. 

5. — ^Bar&ich. — ^This Parganah has caused more doubt than any 
other ; but I believe it to be represented by the present Mauza 
Bar&ich in the Mahdl of Bhatauli on the Gangi Naddi, which 
falls into the Ghmges between Karendah and Gh&zipdr. Bar&ich 
is a small Parganah^ containing only 2^000 Bighas, and the 
place I have assigned to it is not altogether an improbable one 
for a Parganah. 

6. — Ghauns& is in the Shah&b&d district in the Bengal Presi- 
dency, noted for being the place where two battles have been 
fought which have decided the fate of India, viz., that of Buxar 
in 1765, and the one which led to the expulsion of Hum^yun 
firom India ; in describing which, by the way, some translator 
or compiler, whose name I do not now remember, has been led 
into a ludicrous mistake. In translating Ni'amat uUah, he says 
Hum&yun when retreating from Ghauns& across the Ganges 
recognized Niz&n, his water-carrier, by a strong smell of musky 
whereas the original merely informs us that he saved the 
emperor by seating him on an inflated mashak (a leather water 

11.— -Kari&t Pali was included at the late revision of boun- 
daries in Muhammadabfid Parh&b&ri. 

16. — Madan Benares is the old name of Zamania. 

There is only one new Parganah in this Sirk&r. 
^U| 1 Zdmdnia (now generally written and pronounced ^U:*^). — B. 

Zam&nia has succeeded to Madan Benares. During the decline 
of the empire we find it combined with Ghfiziptir in giving name 
to the Sirkfir. Thus, " Sirk4r Ghazlpdr Zamfinia, 17 Mahdls." 

Do&ba is a Tappah of Parganah Fattihpur Bahia, which is 
recorded as being in the Sirk&r of Bohtas, and the Sdbah of 


Bih&r. It has only been noticed here because its position would 
appear to point it out as a portion of this Sirk&r. 

SiBKIb BfflflBES. 

J\ji\ I Afrdd. ^*3^ 4 I^andrah. 


[^ \} Lj^j^, 2 Bma/res bd 


^Lj 3 Bffdlisi. 

j^^ 6 Kaidhar. 

This Sirk&r, which comprises only one Dastur, has 8 Mskh&ls^ 
Haveli Ben&res being counted as two. 

The extinct Parganahs are I^umbers 1^ % and 7. 

1. — ^Afrdd (i.«. pieces) consisted chiefly^ as the name would 
imply, of several detached Mauzas in different Parganahs, and 
had therefore, perhaps, no determinate boundary. There are 
Mauzas, for instance, in Eatehar and in Easw&r, which are 
still recorded as having been once in Parganah Afr&d. I have 
assigned to Afrdd a position between Katehar, Kasw&r, Benares, 
and Kola, but the greater portion has been taken from Kasw&r, 
in which A&dd Khas is situated. 

2. — Benares b& Haveli contained the modem Parganahs of 
Lotha, Dih&t Am&nat, and Sheopur, the two former to the 
South, and the latter to the ]!^orth, of the little river Bam&. 

7. — Harhud is the old name of Athg&nw. The village of 
Harhud is still extant in this Parganah, on the high road from 
Benares to Jaunptir. It is said that there were formerly only 
eight villages in Harhud, and hence the name of Athg&nw. 

The new Parganahs within Sirkar Benares are — 

i^j^ltfj- 1 Jdlhiipiir. 

j^yt^ 2 Sheopitr, 

l^jl 3 LotM. 

\y^s^ 4 Majhowd, 
yl^Sl 5 Athgdmo, 
s^Ul c:.)Uj 6 DihdtAmdnat. 


J&Ihdplir is a Taltika detached from Eatehar by Baja Balwant 

Sheoptir was originally in Haveli Benares^ from which it was 
detached by lUja Chait Singh. 

Loth& is a portion of Haveli Benares. It was sabseqnenily 
induded in Dih&t Am&nat; but is now considered a separate 

Majhow& is a Taltika of Easw&r. 

Athg&nw.— See Harhd&. 

Dih&t Am&nat was originally in Hayeli. It comprehends the 
city of Benares and the tract immediately around it. 

It is strange that in the Benares Mah&ls, Bhuinh&rs are not 
mentioned as Zamind&rs by Abu'l Fassl. The difference between 
them and Brahmans does not appear to have been fully compre* 
hended ; for that it did not exist two hundred and fifty years 
agOy it is difficult to suppose. 

SihtXb ChanIb. 


1 AMrwdrah 

^'^^3jJS^^J 8^«^< ^» 


2 JBhML 

Hit dh. 


3 Barhaul. 

*j\^^s^ 9 Mi^wdra. 



tjA^ 10 Mahdieh. 


5 Chandr hd 

i^j^y{^ H Mahwdri. 


ijy 12 MawaL 


6 Lh^. 

^^jj 13 ITiarwan. 


7 RdlhiipUf^ 

\yjb 14 HanwL 

There is only one Dastur in Chan&r, comprising 14 Mah&ls ; 

* This is entered in the hest copies as ££ight&ptfr j^^uSl; . It is certainly now 
written and prononnoed B&h6p(ir. 


though the Parganah tables concur in saying there are only 
13 Mah&ls. The two last are omitted from most of.the copies 
of the '^ ^in-i Akbari/' but are requisite to complete the Sirk&r. 
In those copies, indeed, in which they are entered they are 
nearly illegible.* It is evident from history that this part of 
the country was but little known, and we must therefore allow 
for some error and confusion. 

We retain the names of all the Parganahs in the above list, 
except those of Numbers 1, 4, 8, and 14. 

1. — ^Ahf rw&rah, so called afiber the original Zamind&rs of those 
parts, has now been corrupted and abbreviated into Ahrora. 

4. — T&ndah is the old name of Parganah Barah. The 
Mauzas of T&ndah Eal&n and T4ndah Ehiird still exist on the 
right bank of the Ganges, at a short distance from each other. 

8. — ^Kariat In rii-i &b (ue. the villages on this side of the 
water) is now known as Eari&t Sikhar. 

14. — Hanwd. — See Bhagwat. 

The new Parganahs, of which we find no mention in the 
" Kin'-i Akbari'' as belonging to this Sirk&r, 

ifj) 1 Barah. ^-^j^ ^ Bhagwat. 

j4*^ ^^\^ 2 Karidt Sikhar. ^J^J^ ^ Ahrwrah. 

j^^:^\jS 5 K0ra Mangror. 

Barah. — See T&ndah. 

Kari&tSikhar. — See Kari&t in rd-i &b. It does iiot appear 
when the name of the Parganah was changed, or ifor what 
particular reason the strange title of Eari&t in ru-i &b was 
given originally to this Parganah. 

Bhagwat. — This Parganah, previous to the conquest effected 

* In them, moreorer, they are entered ai being entirely Siyarghal, or rent-free, 
which may be perhaps the cauBe why they are omitted in so many copies. 



by the Gh^utamSy was held by Jaml'at Ehan, Gaharw&r^ whose 
defence of the fort of Patita is a favorite theme with the people. 
The old name of this Parganah was Hanoa, which was extinct 
before the time of Jami'at Ehan, when it was known only as 

Ahrorah. — ^As much of this Parganah as was known in 
Akbar's time was called Ahirw&ra. 

Kera Mangror. — ^Mangror is entered in the ^'^in-i Akbari'^ 
as a Parganah of Sirk&r Itohtas^ Stiba Behar, and in the later 
periods of the empire^ as belonging to Sirk&r Shahabad, which 
is now the district of Shahabad in Southern Behar, under the 
Lieutenant-Goyemor of the Lower Provinces. 


Sjyt 1 Airatdd. 

Slj^l 2 Anhavld. 

j^fjSAxi 3 JBindikpiir, 

^Ji^S"^ 4 Bamhnipdrah 

O^l^W ^ Bhdwdpdra. 

jy^Jj 6 Tilp{Lr. 

2^U^]l>- 7 ChUitpdra, 

^bbybJ 8 Dhuridpdra. 

\j\^ ij^\y^ti 9 Lh$wapdra 



10 Rihll 

SibkIb Oobaxhpi}&. 

^j^ 9^Aj 12 Bdrngofh 

j^^j^ 13 QwrakhpiiT. 
L^ 14 KafMd. 
zj^'hbj 15 BiUdpdra. 
^yY* 16 MahavXL 
^^Jc^ 17 Mandwd. 
a!jcw« 18 Manila. 
j$^ j^\2p) ^9 Baianpdr Ma- 


This 8irk&r forms only one Dastiir, containing twenty-four 
Mah&LB; Gorakhpiir b& Haveli, Bastilpur Ghaus, Batanpfir 


Maghar, Binaikpur, and R&mgarli Gauri^ being each reckoned 
two Mah&Ifl. 

This is a difficult Sirk&r to restore, and, eyen after verifying 
all the illegible names, we have in the list of extinct or foreign 
Parganahs n^umbers 1, 4, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17 and 18. 

1. — ^Atraul& is in Oudh. 

4. — Bamhnip&rah. — ^This is the South-Eastem angle of Par- 
ganah Naww&bganj, which we gave np to Oudh in 1817. 

9. — Dhew&p&ra Kuhana is the old name of Sallmpdr Maj- 
hauli, Shahjah&npur, and Sidhoa Jobna, which were part of 
the great Majhauli Raj. In some old writings the name of the 
Mah&l is entered Naw&p&r Kuh&n& Dhew&p&r. The popular 
name of the Tillage of Salimpur is Naw&p&r; (Buchanan, 
" Eastern India," Vol. II. p. 361, says Nagar) ; and the Par- 
ganah would have been restored as Kuh&n& Naw&p&r, had it 
not been for the alphabetical arrangement requiring an initial 
d in this place. The name Dhew&p&r is now nearly extinct. 
Naw&p&r is common. 

10. — Rihli is the Northern and Western part of Naww&bganj, 
ceded to Oudh. 

12. — R&mgarh Qauri — ^We are assisted in this name by being 
told it is on the Bapti. It is the old name of Balr&mpur, in 

14. — Katihld is the old name of North Bansi. When the 
Eatihld Baja was defeated and slain by the Bansi Baja, the old 
name of the Parganah became extinct. Bansi, South of the 
Baptf, was called Batanptir, which Mah41 is combined with 
Maghar in the ^'^in-i Akbari.'' 

15. — Rihl&p&ra. — ^At the suggestion of Mr. Beade, the late 
collector, I have entered this Parganah as the old name of 
Aurangabad Nagar; but I confess some doubt on the subject, 
for all the copies give distinctly Eihl&p&ra, and the substitution 
<^ the r for k displaces the alphabetical order usually preserved. 

17. — ^Mandwd is the ancient name of Basti. 


18. — Mandla. — ^No trace can be had of this Mahfil. Mr. 
Beade suggests that it may be the old name of Amorha ; but 
Amorha is itself an old Parganah, and is included, in the 
" ^in-i Akbari," in Sirk&r Oudh. 

The new Parganahs in Sirk&r Gorakhpur are — 

J^ jljuo^jl 6 Aurangdbdd 

^J^fff* ^j-y4bjL) 1 Salimpiir 

1:j^ tybJu) 2 Sidhud Jubnd 
jyu^-^f^^ 3 Shdhfahdnpiir 

4 SUhef. 

Salimpdr Majhauli. — This is a portion of the old Parganah 
of Dhew&p&ra Kuh&n&. 

Sidhud Jubnd. — Ditto. 

Sh&hjah&npur. — ^Ditto. I have somewhere seen it mentioned 
that these Parganahs were in Sdran, but the statement appears 
to rest on no authority. 

Silhet was detached from Parganah Haveli about the year 
1633 by the Majhauli Eaja, and was recovered by the Sat&si 
Baja about fifty years afterwards. It has since this period been 
rated as a separate Parganah. 

Mansdmagar Basti. — See Mandwd. 

Aurang&b&d Nagar. — See Bihl&p&ra. 

SiBsiE Ottdh. 
Amorha (Amodh) is the only Parganah of this Sirk&r in 
British territory. It is in the Dastdr of Haveli Oudh. 

SiekIb KhatrXbIp. 
The only portion of this Sirk&r in our jurisdiction is Kh&- 
katmau, which probably included also the modem Parganah of 



Faramnagar^ although the local officers are xinanimous in repre- 
senting that Paramnagar was originaUy a portion of Shamsabad. 
Kh&hatmau is in the Dastur of Pali. 

111.^8 X/JB A DEELL 
SebxXb Dehli. 

J^U jVT(»5Li1 1 MdmdhddPd- 
isj\ 2 Adh. 

v^^b SPMpat. 

Jb 4Fdlam. 

^j) 5 Baran. 

u^^^b 6 Bdghpat 

J^ 7 Falwal 

if^\jj} 8 BamdtoaA. 

i^^^ 9 Fitth. 

C^jni ^"^^^ lOBobdldhanBeri 

uuJj 11 TOpat. 
jjl^ ^jjl; 12 TdndaFhitffd- 

jr^A^c)^ 13 Tilbeffampir. 
j^si^ 14 Jhajhar, 
^jl^ 15 Jhdna, 
j^*>- 16 Jewar. 
<Ol^£CV^ 17 Jhinjhdna, 
^^j^^ 18 Chhapravli. 

j\j\JL>r 19 JaUUidd. 
iZ^^j) jy^Ji>- 20 Jaldlpdir 

^^Jj ^^^ 21 EaoeliKadimi 
i^^j^ff^ i^iy^ 22 jETof^tf^i Jadidi. 

lU^b 24 Bdmah. 
Ult 4^jjb 25 i)d(2ri rata. 
jl^ J 26 Lankaur, 
CScJb^ 27 Eohtah. 
u:.^^ 28 /S<mi^a^. 
^^^JuLj 29 Safidiin. 
jbT^jjLo 30 StTtandardbdd. 
if^\^ 31 Sardtoah, 
32 iSm^A. 

40L^ 33 /StdnaA. 
j)l^^ 34 Shakarpiir, 
JU/ 35 ^flrmft 
j^iiS 36 ^ofuitir. 

2fp 87 OarhmukteMr. 

^Is^ 38 Eutdnah. 
idjbJjl^ 89 KdndUah. 

^Ui^l^ 40 Kdmah. 
xJ^j^ 41 Kharkhauda. 


^jj 43 Zoni. 


^j^ 44 ifira^A. 
^^JjU 45 Mdndauthi. 

jUT^^kam^ 46 Ma8<^{Lddbdd. 

jy\iSMJb 47 EJastindpiir. 

j^\jb 48 Hdpdr, 

The Sirk&r of Dehli consists of forty-eight Mah&ls, divided 
into the seven Dasturs of HaveU, Pinlpat, Baran, Mirath, 
Jhajhar, Eohtak and Palwal. 

This large Sirk&r has descended to ns in a very perfect form. 
Excluding the foreign Parganahs of Jhajhar, D&dri T&h&, and 
Safidun, we miss in the above list only numbers 11, 12, 21, 22, 
23, 32 and 46. 

11. — Tilpat. — ^The greater part of Tilpat was included by 
Naww&b Farid Ehan, a nobleman of Jehangir's time, in Farid- 
abad, now a Parganah of the Balamgarh Jagir ; but the town of 
Tilpat is included in the Southern Parganah of DehlL It is a 
place of great antiquity, and is one of the five towns demanded 
by the P&ndava brothers, the refusal of which was one of the 
causes of the " Great War." Authorities do not concur in the 
names of the five towns, but Tilaprastha (Tilpat) is generally 
one ("Wilson's Hindu Theatre," Vol. 11. 337). 

12. — T&nda Phugdnah. — ^This Mah&l is generally written 
T&nda Bhagw&n, and we are led to the identification of it by 
learning that it has a fort on the Jumna. There is a T&nda on 
the Jumna, and the Parganah attached to it, although it con- 
sisted of only four or five villages, was considered a separate 
one till the late revision of Parganah boundaries, when it was 
aborbed into Chhaprauli. T&nda and Phug&nah continued 
to form one Parganah till the time of the Mar&thas, when 
Phiig&nah was separated, and given in Jagir to Nij&bat Ali 
Ehan, Bahraich. 


21, 22, and 23. — ^The three next Mah&ls comprise the environs 
of Dehli, and the names sufficiently point out their relative 

32. — Sentah is the old name for Parganah Agauta in Buland- 
shahr. It would have been difficult to identify this, had not 
Agautd been called a Chauh&n Battisd, or commune of thirty-two 
villages of Chauh&ns. There are now not very many Chauh&n 
Zamfnddrs here, and as the Parganah of Sentah is represented 
in the ^'Aln-i Akbari" to have Chauh&n Zamind&rs, I was dis- 
posed to think that it was meant for Somna in Aligarh ; and in 
many copies the word more resembles Somna than Sentah ; but 
this local designation of the Battis& establishes that Sentah is 
the proper reading. Sentah, moreover, is considered in the 
neighbourhood to have been the chief town of the Parganah. 

46. — Masa'ud&bdd. — The old traveller, Ibn Batuta, has helped 
me to verify this, as he mentions at p. 110, that he stayed at 
Masa'tid&b&d on his way from H&nsi to Dehli, reaching it after 
two days, and receiving there a complimentary visit from the 
minister. Now, Masa'dd&b&d on that road is the old name of 
Najafgarh, which is a late erection, being built by Ghul&m 
Husain Khan, and called after his patron Najaf Khan, Masa'ud- 
ab&d had, however, previously changed its name to Afzalpur, 
which was built by Chaudhari Afzal Khan in the time of Alam- 
g(r. The old mud fort of Masa'dd&b&d is still to be traced 
about a mile to the East of Najafgarh. 

The new Parganahs included within Sirk&r Dehli are the 
following : 

g?jjb 1 Dddrl. 
\5/\ 2Agautd. 
jUTjj/ ZFariddldd. 

2^jl^ 5 Bahdiurgarh. 
\^\^^ 6 Samhhdlkd. 
j^ 7 Kithor. 
Hj^ 8 Qorah. 


^jy>'\ ^ Vjrdrah. 
J4-I i:^ji ^J 10 Bern N. 

c-ys^ i:^ji^ Aibd 11 DeUi 8. 


Parganah* l^^^ ^^ Bhtwdni, 

D&dri was not formed into a Parganali till 1231 Fasli, when 
Bao Dargahi Singh of Chatahrd, a Bhatti Gujar^ who was ap- 
pointed Faujd&r of D&sna, Sikandar&b&d, etc., under Najiba'd 
daulah, took advantage of the disorganization of the country 
during the decline of the Moghul monarchy, to obtain posses- 
sion of certain villages of Sikandar&b&d, K&sna, Tilbegampdr, 
and D&sna, of which 70, including D&dri Kh&s, were acquired 
from K&sna alone ; and his family were retained in possession on a 
Mukarrari Jama when our rule commenced. The Taluka lapsed 
to Government on the death of Bao Ajit Singh. 

Agautd has succeeded to Sentah, which still exists as a village 
on the right bank of the K&li Naddi, about four miles West 
from Agautd. Before the establishment of the name of Agaut&, 
the Parganah was known by the name of Sentah Part&bpdr : 
Part&bpur being a large village in the Northern angle of the 

Farid&b&d has been explained imder Tilpat. The Parganah 
is in the Balamgarh jurisdiction. Balamgarh is itself only a 
modem fort, having been built by a J&t, called Balti, alias 
Bilram, a relative of Surajmal of Bhartpur, within the boun- 
dary of his own village of Sahlpur, in Tilpat. 

P&li is included within the area of P&kal, or Isl&m&b&d Pdkal, 
as it is called in the " Ain-i Akbarf/' The united Parganah is 
now generally known as P&K P&kal. 

Bah&durgarh. — This Parganah is composed of about an equal 
number of villages from P&lam and Jhajhar, which the Emperor 
Muhammad Shah, in a.d. 1728, bestowed upon Bah&dur Khan, 
Beloch, who built the fort of Bah&durgarh within the area of 
Sharif&b&d, a village of P&lam. Bah&durgarh is still held in 


Samblifilk& was detached from P&nfpat in the fourth year of 
the reign of Farukhsir, and held as a royal demesne for his own 
private expenses. It continued subsequently to be held as a 
Jagir, and when on the death of the last incumbent it escheated 
to Govemment, it was again included in P&nipat. 

The Parganah of Sambh&lk& was more usually known amongst 
the natives as Farrukhnagar. 

Either was originally a Tappah of Sir&wd, from which it was 
detached in the time of Najib Khan by Jit Singh Gujar, the 
founder of the Gdjar family of Prichatgarh. 

Gt)rah was formerly in H&pur. The Gdjar Raja of Pari- 
chatgafh, Nain Singh, formed it into a separate Tappah. 

XJjr&rah was also detached from H&p6r. Fattih Ali Ehan, 
the ancestor of Ehw&jah Basant, in whose J&id&d it was com- 
prised, formed it into a separate Tappah, and it now, small as it 
is, ranks as a Parganah. 

Dehli, Northern Parganah. This Parganah was formed in 
the year 1838. It includes part of Haveli and Pdlam. The 
Parganah of Bdwana, or Boana, which is included in it, was 
itself a new formation from villages of Palam, which Aurangzeb 
detached for the purpose of paying certain expenses of the Eoyal 
household, and as they comprised fifty-two villages (Bawan) 
the tract, as well as the chief town within it, was designated 

Dehli, Southern Parganah, was also formed in 1838. It in- 
cludes a part of Palam, Haveli, and Masa'ud&b&d, and a few 
villages of Tilpat. Najafgarh, which has been already mentioned, 
was subsequently formed from Masa'dd&b&d, and included, be- 
sides the villages of that Parganah, twenty-four villages from 
Jhajhar, and twelve from Jharsa. The two modem Parganahs 
of Dehli, therefore, comprise the old Parganahs of Haveli Kadim, 
Haveli Jadid, D&ru'l-mulk Dehli, P&lam and Masa'M&b&d. 
The three first were subsequently united into the Parganah of 
Haveli, and when Palam was afterwards added, it was known 


as one Parganah under the name of Haveli Palam. This name 
it retained under our administration^ till the new division took 
place, which has been particularized. 

Bhiw&nf was originally a portion of D&drf T&h&. 

Sntxis BswlKf. 

JjU 1 Bdwal. 

^jyU 2 Fdiaudhl. 

Zjy^^ 3 Bhorah. 

^^\j 4 Tdoru, 

\Jii^ V ^J^yj ^ -^Zrwdri ha 


4^1;^- v^bj 6 Batdi Jaidi. 
Jlc ^\j db^ 1 Kot K6»imAH. 
CJ^ 8 QahhL 
ij\jb^ 9 Zbhdnah. 
^^x^ 10 Suhnah, 
^^/^ 11 Nimrdtiah. 

This Sirk&r contains eleven Mah&ls, divided into four Dastdrs. 

Only four of these Mahals are in British territory, and as 
fhey retain their ancient names, they require no notice, except 
to observe that Sonah (Suhnah) is out of its place in the alpha- 
betical list, and might therefore give rise to some suspicion of 
its correctness, but Abu'l Fazl mentions it also in the text, in 
such a manner as to enable us to identify it as the Sonah which 
still gives name to a large Parganah. 

The only new Parganah within this Sirk4r is, 

jiy^l^2(l& 1 Shdhfakdnpdr. 

This small Parganah, containing only eight villages, is isolated 
firom the rest of Ghirginw by territory belonging to the Tijara 
Kaja. The popular story runs that it was formed by Sh£hjah&n, 
in compliance with a vow which he made when he was retiring 
in anger firom his father. He met with favorable omens in this 
neighbourhood, and vowed, if they were accomplished, he would 



raise a town and constitute it the head of a Parganah.* The 
new Parganah was taken chieflj from Lohana, and in the 
'^Ahw41-i Subaj&t" the Parganah is entered as Lohana, 'urf 
Shahjah&npdr Ohaub&ra. 

SibxIb SahIbXni*i}b. 


1 Jndri. 

J^lff^ 15 ChartAdwal. 


2 Atnhihtah. 

^^ 16 JE&f^l. 



3 Budhdndh. 

jjj^J 17 Deohand, 


4 BUcMii. 

j^Aj 18 Bdmpdr. 


5 Bahat Kar^dwar. 

^Jjjj 19 -Bdrifci. 


6 Bhogpitr. 

jUl; j,jj4/\j 20 EaipiirTdtdr 


7 Fiir Chapdr. 

j^^^^ i^J^i^ 21 £fiibri Bhik- 


8 BHmah. 



9 Baghrd. 

g^Lij^ 22 Sarsdwah. 


10 BanaU 

CUI^^ 23 Sarwai. 


11 TAdna Bhim. 

2UbJ^ 24 Sirdhanah. 


12 TughlakpiLr. 

\j^J^ 25 Samhalherd. 


13 f7a«r(f«i. 

,^Jj ^jy^ 26 £f0ran P((»W. 


14 JbM/i. 

^^^l^ 27 ZXdtett/i. 

* Another origin is ascribed to Sh6hjali&npdr, which is perhaps more probable than 
the one mentioned aboye. Ihl&d Sing, a relative of the Chauh&n chief of Nlmranah, 
was held in high consideration in the Court of Sh&hjah&n, and obtained leave from 
the Emperor to rebuild Lohana, which had been destroyed in consequence of its 
harbouring notorious robbers. Ihl&d Sing called the new town after the name of his 

If Sh&hjahlai was himself the founder, and ever occupied the spot, it was most pro- 
bably visited by him when his army was encamped at BelochptSra in a.d. 1623, and 
was in poflsession of the passes of the Mewat Hills. 


^^J^ 28 Khiidi. 
ij\jS 29 Kairdna. 
z^ ^(^ Qangoh. 
yjy^ 31 LakhnauA. 

JS\Jia^ 32 MvaMffardhdd. 

j^iJjL^ 33 Manglaur. 
j^ij^ 34 Malhaipiur. 
j/j 85 mkor. 

djy\j 36 Ndnautah, 

This Sirk&r contains thirty-six Mahals, divided into four 
Dasturs — Deoband, Kairana, Sirdhanah and Indri. The last 
is on the right bank of the Jumna, and is not within British 
jurisdiction, its villages being distributed amongst the Sikh lords 
of Jagadri, , Ladhoa, Thanesar, etc. etc., while Indri Khas is 
included within the Kanjptira Nawwab's 'Il&ka.* 

The Parganahs in the above list, which are no longer recorded 
as such, are Numbers 5, 6, 8, 11, 12, 16, 20, 23, 28, 31, and 36. 

5. — Bahat Kanj&war was in the time of Sh&hjahan converted 
into Sult&npur Bahat. In the time of Najibu'd daulah, Bahat 
and Sult&upur became separate Parganahs, and have so remained 
since. The Mauz4 of Kanj&war is in Muzaffarab&d. 

6. — ^Bhogpur is on the Ganges, and the Parganah comprised 
the Eastern portion of Jaw&lapur, including Hardw&r. Ber- 
noulli states, indeed, that Bhogpur is another name for Hardw&r, 
but this is, I believe, not correct. At any rate there is a Bhog- 
pdr about ten miles South of Hardw&r, which is no doubt the 
head town of the old Parganah of the same name. 

8. — ^Bhumah has only within the last ten years lost its name 
as a separate Parganah. Baisumhah has now succeeded to it, 
but Bhumah is still a very respectable town, and in Akbar's 
time is spoken of as chief of the Barha Sadat villages. 

11. — ^Th&nah Bhim. — ^All the copies concur in writing it 
Bhim, which is the name derived from the founder of the town, 

* This territory is now part of the AmbUa district of the Panjiib. As much of 
S6ba Dehli as lies to the West of the Jiimii& is also imder the GoTonmieiit of the 
PftnjU).— B. 

YOL. n. 9 


who is represented to have been a mace-bearer to the king. In 
later times, the place has been known by the name of Bhaun, so 
called from a fEimoos Bhaun (Bhawan), or temple, of Devi, near 
the town. 

12. — Tughlakptir. — ^The Timtim&ma mentions that Tughlak- 
p6r, where the Indians opposed the conqueror in naval combat, 
is situated twenty-five koss above Ferozpur (in Hastinapiir). 
Tughlakpur still exists in l^umagar, and was formerly the chief 
town of a Parganah, to which I^umagar has now succeeded. 

16. — Haveli has become the Parganah of Sah&ranpur. 

20.— Raipur Tdtdr.— Within the area of Faiz&b&d, in the old 
Parganah of Raipur T&t&r, Shahjahan built his palace of B&d- 
sh&h Mahal, and changed the name of the Parganah to Faiz&b&d. 
The Mauza of Raipdr still exists on the banks of the canal. 

23. — Sarwat is the old name of Parganah Muzaffamagar, and 
the village of that name still exists about a mile N.E. from 

28. — Ehudi is the old name of Shik&rpdr, which is not yet 
altogether dropped by the common people. It is said to be the 
name of the Raja who founded the town. 

31. — ^Lakhnauti. — ^The greater part of LakhnautI has within 
the last three years been thrown into Gangoh, and part into 

36. — ^N&nautah. — ^The greater part of N&nautah was at the 
sdme time thrown into Gangoh, and parts of it into R&mpdr and 
Th&nah Bhaun. 

The new Parganahs present a long list, chiefly owing to the 
changes effected by Najibu'd daulah and the Gujar Talukdars. 

i^j^ 1 J^heri. 

ii^jjL^ 2 Sdkratutah. 

j&^y 3 Nkmagar. 

ifpjUcj- 4 Jamdlgarh. 

j^'iS^ 6 JawdldpiLr. 

c\j\^ja^ 6 Faisdhdd, 
ji(^^ 7 Patehar, 

jbT^l^ 9 JahdngWdhdd, 


^y^iyu 9 SuUdnpiir, 
J>iJiM 10 MuMffarnagar, 
i^^ 11 KMhah. 

^^ ^l^ 12 Thdnah Bhaun. 
^\^ 13 Shdmli. 
^(1mJI>- 14 Jdmath, 

Kheri. — This was formed into a separate Tappa in the time 
of Zabit Khan, through the influence of the Pdndir Zamlnd&rs, 
who are Rajputs converted to Mahomedanism. It was formerly 
a part of Burki. 

Sakraudah was originally in Jaur&si, and formed into a Par- 
ganah by Bao Kutbu'd din^ in the time of Zabit Khan. 

Ndmagar is called after the famous Nur Jah&n Begam, who 
took up her abode there for some time. Nurnagar^ or rather 
Govardhanpur — ^by which name the Parganah is now more 
generally known, since Numagar Khas has been transferred to 
Sah&ranpur — has succeeded to the old Parganah of Tughlakpur. 

Jamalgarh^ or Jam41 Kherah, was originally in Gtingoh, and 
was formed into a Parganah by Jam&l Khan, the Amil of 
Gfangoh in the time of Najib Khan. By late arrangements 
Jamalgarh has been thrown into JS^akor. 

Jawfl&pur. — ^This is the new name of the greater part of 
Parganah Bhogpdr. In records written previous to the British 
accession, the Parganah is denominated Bhogpur, 'urf Jaw&14- 
pur, but is now known only as Jaw&lapur. 

Faizdbad. — See Baipur. In the time of Shahjah&n Faizdbdd 
became a place of great importance, and gave name to an entire 
Sirk&r. In the '' Hakikat-i Jama,'' by Hardi Bam Kayeth, it is 
said to contain 24 Mahdls ; while Saharanpur was reduced to 17. 

Fatehar. — ^Anwar Khan, an Afghan of Patehar, in the time of 
Najib Khan, established this as a separate Tappa, or Parganah. 
It was a part of Bahat Kanj&war. 

Jah&ngir&b&d was originally in B&iptir T&t&r, and was formed 
into a Parganah at the same time as Faiz&b&d. 


Sult&npur. — See Bahat Kanj&war. 

Muzaffiimagar. — See Sarwat. 

K&thah was originally included in Deoband, from which it 
was detached by Najib Khan, who was compelled to establish a 
separate collector in Badg&nw, on accoimt of the turbulence of 
the Zamindars of the neighbourhood. 

Th&na Bhaun.— See Thana Bhim. 

Shamli was originally a portion of Kairana. We learn from 
the collection of letters of Nand Ram Mukhlis* that a village in 
Kairana, called Mahomedpdr Zun&rdar, was included in the 
Jagir bestowed by Jeh&ngir upon Hakim Mukarrab Khan. A 
Chela of the Naww&b's (Shaman) built a ganj, or market, in the 
village, and after otherwise improving it, called it after his own 
name, Shamli. The Jagir remained in the family of Mukarrab 
Khan till it was resumed by Bahadur Shah, who also formed 
Shamli, with a few other villages, into a separate Tappa, which 
in course of time has acquired the title of a Parganah. 

J&nsath is now included with Jauli in one Parganah, called 
Jaidi J&nsath. It was formed into a separate Parganah in the 
time of Farrukhsir, through the influence of the famous ministers 
Hasan Ali Khan and Abdullah Khan. — See Barha Sadat. 

Baistimh& has attained the dignity of a Parganah, by the 
town of Baisumh& having been one of the head-quarters of the 
Gujar confederacy in the time of Raja Gulab Sing. The old 
Parganah of Bhumh& is included in it. 

SibkIb Hissab Feroza. 
4Jbj^ 1 Agrohah. 
2 AhranL 
x^^\ 3 Athkhera. 


JI^^X^ 4 Bhungiwdl. 

jo^y 5 Funidn. 

iS^j^^ 6 Bhdrangi, 

* I doubt if this is the correct authority. I think it is in the ^* Jah&ng£r-n&ma. 
E. Mitf. 





'i\^ 1 JBarwdld. 

ji^ 8 Bahiii. 

Ij^ 9 Birtod. 

ji^^ 10 JBhatner. 

^Uy 11 Tohdnah. 

I*l^y 12 TosMm. 

X-^ 13 Jlnd. 

jyJUsj- 14 Jamdlpitr, 


La>- 15 Missdr, 

LZJp\jbi} 16 BUtrat. 


17 iSfWd. 

^Ka«^ 18 Sheordm, 
^XJ^^ 19 5i<^AmuM. 
^\j^ 20 Sewdni, 
C^Uji^JpU 21 ShdnxdahDihdt 
J[i\Jj 22 i^a^^fAa^ciJ. 
AjUjf 23 Gohdna. 
ifSj\^ 24 Khdnda. 
A-y^ 25 JnAtm. 


3U 26 J7cin«$. 

There are twenty-seven Mah&ls in this Sirk&r (Hiss&r being 
counted as two), and four Dasturs — Haveli Hiss&r Feroza, 
Goh&na, Mihim, and Sirsd. There are, however, several Par- 
ganahs excluded from the Dastur list, for what reason does not 

Of these Mah&ls, those which do not retain their old name in 
our territory are numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 
18, 19, 21 and 24. 

2. — ^Ahroni is partly in Ratiyah and partly in Fattihabad. 
The historians of Timur point out its position, by saying it is on 
the road from Fattihabad to Tohana. The place was burnt and 
pillaged by the conqueror, merely because the inhabitants did 
not come out to pay their respects (JJ Jjf^Lj UbT JUml-j^ (^)/^)- 
Ahroni has now reverted to its original name of Ahirwan ; 
whereas in Sirk&r Chan&r, Ahirwara, which derived its name 
from the same tribe, has now been corrupted into Ahrora. 

3. — ^Athkhera is under the Baja of Jhind, and is known now 
by the name of Easonan.* 

* Athkherfii \b in the PargaDah of Mirw&na, in Patiida, and Kasonan or Kasun is 
four miles off, in Jhind. — ^£. <idd. 


4. — ^Bhangiw&l, so called from the tribe of J&ts whicli in- 
habited it, is the old name of Darbah, in which place the officers 
of the Raja of Bikaner built a fort, and thenceforward it came 
to be considered the chief town of a Parganah* 

5. — Pdni&n, called also after a tribe of J&ts, is in Bikaner, 
but is now included in another Parganah. 

6. — Bharangi is also in Bikaner. 

8. — ^Bahtu is partly in Fattihabad and partly in Darbah. 
Bahtu Khas is in the former Parganah. 

9. — ^Birw& is the protected Sikh territory. 

10. — Bhatner. — ^The old town of Bhatner is in Bikaner, but 
part of the Parganah is now included in Baniyah. 

13. — Jhind gives name to one of the protected Sikh states. 

14. — Jam&lpdr is included in the late cession from Pati&la. 
The old town of Jam&lpdr is near Tohana. 

16. — ^Dh&trat was in Jhind, but is now in British territory. 

18. — Sheor&m is in the Bagar country, in the Jagir of Naww&b 
Amir Ehan. Two-thirds of Sheor&m are now in Loharu, the 
remainder in Dadri. 

19. — Sidhmukh is in Bikaner. 

21. — Sh&nzdah Dih&t, or Kari&t (i.e. the sixteen villages), 
is included in Batiyah Tohana amongst the late cessions from 
Pati&la. The Haka is generally known by the name of Garhi 
Bao Ahmad. I have heard it stated that it is in Jhind, and 
not in Batiyah Tohana. 

24. — Khanda is in Jhind. 

The modem Parganahs are — 
J^ 1 £ahal. 

i^j 3 Batiyak. 
JjjJ 4 2)arhah. 

Bahal was originally in Sew&ni, from which it was separated 
in A.D. 1758 by Jawdni Singh, a Bajput, who built a mud fort 



at Balial, and xnaintamed possessioii of a few neighbouring 

B&niyah was in Bhatner. The old name of the village was 
Eajabpur. The B&ni of Biao Anup Sing, Rather, took up her 
abode here^ built a mud fort, and changed the name of Bajabpdr 
to R&niyah, which it has since retained. 

Ratiyah is now included in one Parganah with Tohana. It 
was composed of villages from Ahroni, Jamalpdr, and Sh&msdah 

Darbah. — See Bhangiwal. 

Some considerations respecting the Western boundary of this 
Sirk&r have been offered in the article Bhatti&n&. 

SibkXb Sambhal, 

1 Amrohah. j!l^s>- 15 JhdHi. 

2 A^zampiir. 

3 IsUmpiirBahHk. 
A Ujhdri. 
5 Ahbardhdd, 

6 Jtldmpiirlhrifii* 

7 Isldmdhdd. 

8 Bijnor, 

9 Baehhrdon, 
10 Biroi. 

U Budrdh. 

12 Chdndpitr. 

13 JaUmdd. 

14 Chavplah, 

^I^J^ 16 Jadwdr. 
J4«>^^^^ 17 SamM Samhhah 


^•^J 18 Beorah. 
^Uj 19 Bhdkah. 
^jl|^J 20 Babhdrfi. 

21 BUV^. 

22 Rdjpkr. 

23 Rajc^r. 

24 Sambhal. 

25 Seohdrd, 

26 8trii. 

27 Sahatpdr. 

28 Siridwah. 



CJ/^ 29 

jtLi so 

^jS^ SI 

dLfs^ 33 
jjjuf 34 

ji^ 35 

S?/jl^ 37 













38 ZaMnor. 

39 Ziswah. 

40 Moghatpiir, 

41 JbTf^'Aau^A. 

42 Ifanddwar. 

43 J%inaA. 

44 iVaA^tir. 

45 Neodhanah. 

46 Nerauli. 

This Sirk&r contains forty-seven Mah&ls and three Dasturs — 
Ch&ndpur, Sambhal, and Lakhnor. 

The missing Parganahs exceed those of any other Sirkar, 
amounting to more than half of the entire number, viz., Num- 
bers 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 
33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 45 and 47. 

3. — Isl&mpur Bahru is now contained in Thakurdwara. The 
town is still is existence. The Jesuit Tieffenthaler leads us to 
this information by giving its name correctly, which cannot 
be said of any other copy which I have consulted. Salimpdr 
Bahru, by which name it is now more usually known, has the 
credit in the neighbourhood of having been the head town of a 

4. — TJjh&ri has only lately been absorbed into Hasanpur. 

6. — Isl&mpur Dargu is now included in Bachhr&on, one of the 
Parganahs of Hasanpdr. In the revenue accounts of 1166 f.s. 
it is recorded as Isl&mpur Dargu, shamil Bachhr&on. 

7. — Isl&m&b&d. — This Parganah was retained till the year 
1209 F.S., and was absorbed into Nagina at the commencement 
of our administration. The village of Isl&m&b&d is abandoned. 


9. — ^BachliT&on is now in Hasanpur. 

10. — ^Biroi is in the Sr&mpur Jagir. 

11. — Bis&ra is also in R&mpur. 

13. — Jal&l&b&d. — This is the old name of the Parganah of 
Najibdb&d. The town of Jal&l&b&d is still in a flourishing con- 

14. — Chauplah is the name of Mor&d&b&d. Bustam Khan^ 
Dekkfini, founded Rustamnagar in this Parganah, which in the 
time of Farrukhsir was changed to Mor&d4b&d, and the name 
of Chauplah became extinct. Sirkarah was also formed from 

16. — Jadw&r remained as a Parganah till 1153 f.s. Part of 
Jadw&r is included in Bahjoi, and part in Isl&mnagar and 
Asadpdr. The Tillage of Jadwdr is in the Southern angle of 

17. — ^Haveli Sambhal is included in the Parganah of Sambhal. 

18. — Deorah is the old name of Seondarah, and the village of 
Deorah is about five miles to the south of Seondarah. Seondarah 
was occupied by a Tehsildari Katcherry before the time of the 
Path&ns, but the name of Deorah was preserved till the cession, 
and began to be called Deorah Seondarah only in the Second 
Settlement. The name of Deorah is derived from the Dor Raj- 
puts, who were the Zamind&rs of the Parganah. 

19. — Dh&kah, ) These two Parganahs have also lately been 

20. — ^Dabh&rsi, ) absorbed into Hasanpur — the intermixture 
of villages being so great as to render this arrangement con- 

21. — ^Diidilah is in R&mpur. 

22.— iR&jpur is also in R&mpur. 

23. — ^Rajabpur is now included within Amroha, and is held 
chiefly in rent-free tenure. The village of Rajabpur is about 
ten miles to the S. W. of Amroha. 

33. — Kachh is the old name of Parganah Tigri, now included 
in Hasanpur. 


34. — Gandaur is the old name of Bashta^ whicli is now com- 
bined with Asampur. Bashta, indeed, used frequently to be 
called Gandaur Bashta. 

36. — Ganaur. — ^The town of Ganaur still exists in Asadpur. 
The greater portion of the Farganah is in Asadpdr — a part is in 

37. — Eh&nkari is in B&mpur. 

38. — Lakhnor is also in B&mpur, and is more generally known 
as Shah&b^ on the Bfimganga. This, being the seat of the old 
Katherya Bajas> may be considered the capital of the country, 
and is so spoken of by the ancient historians. As the place is 
now but Uttle known, transcribers generally confound this town 
with the more celebrated Lakhnau, and English translators have 
not been free from the same error. Bernoulli gives Lakhnor as 
a separate Sirk&r, and alters its dimensions greatly from those 
given to the Dastur in the " Ain-i Akbari." 

39. — ^Liswah is included in B&mpur. 

In these, and other similar instances I have not attempted to 
verify the names. It was sufficient for me to find these Mah&ls 
in the Dasttir of Lakhnor to make me include them in the 
B&mpur territory. All that we have of Lakhnor i^ easily iden- 
tifiable, and as nothing is wanting to complete our boundary, 
and as it will be observed from the Map there is ample space in 
B&mpdr, we may fairly presume the missing Mah&ls to be in 
that Jagir. 

41. — Majhaulah. — The greater part of Majhaulah is now in- 
cluded in Bahjoi — ^part is in B&jpdra and Isl&nmagar. Ma- 
jhaulah Kh&a is still a large village, about five miles to the East 
of Bahjoi. 

45. — ^I^eodhanah is the old name of Isl&mnagar, Here again 
we are assisted by Tieffenthaler, when all Persian copies fSadl. 
He calls it Neudhana (Bernoulli I, 133). The two instances 
mentioned in this Sirk&r are almost the only ones where I have 
found this enterprising Jesuit traveller of any use ; and it is 



strange it should .be so in Sambhal, for his list of that Sirk&r ia 
the worst he has given, being filled with names which have 
either been ill-transcribed, or fabricated. It does not appear 
that he ever yisited these parts himself, but sent natives to pick 
up information. The name of Neodhanah being given correctly 
we are able to connect it with the traditions of the Gautam 
Bajputs of Nurpdr in Isl&mnagar. 

47. — Hatman& has gone to form part of Sichhi and Chauma- 
hal&. Hatmand £h&s is in ChaumahalL 

The following list shows the new Farganahs of Sirk&r 
Sambhal — 


1 I)6r6nagar, 

ifj\jj^^ 9 Seonddrah. 

. • •• • 

2 NajMhdd. 

Kl^j/l^; 10 Thakwrdwdrd, 


3 Rajpitraik^ 

jf^\p 11 Tdrd^ikr. 


4 Aiodpiir, 

\^j 12 RickM. 


5 Bahjoi. 

j^^j***^- 13 HoBanpiir. 


6 Isldmnagar, 

Asr^j^- 14 CluMmahalah. 


7 Sirkarah. 

i&J^\i 15 Bd^htah. 



8 MurddSdd. 

*jfj^l 16 Afadgarh. 

D&r&nagar. — ^This Parganah was formed from portions of 
Bijnor and Jh&lu by E&o Jet Singh, J&t, in the time of Mu- 
hammad Shah. 

Najib&b&d.— The town of Najib&b&d was founded by Naj(b 
Khan, within the Parganah of Jal&l&b&d, the name of which 
has now been superseded by Najib&b&d. 

Bajpurah is formed from parts of Majhaulah and Gkmaur. 

Asadptir is formed from parts of Ganaur and Jadw&r. 

Bahjoi comprises parts of Majhaulah and Jadw&r. 

Isl&mnagar is formed from Neodhanah and parts of Jadw&r 


and Majhaulah. The name of Isl&mnagar is said to have been 
given to Neodhanah by Rust&m Khan, Dekk&ni. 

Sirkarah was originally a portion of Chauplah, but it does not 
appear when it was established as a separate Parganah. 

Mur&d&b&d (Mor&d&b&d).— See Chauplah. 

Seond&rah. — See Deorah. 

Th&kurdw&rd. — This Parganah was established about the 
time of Muhammad Shah, by Katheryas, of the name of Ma- 
handi Singh and Surjan Singh. The greater part of Th&kur- 
dw&rd has been obtained from Isl&mpur Bahru. The Northern 
portion was originally within the jurisdiction of Kam&on. In 
Th&kurdw&r& are also included about fifty villages of Seohara, 
and nearly 150 of Moghalpur. 

T&r&pur. — This Parganah has been restored to the Eastern 
side of the Ganges. — See Budhganga. 

S.ichh&. — Part of this Parganah is formed from Hatman&; 
but the greater portion we may presume to have been imder the 
jurisdiction of Kam4on. Part is also taken from Balai. 

Hasanpur* was originally in Dhdk& ; but now comprises six 
old Parganahs — Kachh, Bachhraon, Dh&ka, Dabh&rsi, TJjharl, 
and Islampur Dargu. 

Chaumahld is a modem Parganah, formed by Naww&b Faiz- 
ullah Khan from the four Parganahs of Sirsawa, Eichhd, Kabar 
and Rudrpur. The old Parganah of Hatmand, which was extinct 
before this Parganah was formed, is for the most part comprised 
in the Northern angle of Chaumahld. 

B&shtah is the new name of Gandaur. 

Afzalgarh. — I have restored Afzalgarh to Sherkot and Nagina, 

* An Altamgba grant, said to have been given by Shabjab&n in favor of Mnbaiiz 
Khan, ancestor of the present Zamind&rs of HussainpOr, places HussainpCir in Havell 
Sambhal, bat it is not easy to conceive how that Parganah conld have penetrated 
^hrongh Dhaka and Ujhari. The grant, therefore (it was resamed by the Pathans), 
must either be a forgery, or Sambhal is alluded to rather as a Sirk&r than a 


as far as the Eamganga. The rest has been concluded to have 
been within hill jurisdiction ; though it is usual to consider the 
whole of Afzalgarh and Behar as belonging to Sherkot. — See 


SirkIb BadIok. 


1 Ajdm. 

^^ 7 Bahi. 


2 Aohla, 

^J^yiAY^ 8 SahMwdn. 


3 Baddon hd 

UjCw^ ^li^ 9 Saidsi Mundu/d. 


Lj^^d 10 Suneyd. 

4 JBarM. 

ti^li 11 Xdnt. 


5 JBarsir. 

^^ULcL>^ 12 Xof Sdlbdhan. 


6 Fiinar. 

dJ^13 Qola. 

This Sirk&r consists of thirteen Mah&ls, which constitute only 
one Dasttir. 

The extinct Mah&ls are numbers 5, 6, 7, 9, 11 and 13. 

5. — Barsir is the old name of the Parganah of Sarauli, which 
it retained till the time of the cession. The village of Barsir, 
which is still inhabited, is about six miles to the South of 
Sarauli, and is on the borders of Aoida. Sarauli is still called 
by the conmion people Barsir. 

6. — Punar. — ^Punar Khas is a deserted Mauzah in Puranptir 
Sabna. Punar forms only a small portion of the present Par- 
ganah of Puranpur Sabna, since it is represented as containing 
only 5,749 Bighas. 

7. — ^Balai.* — ^When Mirak J4n, Amil in the reign of Shah- 
jah&n, founded Jehanabad, the name of the Parganah was 
changed from Balai to Jehanabad, in honor of his new town. 
The Khera of Balai is still to be seen near Jehanabad. 

• Alflo caUed BilahtL— E. add. 


9. — Sat&si Mundiyi. — ^This is a very difficult Parganah to 
restore. It assumes all kinds of shapes in the various copies,— 
Mokudduma Sunas^ Munala Sunasun, Sunanut Mudrusa; and 
Bernoulli increases our doubts by calling it Mandia, surnomm^ 
Saniassi. If it had not been for the present existence of the 
Parganah of Sat&si, on which word many of the changes seem 
to ring, we might not have been able to identify it at all ; and 
even now it might be considered open to suspicion, because the 
Mah41 is said to have Tag& Zamind&rs, whereas Sat&si has none ; 
but then neither is there a single Tag& Zamind&ri throughout 
the district of Bad&on, and scarcely any in its immediate 
neighbourhood, — so that this is no real objection. It only 
shows that the Tag& Zamind&ris have become extinct. The 
ruins of Sat&si are said to be near Birkhera, four miles to the 
South of Bisauli, and Mundiya is a large inhabited village 
about six miles to the North West of Bisauli. The position of 
the two chief towns renders it very probable that they were 
combined into a single Parganah. I was at one time disposed , 
to call it Sat&si Manaunah, because Manaunah was the seat of a 
Native Collector at one period, but its close proximity to Aonla, 
which is itself the head town of a Mah&l, would not admit of 
this construction. Guided by all these considerations, I believe 
I have not been wrong in calling the Mah&l Sat&si Mundiy&. 

11. — K&nt. — This was originally the name of Shahjah&npur. 
When that city wad founded by Bahadur Khan, in the time of 
Farrukhsir, the name of E&nt became extinct. Tilhar is also 
formed from K&nt. — See Bachhal. 

13. — Gola has been considered in its alphabetical place. 

.The new Parganahs within this Sirk&r present a list of un- 
usual length. 

1 Bisauli, 

Uj S Bded. 

jjj^ 2 Karor^ *^V^(j^^ ^ Jahdndhdd. 





5 Nawwdhffanj, 

6 ^bo^^r. 

7 Shdhfahdfipdr. 

8 PUi3Ai^. 

9 Salimpiir. 

12 IfsahaU 
18 7l7Aar. 
14 iVf^oAi. 

jjj Jlbj- 15 Jaldlpiir. 
\^j^fly7 1^ 16 ZA^if Bqfherd. 
^ji 17 JITd^a. 
^\y 18 /Vitt^ain. 
ylSijj 19 Bardgdnta. 

j\j^ 21 Motdr. 
biJjjiy ^J^ 22 Fatter Badariyd 
j^Jj 23 Nidhpiir. 
v^5j\ 24 ^WiiL 

Bisauli is a portion of Sat&si Mundiy&, the remainder being 
represented by the present Sat&si, with the addition of Tappa 
Botah of Bad&on. 

There seems no reason why Bisauli should not haye given 
name to a Parganah in Akbar's time. It is an old town^ and 
though it is indebted for its chief improvements to the generous 
and gallant Naww&b Dundi Khan, who lies buried, as well as 
many other members of Ali Mahomed's family, at Bisauli, yet 
it had been for a long time previous a place of some considera- 
tion. In our eyes it possesses interest as being the first canton- 
ment of a British brigade in Rohilkhand. 

Karor is included in the old Mah&l of Bareilly. 

Baled was originally in Saneyah, but subsequently in Karor, 
from which it was detached at the fourth settlement. 

Jeh&n&b&d. — See Balyi. 

Nawwfibganj was originally a portion of Bareilly. It was 
not formed into a new Parganah till the fourth Settlement, when 
a Tehsild&ri was established at fTaww&bganj. The town was 
founded on the lands of Bichorea, in the time of Naww&b 


Bisalpur was also in Bareilly. It derives its name from an 
Ahir of the name of £i8u> who lived in the time of Sh&hjah&n. 

Sh&hjah&npur. — See K&nt. 

PiUbhit, or as much of it as was known in the time of Akbar^ 
was taken from Balyi. 

Salimpur was originally in Saneyah. 

Ujh&ni. — ^From the old settlement records we find that when 
the Farganah of Bad&on was annexed at the fourth settlement 
to Bareilly, it comprised seven Tappas. Ujh&ni comprises 
Tappa Jal&lpur, and is separated from its parent Farganah, 
along nearly its entire Eastern border, by the river Sot.* The 

* Sot means any small stream in Boliilkhand. — "E. add. 

The same word is applied in GorakhpCir and the adjoining parts of Bah&r to the old 
bed of a river in which there is only a small quantity of water with a feeble current. 
It is probably derived from the old Hindi ^c^9 which means trickling, oozing ; con- 
nected with which are the Marathi words "^l^y ^TRf j ^q4||, etc., with a similar 
meaning, from the Sanskrit "^ to trickle, ooze. — ^B. 

This river is now generally known by the name of Y&rwaflid&r, or ** the faithful 
friend." As various origins are ascribed to this name, it may be as well to subjoin 
the correct one from the <* T&rikh-i Muhammad Sh&hi" of Ehushb&l Chand: — 

^r^ c^^ ^j^ s/^j! li)^^^ j^ Mr^ Jf^-- v^UUu jl 

<-_^lj 2rJujuu^ jJmJIjjJ ^L3l^j>- CL\*a>- ^/^^^ J^ i ^^1m*S )b^ 
S-^^J v/*!/^ ^J'^ '^J^ -^^ ^ ^\j^ (*^ ^y^ ^b dij^ 

XJy$j3 i*^^ J^*^^> jV. (♦W 1/^ c:^;*a^ ifJ^ J^U- a\aj ,z^jiy\ 

On their way from Sambhal to Bad&on His Majesty and the royal army suffered 
much from heat and thirst, till they came to the little river Sot, which kept winding 
in and out by the side of the road, and supplied them with water at each stage. In 
gratitude for this service His Majesty honored it with the name of " Y&r-i WaflGid6r," 
or "the faithful Mend."->B. 


Tillage of Jal&Ipur is about ten miles to the South of Ujh&ni. 
When Rohilkhand was under the administration of the Path&ns, 
Ujh&nf became the residence of Nawwab 'Abdullah, and thence- 
forward it was constituted the chief town of a Parganah. 

Faridpur was originally a portion of Bareillj, known as 
Tappah Khalilpur. 

T/shat, or TJ^sahat, includes Tappah Mah&nagar of Bad&on. 

Tilhar was a portion of K&nt. When Raja Tilok Chand, a 
Baehhal Eajput, founded Tilhar, he included the surrounding 
yillages in a new Parganah. 

Nigohi. — This Parganah was originally a portion of Golah. 

Jaldlpur was a portion of BareiUy, known as Tappah Ghar- 
kholah. The town of Jal&lptir was founded by Raj Deo, son of 
Raja B&sdeo, Katherya, who lived subsequent to the time of 

Kher& Bajher&. — ^This Parganah was formed from portions 
of the new Parganahs of Jal&lpur, Tilhar, and Faridpur, and 
therefore was originally a part of K&nt and Bareilly. 

Katrah was originally in Bareilly, and it was not till the time 
of Kam&l zai Khan, the son of Muzafiar Khan, who in the time 
of 'Alamgir founded Katrah on the ruins of the old town of 
Mir&npur, that the Parganah of Mir&npur Katrah was esta- 

Paw&in was originally a portion of Golah. The old village 
of Golah is in this Parganah, and is still inhabited. 

Bar&g&nw was also a part of Golah. 

Puranpur Sabnd. — ^Puranpur is the chief town of the Par- 
ganah. Sabn&, which was taken by the Rohillas from the Doti 
Ilaka, which has been carried away by the Sardah. 

Parganah Puranpur is formed from parts of Golah and Punar, 
and the village of Puranpdr was in the former Parganah. The 
portion near the Sardah was not known in Akbar's time, and 
has therefore been excluded from the map. 

Khot&r was originally a portion of Golah, but the greater 

TOL. II. 10 


part has been excluded from the map for the reasons stated 
tinder Golah. 

Faizpdr Badariya was originallj included in Sahesw&n. 

Nidhpur was a portion of Baddon. 

Aul&i was also a portion of Bad&on. — See Budganga for 
further information respecting the boundary of this Sirk&r. 

Dahsanni) ^ji^xj ^^^nft 

Belonging to ten years. A book comprising the collections, 
accounts, registers, etc., of ten years* 

The book generally known as the '^Dahsanni Kit&b'' was 
compiled in the year 1210 f.s. with the aid of the K&nungoes, 
Mutawallis, and £&zis, assembled at Bareilly for the purpose 
of shewing the quantity of land in occupation of the Mafid&rs. 
In it the name of the occupant was sometimes recorded, some- 
times that of his son, and sometimes, when neither could be 
ascertained, the name of the original grantee. 

The '^Dahsanni Kit&b'' was compiled with a view of meet- 
ing the changes of property attendant on two revolutions : the 
usurpation of the Bohilla Patans, and the conquest by the 
Naww&b Wazir. Two columns of this register exhibit, under 
the description of M&Hk Eadim and M&lik H&l, the ancient 
proprietor known to the Kdntingo records, and the more recent 
occupant. — "Bengal Bevenue Sel." Vol. I. p. 319. 

DaVi, i/ytJ l^rft 

A demand ; a claim ; a plaint. 

One-and-a-half; used to express interest in kind on grain, at 
the rate of 50 per cent. — See under Bengat. 

Literally country ; a term applied in Bohilkhand to cleared 


Tillages on the borders of the Tar&{. In the Bekkan it is used 
much in the same way to signify a champaign country. See 
"Journal R.A.S.'' VoL II. p. 212, and the Printed Glossary, 
under Des and Desh. 

It will be seen by referring to the map of Dastdrs, that a 
large tract has been excluded from Sirk&rs Sambhal and Bad&on 
which might be supposed to haye belonged to them. The fact 
is, that the districts on the Northern boundary either belonged 
to £am&on, or were altogether unknown. Even those which 
are entered in the ancient Kegisters as being in Sirk&r E^m&on, 
haye no recorded area: such as Gadarptir; Sahajgfr, now 
Jaspdr; Dau&zda Kot, now Kota; Chinkf, now BilheH and 
Sabna ; Bhuks&r, now Ealpdri and Budarpdr. A great portion 
of this tract was included in the Chaur&si M&I, of which the 
boundaries are giyen in the article Chaurfisi. It was known 
also as the Kaulakhi M&l ;* but what portion of the present 
Des was included in, or excluded from it, is yery doubtfuL The 
idea of this tract ever yielding, as its name implies, nine lacs of 
rupees, is surprising to us who yiew it in its present state ; and 
the name of Naukkhf M&l notwithstanding its avowed pros- 
perity from the time of Akbar to Aurangzeb, particularly in the 
reigns of Tremal Ghand and B&z Bahadur, may with some 
reason be deemed an exaggeration. 

That these wild regions yielded, not long before our accession^ 
more revenue than they do at present, is easily accounted for by 
the intestine troubles of Eam^n on the North, and of Bohil* 
khand on the South, which induced a large refugee population 
to resort to them for security ; and that they have somewhat 
deteriorated of late years may be accounted for by our early 
assessments having been too high, which has necessitated present 
deductions ; and by a withdrawal of some portion of its popula- 

* I suspect this to be a oorraption of Mah&l, ''estate," bnt not being personally 
aoquainted with the district in question, I hesitate to alter it on a presumption. — ^B. 


tion, which has been induced by the quiet and security which 
prevail in more favoured spots in the neighbourhood. Notwith- 
standing, however, their apparent deterioration, there can be 
little doubt that the Des is gradually encroaching upon the 
Tar&i, and that there is prospect of further improvement by a 
judicious application of the abundant means of irrigation which 
nature has placed at our disposal. 

We may be pretty certain that, even in the most palmy days 
of the Naulakhi M&l, the Des had not advanced into the Tar&i 
so far as it now has, and that it was chiefly the Northern portion 
of the Tar&i which was so prosperous under the rule of the 
!Kam&on Bajas. 

The fact of the Mahomedans not being able to extend their 
dominions to the foot of the hills, proves that the portion beyond 
the Des must have been nearly, if not quite, as inhospitable 
and insalubrious as it is now ; for we cannot but conceive, that 
nothing would have protected it against aggression but a thick 
belt of jungle on its Southern border, which would have in- 
vested that tract with more terror than thousands of armed 
men. That there was no indisposition to acquire territory in 
that direction we know from two invasions of the time of Akbar» 
though he professed to have given a Sanad to the Kam&on Raja, 
Kudar Chand;* and that there was no strength in the Kam&- 
onis to oppose them, if the Mahomedans had determined on it, 
we know from their appeals to Kustam Khan for assistance 
against the Katheryas; from the easy occupation which was 
efiected for a short time by the Imperial general, 'Azmatullah 
Khan ; from the purchased retreat of the Eohillas after their 
first invasion ; and from the feeble resistance offered at a later 
period to the Gorkhas. Indeed, from the establishment of the 
Mahometan Empire down to the present time, we cannot con- 
template any period when the Des, or the cleared plain, was 

^ Rndar Chand waa the son of Kalyftn Chand, who established Almorah as the 
capital. Eudaiptir was founded by Rudar Chand. 


cultivated so far North as it now is. What the Tar&i may have 
been in olden time it is not possible to say ; but there are many 
symptoms of the tract having enjoyed a prosperous state long 
antecedent to the times of the Chand dynasty, when there was 
probably no Tar&i, but what was marked by rich cultivation and 
populous abodes of man. 

The occasional remains of ancient buildings and aqueducts 
assure us that it enjoyed an early period of prosperity, and the 
allusions in the drama of Sakuntal& to the scenery in the neigh- 
bourhood of the M&lin, which falls into the Ganges near Bijnor, 
could scarcely have been applicable, had the features of the 
country not been greatly changed since the time that K&lid&sa 
wrote. We cannot be far wrong in supposing that it followed 
the fate and fortunes of the Gorakhpur jungle, which from the 
Chinese Travels lately published, we know to have been the site 
of flourishing, towns before the fourth century, and to have 
presented signs of growing deterioration in the seventh, when 
the Buddhist religion was approaching the period of its exter- 
mination in India. From this time to the occupation of the 
Mahomedans, the history of India is a complete blank, and 
scarcely can we extract a single fact from the voluminous 
Puranas, which, notwithstanding Colonel Yans Kennedy's em- 
phatic denial, are now pretty well acknowledged to have been 
compiled at this comparatively late period. 

In the Mahomedan histories the gloom is but little dispelled ; 
but whenever we have allusions to these districts, we find every 
cause to suppose that the country was at least as wild as it is 
now. All beyond Amroha, Lakhnor, and Aonla is spoken of as 
a desert, which the Imperial troops fear to penetrate. 

The most northerly position ever mentioned is that of K&bar, 
when it is marked as the boundary of cultivation at the close of 
the thirteenth century, in allusion to some revenue reforms in- 
troduced by Jal&lu'd-din, the first of the Ehilji dynasty. But, 
beyond this, there is not anywhere to be found the remotest 


alliifiion to crossing even the Bamgangay except when Feroz 
Shah is reprei^ented to have come for several successive years to 
Sambhal, to carry his inroads into the country of the Eatheryas ; 
and, in another instance, when we hear of an Imperial com- 
mander having pursued the Eatheryas from Bad4on to the 
hills, but not till they had endeavoured to secure their safety in 
the Jungles of Aonla, which are said by Abdu'l k&dir Bad&oni 
to extend roimd that place no less than twenty-four Koss.* The 
exaggeration is evidently great, but if the statement is even 
partially true with respect to Aonla, we may be sure that the 
country under the hills waa not in a much better condition. 

We then come to the period alluded to at the beginning of 
this article, when, during a few years of the Moghul dynasty, 
the prosperity of the tract in some measure revived ; but it was 
not long before it again declined, for even in the time of 
Muhammad Shah, we find the neighbourhood of Kashipur thus 
described by Shaikh Yar Muhammad, an acute observer, who 
wrote an amusing account f of his embassy of condolence to the 
Kam&on Baja, Devi Chand, in a.h. 1130 : 

;T liiU^ hfj^3 ^^^-***; ^ ^ ^y' J^ 

t ThiB appeals in a collection of letters entitled " Insha-i Ealandar/' wMch has 
been printed in qnarto in Calcutta, under the title of « Dasturu'l Insha." There are 
some interesting allusions in this work to the early progress of the British in India 

I cannot find this in the India Office Library. — B. 


Not long after this, we find the Jesuit Tieffenthaler thus 
describing the commencement of the route from Budarpur to 
Abnorah — ^'On traverse d'abord un desert long de 20 milleSy 
dans le quel on trouve des arbres extrdmement hauts/' etc. 

So that, after all, these districts do not present a verjr un- 
fayourable contrast with their condition imder the preceding 
administration. Enough, at any rate, has been adduced to 
shew, that there was no occasion to place the Des boundary of 
Bad&on and Sambhal in a more advanced position than has 
been represented in the map. 

Dhald, mj VT^ 

Collections levied from AB&mis to cover village expenses, 
generally at the rate of one aima to every rupee, or a seer of 
grain to every maund of actual produce. — Rohilkhand. 

In the Central and Lower Doab and Saugor it is generally 
used in combination with Jama, as Jama-Dhala, and is synony- 
mous with Dh&r-b&chh, q.v. 

Dharbachh, ^(4>-b^Uj ^nTT^TQE 

Dh&rb&chh means any even or general distribution ; but the 
term is chiefly in use in the central portion of these provinces 
to denote an imperfect Pattidari tenure, in which part of the 
village lands is held in common, and part in severalty; the 
profits of the land held in common being first appropriated to 
the payment of the Government revenue and village expenses ; 
and the balance, whether under or above, being distributed 
among the proprietary body according to the extent of their 
respective holdings. 

Dh&rb&chh, in short, is synonymous with the meaning most 
generally given to B&chh in the Western Provinces, and Bigh&- 
dam in the Eastern : under which latter term the tenure has 
been properly described in the Printed Glossary. — See Dh&la 
and Dh6r. 


Dhardhtira, i^ybjjUj VK^JCT 

The boundary formed by a stream. The changes In the course 
of streams form a frequent subject of disputes, which are settled 
on this principle, especially in Bohilkhand, by determining where 
the deep stream flows ; 'from dhdr^ or dhdla^ a stream, and dMrd^ 
a boimdary. 

The principle is very good where land is gained by gradual 
accretion, but is open to objection where the lost lands are 
capable of identification, and is opposed not only to the sensible 
maxim, "Quod visfluminis de tuo prcedio detraxerit et vicino prcedio 
attulerit, palam tuum remanet" — ^but to Regulation XI. of 1825, 
which was based on the decisions of the Sudder Dewanny 
Adawlat, and the replies of the law officers, and which regu- 
lates the principle to be observed in such disputed cases, wherein 
a law of immemorial usage does not prevail. The consequence 
is, that even where the Dh&rdhur4 law is acknowledged, the 
decisions in these extreme cases are not found to be uniform. 
Note to p. 251, Vol. III. of " Harington's Analysis ;" and p. 146 
of " Notices of Suits,'' by Maulavi Muhammad Bakar. 

Dhonehd, ^y>«3 Vl^ 

Four-and-a-half. The word is found in arithmetical tables 
of the multiplication of fractions, which are in constant use 
with our surveying Amins, when reducing their Unear measure- 
ments to Bighas. The words used by them in fractional multi- 
plication are — 






















Khonchi, fft^ U^^ 6^ 

Satonch&y f|7iHl l»^^ '^i 

The size of the fields rarely requires Amins to go beyond this. 

Dhiir, jjybj ^ 

The twentieth part of a Biswa, and therefore equal to a 
Bisw&ni. The word is little used in the Upper Provinces, ex- 
cept in Benares ; but is common in Behar. 

Dhura, \jbj "^ 

A boxmdary. The word is used chiefly in the Do&b and Rohil- 
khand, and is sometimes pronounced Dhura. — See Dh&rdhura. 

Dhurkat, vi^ybj y^iM^ 

An advance of rent paid by As&mis to Zamind&rs in the month 
of Jeth and Asarh. ^Benares and E. Oudh. 

Dhauri, ^jy^"^ ^^^^ 

A corruption of Adhaurf (from adha, half) ; a bull's hide cut 
into two pieces. — ^Dehli. 

Dharah, 2yhj vi^f 

A percentage on all weighments of goods imported into the 
city. The word is peculiar to Nurpur, in the Panj&b. 

Dharf, i^j 'iwt 

A measure of five seers. 

Dharaukf, \Jju^*^ ^J^NSt 

To ascertain by guess, in case of a dispute, as to the quantity 
of land in actual cultivation, on which to estimate the Jama. — 
Eastern Oudh. 


Dhartd, bybj V^ 

Discount and commission. Applied to increase of demand 
upon land; also to an item entered according to Tisage by 
bankers in excess of cash advanced; being generallj about 
three per cent. — Saugor. 

Dishtbandhak, dJobj^v.-iAJ fIflK'Rnsni 

The pledge of real property^ being that which the debtor can. 
keep in view^ such as land, houses, etc., from Sansk. "(f^ drishti^ 
sight, and bandhak, pledge. Hypothecation. It is not much 
used in the North- West, except in Benares* — See Bhogbandhak. 

Dubsi, ^^j ifirtft 

The percentage allowed to Government farmers on the 
revenue paid to Government; formerly 10 per cent, i.e. two 
bistcas' produce out of twenty — Saugor. — See Dobiswi, from 
which it is contracted. 

Dofaslf, ^5^^^ ^frtranft 

Land producing two crops a year. It is also known by the 
names of Debar, Dos&i, Dos&hi, and Jutheli. 

DAhf, ^jj ^ 

AUuvial formations. A mark of village boundaries. — See 

Dobiswi, fc/r^^j*^ ^tf^FR^ 

An allowance, reduction, or cess of two Biswas out of twenty ; 
or ten per cent. The right of the Zamind&r in land, as Mali- 
kana is in money. Dobiswi is frequently given by Mafidars to 
Zamindfirs, particularly when they are not confident of the 
validity of their tenure. 


Service land ; applied in the Dehli territory as Baunda in the 
Do&b. — See Bhtindari. But in many places within that terri- 
tory it is only that land which is given to Brahmans. Dohli, 
or Dohri, is also applied there to the perquisite of Fakirs at 
harvest time. 

Daul, Jy ^<^ 

Estimate of assets for the purpose of assessment. Daulnama 
was the name given to the extract from this estimate, which 
was made over as a Potta to the party who was to pay the 

—Extract from the " Kit&b-i K&nun." 

Daul properly means a form, and is used in parts of Behsur 
to express the formal application made by a ryot to a Zamind&r 
for permission to cultivate land. This application, with the 
word ^'granted,'' or the signature of the Zamlnd&r alone 
written on it, is given back to the ryot, and does duty for a . 
Potta.— B. 

Don, ^^j ^ 

A fractional division of an estate. — Qarhwal. 

Dungdnf, ^l&j ^irrft 

A small fractional division of an estate. — ^Eam&on. 

Dar, jj ^ 

A rate ; whence Darbandi, used to express the rate of rent of 
each field in the township. — See Darbandi. 


Dariyaburd, *i;ikj'^ ^^KM\M^ 

Dariyashikast, ui^-wiJLiibjj ^IX^lfMiiV 

Lands cut away by encroachmeiits of a river ; from daryd, a 
river^ and burdan, to bear away^ and shikastan, to break. 

Dariyabardmad, j^T^bjj <^(\4I^<I^4 

Alluvion. Lands reclaimed from a river ; from dart/d, a river, 
and bardmadan, to accrue, to come up. 

Dariyabarar, j^ikj^ iyKM\m.\K 

See Dariyabaramad. 

Dahotara, tty^j i^i\^K\ 

Tithes. An allowance, or tax, of ten per cent. ; from dah, 
ten.— See Dahaik. 

Daramad, j^T^j ^TH?^ 

A term in keeping the Itldk; an account of fees paid for 
serving processes ; the return of a process : from the Persian 
jjj^J; J to come in. 

Darbandiy ^^jcj^j <5T?t^ 

A statement of the different rates of a village ; also, assessing 
the price or value of crops or produce. 

Dastura'l-'aml, J^jji-jj 4^1S^^^^^ 

A body of instructions and tables for the use of revenue 
of&cers imder the Native Government. Notwithstanding the 
frequent appeal by K&ntingoes and our early European officials 
to the Dasturu'l-'aml, no two copies can ever be found which 
correspond with each other, and in most respects they widely 
differ. Those which profess to be copied from the Dasturu'l- 


'ami of Akbar, are found to contain on close examination sundry 
interpolations of subsequent periods. 

Besides the Dasturu'l-'aml, another book, called the 'Ami 
Dastur, was kept by the K&nungoes, in which were recorded all 
orders which were issued in supersession of Dastdrul-'amL 
It is probable that the Dasturu'l-'amls in use, shortly before 
our administration, were compiled from both these books, and 
hence have arisen the variations noted above. 

Farighkhatana, *3lki?^^li mPMl^^l* !! 

A fee on writing a F4righ-khatti, sometimes taken by Pat- 
w&ris. The term Fdrigh-khatti is correctly explained in the 
Glossary to signify a written release or acquittance. 

F&righ-khatti means a receipt given at the close of the year 
by the Zamlnd&r to the ryot, stating that all rent and demands 
of all sorts have been paid for that year. — B. 

Fautinama, ^^v^y ^IhftTRT 

A document reporting the death of an incumbent and the 
names of his heirs ; from the Arabic c^y /ati^, death. 

Fard, Oj» Hi^ 

A list, a sheet, a statement. Thus Fard-i-K&sht is a state- 
ment of a ryot's cultivation, from kdshty cultivation ; and Fard-i 
Tashkis is a settlement record, from tasAkis, specification, assess- 
ment. — See Fird in the Printed Glossary. 

Farmdn, J^J «<4||«l 

A royal mandate ; an order ; a patent. In English it assumes 
various shapes, as Firman, Pharmaim, and Phirmand. 

Fared, ^^J xg^ 

Literally down, descending, alighting. A term used in the 


customs* department to express the arrival and deposit of goods 
within certain defined limits. 

Faryddf, ^^jb^ MiRi»<1 

A plaintiff; from t^by faryid^ a complaint, lamentation. 

Fasl, J-^ innr 

A season, crop, harrest ; and hence the term fasU is applied 
to the era established with reference to the harvests of Hindu- 
st&n. These harvests occur twice in the course of the year ; one 
is known by the name of Eharif, and the other by the name of 
lUbi'. The former is correctly explained in the Printed 
Glossary, under ^'Fusly Sheruf," to signify the autumnal 
harvest of rice, millet, etc. 

Babi' signifies the spring crop, or dry harvest, comprising 
peas, wheat, barley, gram, etc. The common people sometimes 
denote these harvests by other names. — ^See Asarhi. 

Kharif is derived from the Arabic' uJ^, the falling of 
autumnal rains, the gathering of autumnal fruits ; and thus it 
came generally to mean the gathering of harvest : whence the 
term Al-Mukh&rif (not noticed by either Golius or Richardson) 
a tribute gatherer. 

BabI' literally means spring (Pocock, Spec. Hist. Ar. p. 181), 
and it may therefore appear strangely applied to a Muhammadan 
lunar month, which in course of time makes a revolution of all 
the seasons, occurring sometimes in winter, sometimes in summer, 
sometimes in spring, sometimes in autumn. But the false prophet 
cared little for chronological propriety, and adopted in his new 
calendar the names of the old Arabian months of the solar year 
without any reference to their meaning, or more probably without 
reflecting that in a short time they would become exceedingly in* 
appropriate. In the same way, Jal&lu'd-din, when he reformed 
the Persian calendar, introduced similar anomalies, and the names 
of many of the months, as at present applied, depart widely 


from their origmal meaning. Mard&d^ for instance, is the pre- 
siding angel of winter (Farhang-i Jah&ngiri)^ but the present 
month of Mardad is July.* 

With respect to the period during which the harvests last, 
authorities are by no means agreed; some, like the Diw&n 
Pasand, give eight months to the Eharif, and four to the 
Habl' ; others, like the Zubdat-ul kaw&nin, and Baj Bdp,t give 
six months to each harvest. It is not easy to define the exact 
period of each, as the occupations of both harvests are, during 
some months, carried on simultaneously. Thus the sowing of 
the Eabi' and cutting of the Kharif, and very frequently the 
ploughings for both harvests, are carried on at the same time, 
and it becomes difficult to say to which harvest most labour is 

There is an attempt made to explain the cause of this differ- 
ence of opinion respecting the duration of the two harvests in 
the second book of an anonymous Dasturul-'amL The author 
says, ''Some writers assign different periods to the Zlabi* and 
Kharif. In the Subah of Bengal the Eliarff has nine months, 
and the Rabi' three. In Orissa the Kharif has ten months, and 
the Babi' two;'' so that, if this be the real cause, we must 
always regard the country of the writer, when we consider his 
accounts of the periods of Kabi' and Eharif. 

* And Murd&d is always July according to Eichardson. The words in the 
Failiang-i Jali&ngiri are ^^yZjMyj (^*ai J (J^yt and Basliidi repeats the state- 
ment in the same words, bat also says it is the name of the fifth month of the solar 
year. Perhaps the anomaly may arise from the harrest alluded to being that of the 
crop which is sown in the winter, and reaped in the summer like the Babl. — B. 

t He obsenres that the Indians b^^i their year at the new moon of the month of 
Hihr, which is the commencement of the rainy season ; and their year is divided into 
two parts : the Kharif, from the new moon of Mihr (the seyenth Persian month — 
September) to Sipand&rmuz (the twelfth month — February), 6 months and 178 days . 
and the Babf, from the new moon of Farwardi (the first month — March) to Shah- 
riwar (the sixth month — ^August), 6 months and 187 days — ^total, 365 days. At the 
same time he obserres that the £^le of Ir&n and Tur6n continue to reckon Babi 
first. ~—B. 


Faisala, ^LxJ ^t^RTT 

Adjustment, decision, decree, settlement. It is an Arabic 
word, derived from the fajd mentioned above, which signifies 
cutting, separating, disjoining ; and hence applied to a season. 
Hence also fai%al is a judge, because he discriminates between 
right and wrong, and the decision given bj him is a faiiala. 
Ibn-i Arab Shah calls the Day of Judgment J-^U^. The 
word Mufassil, so familiar to our ears, is similarly derived, sig- 
nifying districts, or territory separated from the seat of Govern- 

Gachh, ^ ir^ 

Portion of an estate, held separately. — ^Pumeah, Beh&r. — B. 

Gdnwbat, ^y^ ^iN^d 

A division of a Taluka into separate villages, or of the several 
D&khili Mauz&s of an Asli village : from ^^\^ gdnw, a village^ 
and «i6«ii batnd, to be divided. — See G&tdbandi. 

Ganw kbarcha, i^j6^y>^ ^X^^i^ l 

Expenses incurred in the municipal administration of a village ; 
from gdhw, a village, and kharach, expenditure. This item ia 
called also Malba in the Western part of these provinces. The 
literal meaning of that term is refuse, sediment, dirt ; and is 
applied, like Ghurbardr, q,v. in the sense of Gdnw kharcha, on 
account of the many small items thrown into it, which could 
not be included under any other more specific head. 

In the Panjdb this fund is often applied to the entertainment 
of travellers in a Musulman village ; defalcations not exceeding 
ten rupees are also paid from it. 

Ganwti, ^Jj^^ 'Tt'ltt 

Of, or belonging to, a village ; especially applied as G&nw 


kharcha to the seyeral expenses of mimicipal adminiBtration, 
such as wages of acoountants^ oraftsmeiiy and police. — Saugor. 

A Tillage made over by its proprietors to any person on a 
permanent Jama, with all the privileges of Zamind&r. — ^Eastern 

Gannta, to/ fteT 

Village expenses. — ^Bundelkhand. — See Ghtnwkharcha. 

Gaxintiya, L23/ ^HfiWT 

A small hamlet. All these words are deriyatives from gdhw^ 
a village. 

GautlkA, IC/ ittitm 

The head manager of a village, equivalent to a mnkaddam 
elsewhere. — ^Soh&gpur. 

Gdtabandi, v^jojUo ^nTPR^ 

The division of a village by Q&t&s, corresponding with 
Shetbat. The opposite of G&t&bandi is Pah&bandi. 

G&t&bandi is a peculiar kind of tenure under which the fields 
of individual proprietors are not found in juxta-position, but 
scattered through many villages. Thus the boundaries of one 
village are frequently found to contain lands belonging to other 
villages, while some of its own fields will be included in the 
boundaries of another village, and that, perhaps, not contiguous. 
The tenure assumes various forms of complexity, being some- 
times exceedingly intricate. It is found to prevail extensively 
in the Central and Lower Doab, Bareilly, and Benares. The 
mode of recording it is detailed in paragraphs 225 to 237 of the 
Board's Settlement Circular. 

VOL. n. 11 


We owe the discovery of this kind of complex tenure to late 
years, when a more perfect system of registration was esta- 
blished at the Settlements made under Beg. IX. of 1833 ; but it 
is by no means such a rarity as it was considered when first brought 
to notice. It is found to prevail over various parts of India. 

The twentieth part of a Jarfb, or measuring chain. Each 
Gathd contains three Il&hi g&z, q.v. The word is derived £rom 
«ld«ii gathnd, to join, to imite by knots. 

Gaz, j^ wn 

A yard. 3 Gaz = l Gath&, and 60 Gaz:=l Jarfb. — See 
n&hi g&z, and the Printed Glossary, under Guz and Gudge. 

Gaydl, JLf irtW 

The land of deceased Bisw&d&rs lying unclaimed; land 
coming imder the management of the Malguz&r after an Asamf 
deserts his village. — ^Rohilkhand, Dehli, and Upper Doab. It 
is called also TJth ; both derived from words signifying de- 
parture—the former from ^iPlT gone, and mm\ a person ; the 
latter from ^JSfT to rise up (and depart).* It is equivalent to 
the Gatkul of the Dekk&n ; £rom the Sanskrit '^Tl gata, gone, 
passed away, and ^W kul, family, lineage. 

Gatewar, j!^^ ^ll^^K 

Is also synonymous with Khetbat. — See G&t&bandi. 

Ghardwdrf, ^j^3'^j^ ViflilO' 

An illegal cess from shopkeepers and householders ; from ^ 
ghar, a house, and ^9[TT dwdr, a door. 

* This deriTEtion is from Col. Sykes, in J.E.A.S. No. lY. p. 208, but as the word 
is sometimes written and pronounced gha^ktdy may it not be from ^^«|| to decrease P 


Gharf, ^^^ ibi^ 

An hour; or the instrument for measuring time. As a 
reyenue word, it is applied to the sub-division of a village; 
thus, Khandig&nw in DeUi is divided into 144 Ldngris, each 
L&ngri containing 8 Gharis. 

Gharphant, ^^^^^j^ ^RTlh! 

An arrangement made by the manager of an estate, or by the 
shareholders themselves, for the payment of the Government 
revenue by each village, when more than one is included in a 
lease. — ^Kam&on. 

Gharpattf, crij^ ^T^fft 

A house-tax, now abolished. — ^Eam&on. 

Gharwara, 2rjlj^ M<«llil 

The local name of a sub-division of a portion of Bundelkhand, 
extending from about Tirohan to the Jumna, said to have been 
bestowed rent-free on Kanaujiya Brahmans by Baja Bam, 
Baghel. It may perhaps be derived from the Ghora mentioned 
above, q.v. 

Ghair mazrti'ali, i^j^y^j^ %K1W%^ 

Uncultivated land ; from the Arabic^;:^^ ghair, not, and ^xi/^ 
mazrii'ahi cultivated. 

GMtdni, ^^\^ ^TOift 

The name of a toll levied on crossing rivers or hill-passes ; 
from Gh&t, a pass or ford. 

Ghlkar, J^ ij^RC 

A tax for pasturage in the hills, chiefly in use in Kilpurf ; 
equivalent to Gobal in the plains. 


Ghunt, ^^^^ ^ 

Rent-free lands, assigned as endowments of religious esta- 
blishments. — Gbrhw&l and Eam&on. — ^See Gtinth. 

Ghurbarar, j^/jy^ ^iH<K 

Dues levied on every sharer and under-tenant in proportion 
to the whole expenses incurred during the year. — Bundelkhand. 

The word is derived from Ghtira, a dunghill, or sweepings ; 
as all kinds of miscellaneous items are included. — See Ganw- 

Ghord, \jy^ ^Y^ 

Ghor&, or Bhatghord, subsequently known as Ahmadabad 
Ghor&, is the name of an old and extinct Sirk&r, which, ac- 
cording to the register in the ''Ain-i Akbari/' contained 89 
Mah&ls, and yielded a revenue amounting to 72,62,780 Dams. 
But it is evident that this Sirk&r was almost entirely unknown, 
for the names of the Mah&ls are not given, nor is there any 
record of measurement; nevertheless, we may fairly presume 
that Tiroh&n, Chibumau, Darsenda, and Bara, and the greater 
part of the B^wah territory, were included in Ghord, It might 
have been supposed that the Parganahs below the Ghats, bor- 
dering on the Jumna, would have had separate names and areas 
in the Imperial Hecords, but it appears from an examination 
of an ancient grant conferring rent-free lands on the K&zi of 
Darsenda, that the Parganah of that name is distinctly said to 
be included in Ahmadabad Ghor&. Bara, also, we know from 
the authentic records of our own history, was under the Rewah 
Baja till the time of Asafu'd Daulah, and the present Zamind&r 
of the Parganah is a Baghel, connected with the Kewah family.* 

* *' I haye stated that Parganah Barah was included in the Sirk&r of Bhatghora 
on the authority of Sir H. Elhot's Glossary ; but even that work does not contain 
much information respecting the territorial divisions connected with this Parganah. 


Gliord, moTeover^ still exists under the name of GFhor& Kh&s, 
on the borders of Tirohfin and Ohibumau. The patent above 
alluded to was issued by 'Alamgir in a.h. 1095. From about 
this period to the decline of the monarchy, Ghor& was better 
known, and even Singrauli is said to have been added to it. 
An Amil also was established in Tiroh&n, who used to reside 
in the fort built by Basant B&i, but the whole Sirk&r was 
subject to constant annexations and separations, according to 
the extension or diminution of Mahomedan influence in these 
wild parts. 

If anything were wanting to show how little this part of the 
country between the hillR and the Jumna had been subdued 
by the Mahometans up to the time of Akbar, we might satisfy 
ourselves by finding the Afghan emperors attacking Kantit» 
which is said to be '^ a dependency of Panna." Here, also, as 
in the case of Band&, we have another mistake respecting names, 
which we can only correct by referring to other histories of the 
same period. Briggs, in his translation of Ferishta, speaks of 

In fiu^ there are few parts of theee Froymces regarding tiie early history of which 
lees is ^own« In the *' Aln-i Akbari" the gross reyenues and the number of mah&ls 
in Bhatghora are merely given, the names of the mahfrls are not specified. If Barah 
was included in this Sirk&r, it mnst have ceased to belong to Bewah, especially if the 
latter territory were ma'f. Bnt^ at all eyents, after the downfiill of the Empire, it 

wonld seem that Barah reverted to Bewah It is generally believed in 

the Paiganah that the Naww6b YaEfr's authority was estaUiahed there preyions to the 
time of Asafd'd-danlah, and that the Barrah Baghels, yrishing to throw off their alle- 
giance to Bewah, and to secure to themselves proprietary possession, sided with the 
Naww&b Yazir, and offered to pay a small tiibute. The Nawwib accepted this offer, 
pnteeted tiiem from Bewah, oonfinned them in their Zamfnd&ii position, and subse- 
quently augmented the small tiibute into a regular jama*. However this may be^ 
there are complete accounts of the contest between Asafh'd-daulah and the Bewah 
Baja, firom which it would seem that Barah iras then for the first time &irly annexed 
to the Oudh dominions." — ^Mr. B. Temple's Beport on Barah, SeL Bee. N.W.P. 
Vol. lY. p. 412. He states in another place (p. 400) that, in 1778, when the 
Naww6Vs force, commanded by l£r. Osborne, proved victorioua over the Baja, the 
Parganah vras fiftrmed out to Mr. Osborne himself and subsequently, in 1801, ceded 
to the Britiah.^B. 


*' BalbHaddar Bay, Saja of Eutambay a place dependent on 
Patna/' instead of " Elantit, dependent on Panna," as it should 
be. Now, if Eantit was at that time dependent on Panna, even 
according to the shewing of Musulman histories, we must not be 
surprised if Chibumau, Barsenda, etc., were also little known till 
the time of 'Alamgir. 

In a Basttiru'l-'aml of the later Empire, Panna is entered 
as containing 115 Mah&ls, and Ahmadabad as containing nine 
Mah&ls, and at this time there was a specification of Parganahs, 
which we do not find in Akbar's register. 

The '' Hadikatu'l Ak&lim " describes Tiroh&n as dependent 
on Sirk&r Arail, or Tarhar (six Mah&ls) ; but this was at a 
period long subsequent, when Allahabad was imder the Groyem- 
ment of the Naww&b Wazir. 

Under all circumstances, we may perhaps consider that the 
limits which haye been assigned to Ghord in the Dasttir Map 
are not far wrong, but it is not easy to speak with confidence 
on the subject, as this part of the country was rarely, or neyer, 
yisited by the Imperial generals, and we can only take adyantage 
of such slight and incidental allusions as can be obtained in the 
absence of more satisfactory information. 

Ghum&o, ^U^ ^RVS 

A term applied to as much land as can be ploughed by one 
pair of bullocks in a day. — ^Dehli. 

The Ohum&o, howeyer, has in many places lost its original 
meaning, and is used as a measure of land of yarying extent. 
In Jalandar it is stated to be one-fifth of a bigha only, while in 
Wadin it is three-fourths of an acre. Eight kan&ls make a 
j^hum&o, and two kan&ls are rather more than one bigha. 

Ghair mumkin, J^^ ^K^h9m 
Barren waste ; unproductiye land ; not capable of ctdtiyation 



(contracted from ie]jjSf 'jC^^iS ghair mumkinu'l zard^cU, i.e., 
" whose cnltiyatioii is not possible''). 

Gird&warf, i^j^\*y^ fSl^l^O 

Patroling, inspecting, going the rounds (from the Persian 
O^ gird, circuit, circumference^ and (j*^^ dwardan, to bring). — 
See Gird&war. 

Grihasth, is^^ 9[f^ 

A householder, a Tillager, a ryot. This word formerly indi- 
cated that stage in the life of a Brahman when he lived in a 
house discharging the ordinary duties of life ; but is now applied 
to agriculturists generally, in which sense it is the equivalent of 
f^rarw peasant (from Sansk. ^ house, and ^ domain). 

Grihasthf, _fa*Jb^ ^f^ 

Husbandly. — From tiie above. 

Gola, J/ iftWf 

The name of a tract of country which once comprehended a 
great part of the present district of Shahjah&npur. It is said 
to have contained 1484 villages, and, before the time of the 
Kohillas, to have comprised ten Tappas. 

268 Tillages. 

70 Villages. 

112 Tillages. 

277 Tillages. 

347 Tillages. 

135 Tillages. 

Murtazdbad ^ur/Jhcan. 

34 Tillages. 

103 Tillages. 

139 Tillages. 

103 Tillages. 

Th&kur XJday Singh of Paw&fn seized upon the Tappas of 
Islamabad, Jiwan, Aurangabad, and part of Haveli, and formed 


the Parganah of Paw&(n. Gk)dama, Nigohi, and part of Haveli 
went to form Kigohi. Bar&gaon was formed from Pilkhana 
and part of Haveli. Chakidpdri and part of Majhwa went to 
form the Southern part of Pdranpur; and Mati and part of 
Majhwa went to form Khotar. I have been particular in my 
enquiries respecting this Mah&l, both from its intrinsic interest 
as a '' terra incognita/' and because it cannot be concealed^ that 
if so many large districts have been formed from Gola, the 
"JCia-i Akbari " gives it a very inadequate area— only 24,540 
Bighas. The above sub-divisions are taken from a Zillabandi^ 
dated as far back as 1119 Fasli, which is in the possession of 
the K&nungoes. It is not easy to discredit this return, and we 
must presume, as is of course highly probable, that the greater 
portion of this modem Gola must have been uncultivated in 
Akbar's time, and that, the Northern and Eastern boundaries 
being undefined, new clearances, as they were made, were 
added to the original Mah&l of Gola ; so that when the Zilla- 
bandi was subsequently made, its limits had increased to an 
extent utterly inconsistent with the entry in the ^'^in-i Akbari." 
The greater portion of Khotar, and parts of Bar&g&nw and 
Paw&in, have, therefore, been excluded from the Dastur Map, 
as serving to represent more accurately the limits of Gola as 
known in Akbar's time. 

It has been supposed that the first historical mention which 
we have of this remote region is in the '' Akbarn&ma," where 
that strange madman, Kumber Diw&na, is represented as ex- 
tending his ravages into Kant* Gola, until he was defeated 
by Bukn Kh&n; but it was in truth mentioned before this 
period, for it is evident that Gola is meant, when it is stated 
in Ferishta that His&mu'l Mulk was, in a.i>. 1377, appointed 
to the Government of Oudh, Sambhal, and Korla. His work 
was written subsequent to the ^^Akbam&ma,^* but, in writing of 

# The name of this Mah&l is frequoitly coupled with Golft in old hiftoriti. 


past times, he never adopts modem territorial divisions, and, 
therefore, there is no reason to suppose that Gola was not in 
existence in the year mentioned; — in fact, we have positive 
proof of its existence before that period, for Zi&u'd-din BamI 
distinctly mentions Gola in the reign of 'Al&u'd-din Xhilji, a.d. 
1296 to 1316. 

We may also be allowed to indulge in the speculation that 
Oola is perhaps mentioned by Fa-hian (a.d. 899) nnder the 
name of Ho-li, in the following passage of the French transla- 
tion: — "En passant la riviere Hengy et se dirigeant an midi 
Tespaoe de trois yewA pan, on arrive & un for^t nomm^e Ho^liJ* 

Now, as ^ is changed by the Chinese traveller into h — as 
in the instance of Gbng (the Ganges) into Heng, — it would be 
no extravagant supposition to conceive that Gola is represented 
by the forest of Ho-li, notwithstanding that its position is not 
very correctly represented. Indeed, all his bearings between 
the Gbnges and Gogra appear to be wrong, 

Gontiyd, L«/ tfft^ 

The chief manager of a village ; a Fotel. In some places the 
term is applied only to Brahmans who have the management of 
villages.-— Benares and Saugor. 

Gunjaish, ^Wif ^S^nm^ 

.A Persian word signifying capacity, and applied in fiscal 
Ic^gv^go to the capabilities of a village, particularly with refer- 
ence to a proposed increase of revenue. 

Gttrdaclilm&, ^f*«>/ ^i^^tn 

Bent-free land given to a spiritual teacher; from Gum, a 
teacher, and Dachhn&, a fee or homage. 

Gurkhal, ^/ ^K^ 

The name applied to a mortgage in Bundelkhand, which is 


attended with the peculiar condition of leaving the mortgager 
to pay three-fourths of the revenue of the mortgaged land. 

Gara batai, t/^})^ TfT WZ^ 

A division of produce previous to the threshing, effected by 
stacking the sheaves in proportionated shares; £rom ^^ a 
sheaf. — ^Bohilkhand. 

Garhiband, *^l5^ ''l^'P^ 

A description of M&'afi tenure in Bundelkhand, by which 
lands are held on paying a stipulated yearly tribute ; but not 
one-fifth the amount which ought to be paid. These favourable 
terms have been made by the Garhibands themselves during the 
imbecile state of the former G-ovemment^ which had not power 
or force sufficient to compel them to pay their proper quota. 
On its being demanded, they shut themselves up in their forts— 
hence the name — and if not the stronger party, were at any 
rate sufficiently powerfiil to withstand any attack on the part of 
the Government. After standing a siege for weeks, the Govern- 
ment were glad to come to terms, and let them off their revenue 
for a stipidated yearly sum. The title dates from the first 
advent of the Marathas into Bundelkhand, when they found a 
large portion of the lands ceded by Ghattars&l to the Peshwa^ 
held by these petty Th&kdrs, related either by blood, or caste, 
to the numerous local Bajas, then in the country, to whom they 
were bound to pay a light quit-rent, or to perform military 
service when called upon. Some of them were younger branches 
of the reigning family, and others took advantage of the anarchy 
which followed the demise of Govind Pandit, to seize upon 
adjacent villages, and fortify them. 

When the power of the Mar&thas became consolidated, they 
soon perceived that the Garhibands were difficult to deal with in 
every way; slow and irregular in their payment of revenue* 
ready to take offence at the slightest insult which they might 


&nc7 liad been cast on them, and capable, from their numerous 
ties of brotherhood and caste, of raising a formidable, and often 
successful, opposition to the Government, and making common 
cause whenever it was attempted to coerce even the weakest 
individual of their body. A continual struggle was therefore 
maintained between the Government and the Garhibands, which 
generally ended to the advantage of the latter ; and hence we 
still find them in full occupation of the territory whicli they 
usurped, and firom which they could not be dislodged (Public 

Guzashta dar, JjisJLi^ f|^V<K 

A ryot who holds his lands by prescriptive right — ^Uterally, 
" from time past/' az sdlhd-i guzashtah. — W. 

H61, JU fTW 

Literally, the present state. The word is used in revenue 
accounts to represent the existing state of Collections [chiefly 
those of the current year, as opposed to bai:dyd ^\a), those of 
past years]. — See H&l Tauzi\ 

H41&, JIU fmr 

An instalment of revenue. — ^Dehli. 

H&lf, JU fTfft 

The Government assessment. — ^DehlL 

Hal tanzf 9 ^jy JU. 

An account of Collections for the current period. 

This word is also written ^t^y taujih, in which case it would 
mean ** examination.'' I am unable to say which is correct, both 
are used in the same technical sense. — ^B. 


H&r, Jjb fn: 

A sub-division, or part of an estate. In Saugor it means the 
cultivated space immediately round a village, which is quite 
opposed to the meaning it generally bears in the North- West, 
where it is applied to the land most distant from the site of the 
village, i.e, beyond the manjha. In Bundelkhand, and some 
other places, it signifies a tract of land, but the term in no way 
indicates separate possession of the tract designated. All the 
sharers may hold land in one H&r. In the first and last sense, 
the word may be supposed to be derived from Adr, a necklace, a 
chaplet ; in the second, from hamd, to tire out. However fanci- 
ful this latter derivation may be, the most unimaginative culti- 
vator in Hindustan will declare that it is so called because both 
bullocks and men get fatigued (harjdte) before they reach it. 

Hazir zdmin, ^U^W fTftiT Trfinf 

The person who becomes security for the appearance of 

Articles formerly furnished gratis to men in authority, con- 
sisting of sheep, milk, eggs, blankets, hides, etc. The system 
of Habtib&t is not yet extinct, where Eur<^)ean Amctionaries are 
negligent in the control of their establishments. 

Had) •x>. f[^ 

A boundary. 

Hadbandf, v^jjjj^ f^^^ 

The settling and demarcation of boundaries. This has been 
most carefully done in the N.W.P. preliminary to the late 
Settlement. When they were not pointed out by the parties 
ooncemed, they were adjusted by arbitration. Wherever dis- 
putes were likely again to arise, it has been usual to bury some 


imperishable material in the earth, according to the instractionB 
of the Hindu lawgiver Manu (Chap. VIII. 249-261). " The 
persons concerned reflecting on the perpetual trespasses com- 
mitted by men here below, through ignorance of boundaries, 
should cause other land-marks to be concealed imder ground. 
Large pieces of stone, bones, tails of cows, bran, ashes, potsherds, 
dried cowdung, bricks and tiles, charcoal, pebbles and sand, and 
substances of all sorts which the earth corrodes not, even in a 
long time, should be placed in jars not appearing above ground 
on the common boundary.^' — See also the ''Mit&khshar&'' on 
the same subject. 

Halbandf, i^jjiJjb finpift 

Is occasionally used in the sense of Halbar&r and Halsari, q.v. 

Also a tenure in Ajaon, Sirsawah, and the Korth Western 
parts of Bareilly, in which a few Bighas are assigned to each 
As&mi who has a plough, for the cultivation of cotton and 
Indian com, for which he pays at the rate of one rupee per 
Bfgha : for aU other land in his occupation he makes payment 
in kind. 

In Kam&on, Halbandi is applied, as Jot is in the plains, to 
signify the quantity of knd under cultivation by any party. 

Halka, ^aL^ f«^ 

A village circuit. A boundary line which comprises the lands 
and dwellings of a Mauza. The word, in Arabic, literally sig- 
nifies a ring. Halka, says De Sacy in a note to his " Excerpta 
ez Abulfeda," p. 539, ''proprie est annulus. Temporibus re- 
centioribus Halka dicti sunt milites pretoriani, qui apud Sultanos 
^gyptiorum corporis custodis inserviebant.'' 

Halsari, 4^jLJjb fiiFrft 

Sub-division and apportionment of revenue on ploughs. The 


assessment of a certain amount on each plough in a Tillage. 
The word is synonymous with Halbandi and Halbar&r. 

Hakk, j>. f^ 

Share or right. — See Hakk Malik&na in the Printed Glossary. 
This word enters into the composition of the seven following 

Hakk bhent, JL ^v jf » j>* f« ^Z 

Presents frequently made half-yearly by the Malzug&rs to 
native officers in authority. 

^[Z means " meeting :'' and the presents were made on meet- 
ing the great man who received the rent. 

Hakfyat, vju.-'to- fftW! 

Bight, share, proprietorship. 

Hakk hawaladdr, jbdll^ j:*^ f* fmiT^IT 

Hakk Haw&lad&r, or correctly, Hakk-i Haw&lad&r, is the 
grain given to Shahnas, generally at the rate of a seer and a 
half to every maund. — ^Bohilkhand. 

Hakk kamlnchdri, cf; Vc;?^ J^ ^ ^^* > h<»0 
Hakk siyancharf, ^j^J^ J^ fl iJi|l* l ^iO 

Hakk thokddrf, ^j^'^}^ J^ fV ^*< l O 

Dues and fees to Kamins, etc., derived, according to old 
custom, from the inhabitants of villages, and varying in every 
PattI, but generally equivalent to about three per cent, on the 
Government revenue. — ^Kam&on and Gburhw&L 

Eamin in the plains is applied to village servants, but in 
Eam&on it is used s3monymously with Bdrha, to signify a 
superintendent of village management, whose office is in the 


gift of GFovemmenty and generally hereditary. Seana bears the 
same meaning in Garhw&l. 

A Zamlnd&r's proprietary right. 

Hariydnw, yl/b ^fXJ(f^ 

A division of a crop^ in which the ryot retains nine, and the 
zamind&r receiyes seven, parts. The word is derived from Har, 
a plough, because the ryot retains a ploughman's share (one- 
eighth) more than the half. 

Harhamesh, ^Ju^n^jib f <f4)4l 

The insertion of this barbarous expression into a grant is 
considered to imply perpetuity. The literal meaning of the 
word is " every always/' i.e. for ever and ever. 

Hasho minhaf, ,^^r^ y^ f^ fif'Tfrt^ 

That which, afber being deducted, is entered in the Hasho 
and excluded from the rent-roll. The term is therefore applied 
to rent-free, Nankar, or other assigned lands. 

jJjLi ^^yiS5 yu>- mSS^ji^ \j ^Jb 2^4>^ ly-^ Ju&U 

See Bariz for a description of the Hasho. 

Hastob^d, jy^i^uA f^it^ 

The learned translator of the Institutes of Timtir says, at 
p. 367, that the meaning of this expression is not understood 
by him. It signifies a calculation on the data of the present 
(ls^v-*^ "is*') and past (J^ "was'*). An estimate of the assets 
of a tract of land. Also, when corrupted into Hastnabud, it 
signifies a remission granted by Zamind&rs for the portion of 


land failing in produce. The meaning of Hastobud lias been 
well explained in the Printed Glossary, under Hastabud.* 

Hawdladar, jbJl^ fmfll^K 

One employed to protect the grain before it is stored; a 
steward or agent employed for the management of a village ; 
corrupted by the EngUsh into Havild&r. — See the Printed 
Glossary under Huw&lud&r and Havilddr. 

Hibadar, j\j^ (f^l^K 

A possessor of property by deed of gift ; from hiba, a gift. 

Hibandma, a^U i^ ff^TPTPRT 

A deed of gift. 

Hissaddri, f^j\dd^a>^ ff^l^lO 

Co-partnership ; applied to a village in which a number of 
sharers have a proprietary right in the land. From hissa, a 
share, which has been explained in the Printed Glossary. 

Hissa hdkimi, ^[s^d^a^^ ffwnnf^ 

The share of produce to which the king, or ruler, is entitled. 
It is needless here to enter on the controversies on this subject, 
respecting the amount, under the old law, Hindu and Muham- 
madan, to which he was entitled. It is pretty certain, however, 
that, even in the most favourable periods of Hindu rule, when 
they had to pay twenty other taxes besides that on land, less 
was never taken from the ryots than they are now called upon 
to pay — at least, in these Provinces. 

Hissa half, JU lUtt- ff^ETT fT^ 

A ploughman's share, or wages in kind ; generally amounting 
to about one-eighth of the produce. 

* In Pumeah it supersedes the village Jama'bandl entirely. — ^B. 


Hiissa kashf , ^ja^ iui^ 1%^(rT mft 

The distribution and apportionment of shares according to 
strict genealogical succession. Several collectors^ during the 
time of the Settlement, used to make out laborious statements of 
this nature, under a misapprehension of the particular course of 
enquiry enjoined by Reg. VIL of 1822, for the purpose of regis- 
tering and securing the rights of inferior sharers. 

Hissait, c: ^^a'^ f^ifi^ 

A shareholder. 

Inch, ^\ ^ 

Security. — Dehli. 

. Ikbachhi, v^^' T'WT^ 

Distribution of any sum or cess, levied upon all lands at an 
equal rate. — Central Do&b. 

Ikotrd or Ekotra, ly^j IC'i^TT or IpihIT 

Ekatara,. 1/iO IPPTT 

The sum total. — ^Bundelkhand. 

It is also applied generally to ragnify the numeral 101, as 
weU as interest at the rate of one per cent, per mensem. 

Ijmdli, vJ^^ T«WT^ 

A tenure in which several persons hold an estate in common, 
each receiving a certain share of the rents, without actual divi^ 
sion of the land. — ^B.. 

Ilahi gaz, j^\^^ V^^ 'W 

The standard Gbz, or yard, of forty-one fingers, instituted by 
Akbar, After much controversy respecting its length, it was 
authoritatively declared by Government to be thirty-three inches 
VOL. n. 12 


long ; and the declaration lias been attended with considerable 
convenience to revenne officers, as a bigha measured by this 
yard constitutes exactly five-eighths of an acre. The several 
opinions respecting the length of the Hahi Gaz, and the means 
instituted for determining the point, will be found given in 
detail in Thomas's " Prinsep," Vol. II. p. 88, and the Journal 
of the B. A.S. voL VII. p. 42.— See Kos aud Bigha. 

^Hdkaddr, jlj^Glc ^^TRUT^K 

The person who enters into engagements at the Settlement. — 
See Lumbardar, and Malguzar. 

Inglis, ijJ^l ^t'rflnBr 

A pensioner. 

Isti'mal, JUc-.l i:99mr 

Custom, usage. This word is employed to denote the peculi- 
arities in the use and pronunciation of Persian words which 
occur in the official documents of the courts of India. 

'' I subjoin a few notes on the lati^mdl % Bind. Those who wish to 
study this important subject, ought to make themselves acquainted 
with the writings of Miizk Qatfl, entitled ^t«!)l ^^sf^, ''^^^j^ ^W?" 
and <1»-Lia!1 j^ ; and a treatise by Anwar 'Ali on the spelling of 
Persian words, entitled Risdldh % Imld % Fdrsi, These works have 
been lithographed, and are easily obtainable. 

The change in spelling, form, meaning, and construction, which an 
Arabic word, apparently without any reason, undergoes in Persian, or 
which an Arabic or a Persian word undergoes in Hindustani, is called 
uJ^ ta^arruf. The taQarrufdt of Persian words are included in the 
{jM^ JUjc^! istCmdl i furs, the usage peculiar to the Persians, and 
the ta9arrufat of the Hindustani language, and of the Persian written 
in India, in the JcJb JUjc^I Uti^mdl % hind. A knowledge of the 
latter is of great importance, not only for those who read Persian 


books written or printed in India, bnt also for every Hindustani scholar ; 
for although the Isti'mdl i Hind is looked upon with suspicion by 
learned natives, we have to bear in mind that its peculiarities are 
generally adopted^ and therefore correct. So at least for the Hindu- 
stani, according to the proverb ^^^ ^ 'f^^ (^ ^^* 

' In its relation to Persian the Isti'mdl i Hind will, of course, in most 
cases, appear as something faulty ; for the peculiarities may no longer 
be a natural form of development, or a aIc lali, but the result of 
ignorance, a ^Uiltl^ a1^ laLc. Nevertheless, the Isti'm&l i Hind is 
visible in every Persian book written by Indians, from the works of their 
excellent historians down to a common dinner invitation (^1:^1^) of 

the daily life. Even the works of a writer like Abul&iszl, the great 
ICunshi," shew traces of it. Hence the truth of Mens. Garcin de 
Tassy's remark that every Persian scholar ought to be acquainted with 
HindustanL If this be true for the Persian scholar, it is mueh more 
true for the compiler of a Persian dictionary ; for a good dictionary 
ought to be based upon a thorough knowledge of the language in all 
its forms of development, and must be a history of the language as well 
as a vocabulary. 

" But if we only understand by Isti'm&l i Hind the influence of the 
Hindi and Hindustani upon the Persian, we would almost identify the 
term with '' the usage of the Persian writers since the establishment 
of the Mogul dynasty." This would be wrong; for the Isti'mdl i 
Hind includes peculiarities which once belonged to the Persian, as 
spoken in Persia, but which the. modern frdnf, in the course of its 
progress, has entirely discarded. In early times Persian had become 
the court language of Turdn, and from Tur^ it was carried to India 
by the waves of the Ttirdnian immigrants and invaders. Hence on 
the whole, the Persian of India is Turanian. As Latin in the Middle 
Ages, so was the Persian in Turdn, and subsequently in India the 
language of the learned. The works of the pre-classicai and classical 
periods were studied and imitated, and peculiarities have thus been 
preserved which have long since disappeared in the Tr&ni Persian. 


The difference between the pie-claasicaL and the modem Persian is, of 
oouTBe, not so great as between Latin and any of the Eomanic lan- 
guages; becanse the pre-dassical Persian had alieady attained that 
logical simplicity to which our modem European languages happily 
tend; and though representing the growth of the Persian language 
during nine centuries, it is scarcely greater than the difference between 
the English of Fletcher and Beaumont and the English of our century. 
The Persian language has been compared to a bare tree, Btripp^ of aU 
its leaves. This stripping process, however, is going on in every spoken 
language, and shews that the copious and beautiful forms of languages 
like Sanskrit, Gothic, Greek, and many modem savage languages, are as 
many illogical incumbrances. The sequences of events and the order 
of things which the imitative genius of the modem languages expresses 
by the order of the words, are expressed in the ancient languages by 
the annexation of words and particles rather than by a logical order of 
the words, as if the speaker was afraid that the hearer could only 
understand those ideas for which there was an audible equivalent. 
Whilst many are apt to look upon stripping off the leaves as a matter of 
regret, I would consider it as a step towards delivering the human 
mind from the fetters of form. Perhaps I tread upon contestable 
ground. But a fact remains : it is this, that of all nations whose lan- 
guages are preserved to us, the Persians are the first Arians that pitched 
the tent of speech on the elevated table-land of logical thought. 

''Simplified, then, as the Persian language is, farther change in termi- 
nations being impossible, the growfih, as in modem English, is only 
visible in the pronunciation, the spelling and the meanings of words. 
For the study of this development a comparison of the works of the 
older writers with those of the modem, is essential ; and as the Persian 
written and studied in India has hitherto been imitating the pre- 
classical and classical Persian of the early invaders, the importance of 
the Isti'mdl i Bind is easily recognised. 

' The following peculiarities are said by native writers to be common 
to the Persian of Turdn and India. 

'' a. Many words end in the Turanian Persian in C/(kaf) whilst the 


Trdnian has a {^{g&T) ; as (,^f^ a kind of partridge, in Tiir. dC> ; 
i^f- -r mishff, mask, in Tdr. (jXwL« muahk; i^J^\ a tear, in Tur. 
uX&t ; v^jl2»^ a drop, in Tur. uX2»^. Similarly, {^S^Ji a doctor, 
c^ill^ jealousy, v^.^mJl£L, etc., in Tur. with a final kd£ 

" ft. Also in the beginning of certain words : as ^(^lu*S, in Tur. 
^ jLuu^ (as every Kohammadan in India pronounces) ; j^J^ coriander 
seed, in Tur. U:JL^. 

''This difference between the Tur&nian {li and the Trdnian (^ 
becomes very apparent in dictionaries arranged according to the first 
and last letters. Thus in Sururi i^JJ^\ stands in the w« \mJtl\ J^ 

_«j^U uJl^, whilst in the Madar in the ijj\i uJ\^ ^ ujLll J^. 

" e. The Turanian has preserved a clear distinction between the ^^ 
and U, when J^y^ (6, ^) and (-J^^a^ (u, i). The modem Tr^nian 
has only (-J^/*^ forms ({, d). The tc^^ri^ which have a majhdl letter 
must be learned from the dictionaries ; Indian Persian grammars specify 
the cases, when the ending ^ is pronounced t^j^^Jt^. 

" J. The Turdnian has in all cases preserved the iJ^ ^y. The 
Tranian has given it up in some, especially after an alif. Thus, forms 
like /«J^U, (^'^\)9 ^^ iJ^f ^^^j^f ^to., are pronounced in Tran 
mandam^ rUndam, Ungdh, harHnehl, but in India still mdndam, 
rdndamy etc. 

e. The Turdnian never adopted the interchange of ddl (J) and didl{J)* 

f. Certain words are peculiar to the Tur&nians. Examples — 4^ hs, 
for the Trinian ^\ ; jy son, for j»mJ ; y^ Me, for fmmi)o ; yJ^ hushand, 

far jib^ ; i^ dawn, for ^^ ; 2^lxj evening, for aL& ; i^j\ for ^^ ; 
^^hrother-in-law, jib\j:>->yb^ ; ^\x:j or ^Sjj eister-in-latOffoT ^J jj\ji ; 
•jIj brother, tor jO\j) ; ^j^\o t^y>- mother-in-law, for ^jj*^^i j*'*^ 
father-in-law, for ^JJ jdJ ; Xj^jmS^ for ^j jj\ji ; ^jJuJli and ^jii^ to 
search, for ^jL»us^; ^^^jf ]j J to throw the arrow, for ^^^:;fiLljJt 
]jjiJ ; ^;::u<>m1 to eit, for^^^ ; ^\^\.< to rise, for^^^U^^ fJl)^'^ 
{otjiu ^lJ») yeeterday, for Ja^J; imJ\ ^JJi j\y^ to tweU f water J, for 
c-^T ^Jbl irjbj ; j^j ^Jji ^\^ ^jHUf awaig (day), for J^ j:J^i^; 



^jJ« CL>y to He; ^jJujU for ^t^y^ j]/ ; ^j^ A j ;^ *- ^ ^ «2m^, for 
^^Ju;^^ ; ^Ji^Jf the same as ^tXl, 0.^. i^jj ui^b^ / am thy saeri- 
fice; ^^Jul jjJb for jj*X^T Jj)^; jjJuiJLi- for^JuSo ; ^^J^iU 1. the 
same as ^^(^^3 ^ i^^; 2. the same as ^^^Ij^f to leave behind, e.g. 
^1 ^JuU jU? ^ ^^J:^^ /^tf left the thing on the ehdf, where ^jJU is 
a Turinian form for )rjjU ; or «xJUj t^^l^ ^1 ^av« this houee 
(jj^ljkX;); 3. the same as ^J^J jlU? fo divorce; 4. the same as 
^JujlT; ^t^ly} to leave behind ; etc. 

"Although several of those words do occur in Tr^ian authors, yet 
we generally find them used in peculiar places, as in rhyme, where it 
was difficult to avoid them; or in order to prevent repetitions, etc. 

The following peculiarities appear to he limited to the Persian 
spoken and written in India. 

a. Words have peculiar meanings. Examples — 2f Jj«dT, the same as 
j^ satisfied ; Hiij^ ^jyuj leavings ; c:.^^^. ^ji^ ahsenee^ for c: .^jj p ; 

Jl^ misl, a set, the same as ^J^ ; ^U^ a (made up) coat; jy>^ J^> 
the same as ^jJc^ or L^jjil^l^ a sweeper; uJ^ baraf, often pro- 
nounced barf, ice (for snow) ; 0UI J, vide Yull. Diet. ; ^UJigK a flatter- 
ing title applied to cooks, tailors, etc. ; i^j^^ hemp, for v^^ ; ^ JU 
afternoon: j^^ forjl^X; ^J^^\^ despairing : j^j^i^^ « closet, for 
i^j^\ *^^.^j K4bul and Persia;* tUalU* the royal exchequer; 
^jlfi»- and uJ^ ^^, the catch- word at the bottom of the page of a 
manuscript ; jl^, vide Vull. Diet. ; j^^^ vide Vull., also board given 
to a poor student who is to teach children in return; ^yo 1. a province, 
2. the same as j\oiJya an officer in charge of a province; ^Lo^, the 
same as jl J <idLa; an officer commanding a troop ; v^^l^T vide YuU. ; 
i\^s^ i\y>-. without reason. 

^ YulIeTB has at leaat half a dozen blunders in his dictionaxy, all ariidng from his 
ignorance of the meaning of this word. Thus, under ^}y^\ , in his Corrigenda II. 
p. 1668, No. 2, in legione Kashmir t^^^j, ^j^^^ a blunder for ^ ^ i j, , j^j^mS 
Kashmir and Persia; also sub ^J^ ^^Aa>- ^La-»>- I* P- W6; s. ^1 j:^J jL>. 
I. p. 678, etc. Now-a-days, in India, CUo][^ means Europe, eep. England. 


*' h. The word ^ is pronounced lU, not H. This seems to be the old 
form ^ still preserved in ^J^\^. The Iszifat is pronounced ^, not I, 
and ^ in cases of words ending in ir, e.^. ^ ^1^ khanah i man. 
The word yLlJb is pronoonoed 2rlJ« jb hdehhdh, as ob i^cii in Hind, 
means er&pitus vmtrit. Similarly do the Persians use the form jCl (a 
prick to urge on an elephant), in order to avoid the Hind. (^yuXil which 
sounds, as Eashfdf observes, like ^/u^^T. Other Indian pronunciations 
are — u.^ palk and palah, foTpUk, an eyelid ; ^J<kifighdn^ the same 
as 4!l3, for fughdn; i^\i for 2r|J, already observed by Abul-Faszl in 
the Kin. i Akbarf. "Words of the same class as ^ e,g, ^ a mistake, 
ye^ a satire, i^^ a revelation, ^^l^ exertion, have lost the jazm and 
are pronounced 'afd, haf6 .with the J^>v^ j!^' ^^^ accent being on the 
penultinia, but M'i, walA with the accent on the ultima. 

e. Peculiar forms are (jjujI Ju;, ^jmjLjJ, titj^i (the first and last 
occur in Abulfaszl), for ^^•J^y . ^\iy L^j^t ^^ ending uh being 


properly restricted to nouns derived from v&rU; lJ^/ for ^^J^ 
acidity; ^Um^ (derived from ^^^), for uuw«jT humanity; \jJj\^9 
^^^mmJUi, or ^j»*^\^ a groom, for ^jmjLi ; a plural lu^^ ajinnah, ghosts ; 
^LrciT a j^o^^ 0/ «0r<29, for <i^A^co ; cils^ for uJLb*^, tMtiiltf YuU. ; 
^J^J^f iPkr^y lA^' (Abulfaszl), for ,<i-y^, 15*^7^*' Lr^^> 
the ending ,^not leading to an adject, form in if ; ^ic^J and <d^^J a 
fnonffrel; <0 jU i^^l for 2rjU t^^^t ; ^ 311 for i\; <d]l jb for jUe 
^\, a proper noun; dL:;j for ^b; ^^^ll]^ for ^)b; _3l4X<«l5^ a 
wardrobe, for ..ilj^l^; 4jLjj»- a fine, for <0U^ ; , Jltlt «-«;« for 

/^^^ t^J ' J^*' *^^ *^^ >^' '^'^^ *^' ^^"^ v^^^ and 
Jg^Sl v/^Up-; c^ljb for c^ljJ; <UjjJ for is.^j\^\ J^^J for 

^l^J a shop; ^^^J for ^^^^^^O; ^^ for ^ a o^^n <7mA; (J^ 
for jihIj^I; ^^^^.^jj^ iMir*, for ^^^; ^Ji for (%J»; (^\yi^ for 
t-^lir^; 4U^ for ^ ; ^^^ for ^U ; ^^ for ^^. 
^. In words b^^ing withT, the Madd is often omitted ; as jl»-l 


ptekles, jx^\ lining,* ^^^iP^\ slewe, lz^\ canvass, 2roU^ rsady, lUsSf 
a royal ordsr, j\^\ a iistUhr, tof j\^'\ , zJ\ , llJl>\, ifdltj, lUalT, 

e. After a long vowel we often find a vowel elided ; as fjlji\ dfrin,\ 
for the Trdnian dfarin ; i^^y maultoi, for maulawi ; ^X*^^^ dmddgi, 
for dmddagi; ^Ju^^ pdsMdgi, for pdshkiagi; AnJl^ khdlgah, for 

khdligah: ^Cij\ d%hdan,\ tor dsJiadan. 

"/. Two S&kins are avoided ; as Jj^ip-jl arfatnand, for arfmand, 
"y. The Persian letters ^sf» t^i ^t aro used instead of the Arabic 
CS,^,L^i ei»ia ^^IxA, ^/li, f^ixXj\, for ^^\^, iJ^, ^i)*^^ ' 
k,^^\, 1^^, for L^^, u^ : <iUsac for ^LacU ; Is»^LjJ for <I^IjJ; 

" A. The Tashdid of many Arabic words falls away, as c-^ly nawdh 
for nawwdl, an (Indian Kaw4b) ; liji, pi. Ci^^j J on atom^X 

" i. The following pronunciations are very common, though generally 
prohibited in the dictionaries — ^]/>^ khizdn, autumn, for ^])sk- khazdn ; 
j\jt^ dirdz,^ for the Persian dardz, long ; ^UJ^ shambah, and even shum^ 
hah, II Saturday, for <U:Ja shamhih ; ^h puldw, and evenpy , a well-known 

dish of rice, meat, and spices, iorji) paldw. The modem Persian and 
Turkish have ^ pildw, (jSu^J durwesh,^ for dartcish, a beggar ; 

(JX^j nimak, salt, for namak; ^J^L^ nimkm, adj., for noma^fi; ir^jT 

* Entered bj YuUen as Peitdan. It is Indian. 

t So in xnany Persian Dictionaries written by Indians. 

X There is a cnrions mistake in Ynll. Diet. I. p. 378. Bnrli6n, whom Yullers 

copies, has ^j:^ ifjy^lja^j ^ C^i;i j ^^ vV^«^ **^ J ^^^ YuHen does 
not observe that A^p } and ci^l jj (^^ Indian printer of the Bnrh&n left ont the 

Tashdid) are synonymons, reads CD\jJ ^o' the A CL^'j J, ^'^'^ translates eanitiet 

4h anUriare eapitia f 
{ Ynll. also has dirdz, although Bnrh&a gives clearly jUj ^ «« J namdz, 
I YnlL also has JL^JL^U paf^'thambahf I. 37£i, b., and ^rui j j ^ M'AMam^a^ II. 

p. 354, whilst in other places he has corvectly ahambik, 
H Adopted by some Indian Diets., as the Qhias, on a mistaken etymology. 


gawdh, ft witness, for ii\^ pnodh; i^ girah, a knot, for ffirth; j^^ 
moMd&r, wages, for mwMr ; iXcl^ kdffhubi, paper, for j^l^ kdghad%. 

k, A great nnmber of Arabic words are uniyersally pronounced 
wrongly in India ; as sJij qil^ah, a fort, for qaVah ; vj:,^^lJ qaidmat, 

the resurrection, for fiydmai ; iuLj qafah, for qtfah ; {jm*^ 'uHu, a 
bride, for 'ariis / j^ ^V*** separation, for hajr; Jjs^ 'y«, weakness, for 
'q;ss ; lf>y r^'i, hope, for rajd ; Lai ^sci, space, for /osil / li; raxd* 
contentment, for rhd ; L^^^r^ jSh, a pocket, for jatb ; CjLx ghaid», 
for ghids, help ; s^l^ ahahdb, for shihdh, a meteor ; l::^^.*^^ ^agmat, 
chastity, for 'ti(;ma^ ; ^y fnauqa\ for mattqi* ; ft»^y mausam, a season, 
for matum; ^Um£^ MimaA, a tent, for khamah; i^::^^ix\^ skujd^at, 
brareiy, for shqfd^at; ci^Ufti- himdqat, for hamdqat, folly; j^^.ai 
^of^r, a fault, for qug^r; ui^^A^ 'aq^hat^ for 'uq^at^ punishment; 
l:: ^Amfw hcahfnaty pomp, for huhmat; u:..^i>- jinnat, paradise, for 

'' /. Peculiar spellings ; as aU^J^ for («^^^^ 9 j^^ ^^^ ^^^ ' J^^ 
for ^yC, Proper nouns are often written together, as ^JjCwmm»- for 
^ ^^;--Ma-. Similarly, J Ju^-U for Jj C;.^U ; J^lu ^^\ 'UjI * 
for J^UJ ^\ *U> ^^1 ; jAa:xm^ for ^ J,4>'Vui^ consisting of; CL>^«aa^1 
for c:ya»-^T; ii^^^AiiC, 2rj^£cd.c, <Ls:^i, ^rjuujj, for Li^^^ ^/^y 
<Ur^ c/i, etc. Beversely, U^UU-, U^jl^rjL, for l^U-, If^^ifjL. 
Also, L»y for J^^ ; (*^y^ luipP7> ^or ^%^ khurram; ^U>-j for 

m. Barbarous forms; as g^;Yf^t ^U, CdI:^, C^Uyj books, for 

l^ls^; jWt t?/^ ^^^ J^^ ^^V«i ^-lr?^ ^^^^''^^^y greasy; 
j«Xfil\ JLLJ L_^J», as we say, the strait of Bah el Mandeb; <XmJ^ Jirisad, 
for Ja*4^ he sends ; uJli ^u^ for JiS ^u/f, a lock ; ^LS for ij!b3 ; 
^j;Jj^^ jU3, Hind. UaJj jUJ, for ^J^ jUj/*— From an Article by 

Mr. Blochmann, on ''Contributions to Persian Lexicography,'' in 
J,A.S.B. VoL XXXVII. Part I. p. 32.— B. 

• Thus also in Penian MSB. 


Itlak, jlLl iTnrni 

The term is applied to the office and records of Dastaks 
(demand^ or summons), and Talabana (fees for the service of 
processes). It literally means freeing, liberating; and it is 
therefore difficult to say why it is so applied in revenue accounts ; 
except it may be in the sense of forwarding, issuing, striking off. 

Itldk navis, ^^y jUtl ^[ifim ^T^^ 

The person who keeps the Dastak accounts. 

J&edad, ^W^* ^IU.^K 

J&edad signifies a place; employment; also, assets, funds, 
resources. It signifies likewise the ability of any district or 
province in respect to its revenue ; an assignment on land for 
the maintenance oi troops, or of an establishment. 

J&edad now generally means, at least in Behar, landed pro- 
perty generally, also the crops as they stand. 

Jeth ra'iyat, *-=^^ ^^^t^ ^ i\M^ 

The head ryot who conducts the village business, and acts as 
Chaudhari of the village ; from Sanskrit j'eshtha, eldest, chief. 
The meaning is correctly given in the Printed Glossary. Where 
there is a Mukaddam, the Jeth-ryot ranks below him, and is 
often known by the name of Chukaddam; but it is most usual 
to consider Mukaddam, Jeth-ryot, Mahton, Mukhya, Mahetya, 
and Basit as synonymous terms. 

Jewan* birt, cl^^ ^^^-p- iN^ f^i^ 

A stipend allowed to the family of an old deceased servant. — 
Eastern Oudh and Benares. — See Birt. 

An assessment formed without specific groimd, and only by 

• From SJ^TT jeumd^ to eat, a word of the Bhojpnri dialeot.— B. 


general eetimate. — Saugor. The word is, perhaps, derived from 
jhansndy to cozen, to flatter, to deceiye. 

Jhiindi, ^dj^^ ^fPidt 

A clump of grass. It is also applied in Dehli, as Khewat is 
elsewhere, to signify the amount due from each sharer in a 
Bhayachara estate. 

Jins-i-k4mil, J^^^j**^^ Hv^^nHlMl 

First-rate crops. The best crop that a field can produce. 

Jinswar, j^jw^ ftn^EWTT 

(A statement) relative to crops. — See Jamabandi. 

Jiziya, <o^ ftlf^RIT 

A tax on infidels. Applied in Saugor to a house-tax on the 
inhabitants of towns not engaged in tillage, which is also called 
Pandrf, q,v. — See Jazea. 

Jula, ^^ mn 

A tract of land containing four Ali, or sixteen Bisis. — Gurhw&l 
and Kam&on. — See Bisi. 

'' In Garhw&l, as in Kam&on, there are numerous denomina- 
tions of land, but the Jula was, and is, the chief measure, difler- 
ing in value according to local usage, and the various classes of 
landholders, but in every instance exceeding in quantity one 
Bisl, and measurable by it." — Garhw&l Settlement Beport. 

Jama', j^^^ ^OTT 

The whole; total; revenue generally, and the Government 
demand in particular ; amount assessed. 

Jama'bandi, i^^^%,^ ^Mm^ 

A village rent-roll. A statement of the rents fixed on every 
field in the township. In Madras it signifies the annual settle- 


ment of the revenue^ and bears this meaning in the Printed 

The term is yery comprehensive, and, indeed, admits of so 
many meanings, that it is found to change, so as to aoconmio- 
date itself to the prevalent system of revenue management. 
About fifteen years ago, a Jama'bandi was most commonly known 
as a daul, or estimate, on which to base an assessment. It is 
now applied chiefly to the annual rent-roU furnished by the 
village accountants. It is also used variously in villages, as 
well as in Government records. Jinswar Jama'bandi, for instance^ 
is usually a detailed statement of the rent levied upon each kind 
of crop. InBrij it is n.ore epeciaUy appUed to a Sid of tenure 
found in parts of that tract.* 

Jama' jharti, ^j^ ^-4^ ^tot wH 

A statement of receipts and expenditure. Periodical account 
of either cash or grain. — Saugor. 

Jama' khaxch, ^^ j-4^ W^ ^A 
Debit and credit. Cash account. 

Jama' wasil bakf, ^\i ^}J\^ ^^^ ^m ^Tftw ^JTr^ft 

An account of the revenue of Government, with entries of 
payments and arrears. 

Jamnauta, ^y^^ ^nnft?T 

Jamnautya, ^r^^ ^Rfftfe^ 

A certain consideration given to a Z&min, or security ; gene- 
rally amounting to about five per cent.f 

* The Jama'bandi in the Proyinces under peipetual settlement is a very lengthy 
statement of each ryot's holding, his rent and other dues, the amounts paid, remitted, 
or due, and many other particulars. It is, in fact, the rent-roll of a whole Tillage. — ^B. 

t A Hindi deriyatiTe from the Arabic ^^\tOM 


Jamog, cSJV*^ 'Wtf 

Transfer of liabilitieB by mutual consent. A conditional 
mortgage. — ^Benares^ Eastern Oudh, and Lower Do£b. 

Jamogdar, j^^^y*^ «l*n<l<K 

A person who lends a landed proprietor a sum of money, and 
recoyers that money from the Ryots. — ^Benares, E. Oudh, and 
Lower Do&b. 

Jarib, t-^o^ ^l<N 

A measuring chain or rope. Before Akbar's time it was a 
rope. He directed it should be made of bamboo with iron joints, 
as the rope was subject to the influence of the weather. Li our 
survey measurements we use a chain. A Jarib contains sixty 
Gaz, or twenty Gathas, and in the standard measurement of the 
Upper Provinces, is equal to five chains of eleven yards, each 
chain being equal to four Gathas. A square of one Jarib is a 
Bigha. Till the new system of survey was established, it was 
usual to measure lands paying revenue to Government with only 
eighteen knots of the Jarib, which was effected by bringing two 
knots over the shoulder of the measurer to his waist. Eent-free 
land was measured with the entire Jarib of twenty knots. 

A Jarib, in Hebrew and Arabic, signified originally only a 
measure of capacity, equal to four Kafiz, or 384 Mad, and in 
course of time came to signify the portion of land which required 
as much to sow it as a Jarib would contain (As&sa-l-lugh&t). 
The Fatha and Nali of Garhw&l and Kam&on have a similar 
origin. — See Bisi. This use of the term must have altered 
before the reign of Timur, for in the Institutes we have the 
following injunction, which is evidently the foundation of 
Akbar 8 division of soil into three classes : 


Jaziya, <0j5^ ^rf^jRTT 

From the Arabic 1^ subjugation ; conquest ; compensation. 
A capitation tax levied by the Muhammadans on their subjects 
of another faith. The correct word is Jizyat, but it seems usual 
in Hindustan to pronounce the word Jazya. — See Jazziah^ 
Jezia, and Jaizeyeh in the Printed Glossary. 

From the passage quoted from the '' Ain-i Akbari/' in the article 
Altamgha, it appears that the Khalifa XJmar laid an annual tax 
upon eyery one who was not of the Muhammadan religion. A 
person of high condition paid forty-eight dirhams, one of 
moderate means twenty-four, and one in an inferior station 
twelve dirhams. — See " Hedaya/' Book IX., cap. iL and viii. 

It does not exactly appear when this tax was instituted in 
India. Tod ("Annals of Rajasthan," vol. i. p. 403) thinks 
it was imposed by Babar in lieu of the Tamgha which he 
solenmly renounced on the field of battle, after the victory 
which gave him the crown of India ; but we read of it long 
before this, for as early as the time of Ald-ud-dfn, only a 
century after the final subjugation of Hindustan, we find it 
spoken of as an established tax. Thus, in the dialogue recorded 
by Zi&u'd-din Bami and Ferishta, between that tyrant and 
Kazi Mughis-ud-din,. we read, "From what description of 
Hindus is it lawful to exact obedience and tribute ?'* To which 
the obsequious Kazi replies, " The Imam Hanif says that the 
Jazya, or as heavy a tribute as they can bear, may be imposed 
instead of death on infidels, and it is commanded that the Jazya 
and Khiraj be exacted to the uttermost farthing, in order that 
the punishment may approach as near as possible to death." 
" You may perceive," replied the king, " that, without reading 


learned books, I am in the habit of putting in practice that 
which has been enjoined by the prophet." 

But it would appear that up to the time of Firoz Shah, 
Brahmins were exempted from the tax, for in a Tery interesting 
chapter of Shams-i-Sir&j's work we find that monarch imposing 
it for the first time on this influential class. 

2fj1jJ ^J^ y^, ^U^ JS J^3 ^ *^^ ^^J ^^ J^^ 

Ulc ^^\ ^ ^tjlJUi ij^} U^T^' ifJujli^ t^^ "^^ *li;J^ Ij j\x«U 

''In the time of the former Sult&ns certainly the Jazya was 
not taken firom the tribe of thread-wearers (Brahmins), their 
Jazya was remitted, and at no time has this tribe ever paid 
Jazya to any one. Sult&n Firoz Shah, by the diyine guidance, 
collected all the IJlem& and Shaikhs into his darb&r, and repre- 
sents to them that this was a common fault into which all his 
predecessors had fallen, being misled by their servants, who were 
negligent and did not inform them of the omission, and that 
now as the thread- wearers were the chief of the infidels, they 
were the first from whom Jazya should be levied." 

On this occasion, which was so much at variance with his 
usual spirit of conciliation, the Brahmins thronged him in his 


hunting-palace, and threatened to bum themselves aliye before 
him; and at last were only dissuaded from their purpose by 
the other Hindds of Dehli taking upon themselTes to pay the 
Jazya of the Brahmins. In his time, the highest dass of 
Hindus was rated at forty, the second at twenty, and the third 
at ten Tankas per head ; and these remonstrances had the effect 
of inducing the king to admit the Brahmins to the favorable 
terms of the lowest class. 

After the death of Batan Chand, the capitation tax was once 
more levied, as it is stated in the Taw&rikh-i Muhammad Shahi 
to have been again repealed by Muhammad Shah, at the inter- 
cession of Maharaja Jay Singh and Girdhar Bahadur. 

Since that period, no Emperor was possessed of sufficient 
authority to enforce the Jazya, and this odious tax became 
extinct for ever ; but not tiU it had operated as one of the most 
effectual causes of the decline of the Muhammadan power, by 
alienating the affections of the Hindu population, which the 
early Moghul Emperors had courted, and in some measure 

We again learn that it was enforced with great severity in 
the time of Behlol and Sekander Lodi, which was perhaps no 
inconsiderable cause of the facility with which the empire was 
wrested from the hands of that family. 

The tax was abolished by Akbar in the ninth year of his 
reign, and was not imposed again till the twenty-second of 
Aurangzeb, who with his wonted intolerance, directed that its 
levy should be attended with every circumstance of contumely 
which his ingenuity coidd devise. 

A passage in the Zubdatu'l Akhb&r&t states that he ordered 
that the Jazya should be brought to the collector by the payer 
himself and on foot, and that the collector should sit, while the 
payer stood, the collector should put his hand over that of the 
payer and lift the money out of it, and that the tax must not be 
sent to a collector by a messenger, but brought in person. The 


rich were to pay the whole year's tax in one instalment, and 
the middle classes in two, the poorer in four. The Jazya is 
remitted on conversion to Islam or death. 

It was at this time that admirable letter is said to have been 
written which is ascribed by Orme to Jaswant Singh^ by Tod 
to Rana Eaj Singh, and by the Mahrattas to Sevaji (Grant Duff, 
voL i. p. 219, and Elphinstone's India, vol. ii. p. 458). Stewart 
(Hist. Bengal, p. 308) says that Shaista Khan, in a.d. 1679-80, 
enforced the Jazya in Bengal at the rate of 6J per 1000 on all 
property, and that Christians paid one and a half per cent, 
additional duty on their commerce. The sick, lame, and blind 
were excused. 

From this period it appears to have been regularly levied, 
and with particular severity in fhe time of Farrukhsir (in 
consequence of the appointment of In&yat IJllah as financial 
minister, who had been secretary to the bigoted Aurangzeb), 
until the time of Eaffu'd-darj&t, when the Barha Sayyids 
abolished it, and the Hindus again recovered their conse- 
quence, Eattan Chand, a Hindut, being appointed financial 
minister, and being possessed even of such influence, as to 
be empowered to nominate the Mohamedan £azis of the Pro- 

Kuda Bigha, l^tj bj^ i|||^l4)^lff 

A Bigha measured after a curious fashion in some of the 
Eastern parts of Rohilkhand. The Malguzar measures the 
breadth by the rope, or by the ordinary Kadams (steps), and 
then the cultivator, running by springs as great a space each 
time as he can stretch, measures the length : each spring being 
counted half a Kadam. The result is the area. The Bigha of 
this mode of measurement varies from 2^ to 3^ Kachha Bigha. 

* Colonel Galloway (Law and Constit. of India, p. 27), states this on the authority 
of Ferishta : but Ferishta died more than a oentory before this period. 

TOL. n. 18 


The meaning of the words is a Bigha measured by leaps, from 
U Jj^ Ktidn&y to jump. 

There is another curious Bfgha of these parts, measured by 
the paces of a woman eight months gone with child. 

Kos, (jw/ ^itir 

The itinerary measure of India, of which the precise value 
has been much disputed, chiefly on account of the difficulties 
which attend the determination of the exact length of the Gaz, 
or yard. The "Ain-i Akbari " lays down distinctly that the Kos 
consists of 100 cords (^->^ tan&b), each cord of 50 Gaz ; also 
of 400 poles {ij**J^ b&ns), each of 12J Gtiz: either of which 
will give to the Kos the length of 5000 Ghtz. The following 
particulars relative to the distances between the old Minars, or 
Kos pillars, may be interesting, and may be considered to afford 
an approximately correct means of ascertaining the true stan- 

Boad distance in Direct distance 
English yards. in ditto. 

Octagonal Minar to Nurelah in Delhi . . . 4,513 4,489 

Minar between Nurelah and Sh&purg&phi 4,554 4,401 

Minar opposite Aliptir 4,532 4,379 

Minar opposite Siraspur 4,579 4,673 

Kuins of Minar opposite to Shalimar. ..... 4,610 4,591 

Average 4,558 4,487 

Length of the Kos = 2 miles 4 furlongs 158 yards. 
It is important to observe that the length of the Ilahi Gaz 
deduced from these measurements is 82-^^^ inches, showing 
how very nearly correct is the length of 33 inches assumed by 
the British Gt)vemment (See Ilahf Gaz). 

The measurements taken to the South of Dehli, between the 
Minars in the Muttra district, closely correspond. Out of twelve 
distances it is found that eight give 2 m. 4fiir. 19 p. lyard, 
three give 2 m. 4 fur. 25 p. 3 yards, and one gives 2 m. 4 Air. 
38p. 2yards. 


It may be proper to remark that it is frequently supposed 
that the Minars are set up every two Kos, and that the Kos con- 
tained 2,500 yards ; but the "Ain-i Akbari " appears su£5.ciently 
explicit on the point. The same work gives the values of the 
local Kos. It says, the Guzerat Kos is the greatest distance at 
which the ordinary lowing of a cow can be heard, which is 
determined to be 50 J&ribs, or 15,000 Gaz. This Kos resembles 
the Chinese lih, Le. the distance which can be attained by a 
man's voice exerted in a plain surface, and in calm weather. 
Another in Bengal is estimated by plucking a green leaf, and 
walking with it tiU it is dry. Another is measured by a hundred 
steps made by a woman carrying a jar of water on her head, and 
a child in her arms. All these are very indefinite standards. 

The same may be remarked of the Oriental mil, as well as 
the European mile and league. The two former evidently 
derive their name from the Boman milliarey and the difference 
of their value in different places proves that the mere name was 
borrowed, without any reference to its etymological signification. 
According to the ^'Kamoos,'' the Oriental mil is a lax and 
vague measure, but it has been considered by Dr. Lee to be to 
the English one, as 139 to 112. 

Kos is an Indian word: the equivalent word in Persian is 
Karoh, the same as the Sanskrit Krosa, of which four go to the 
yojan ; about the precise value of which different opinions are 
held. Bopp (" Nalus,'' p. 213) says it is equal to eight English 
miles. Professor Wilson (" Sanskrit Dictionary," p. 689) esti- 
mates it at nine miles, and says other computations make it 
about five miles, or even no more than four miles and a half, 
and, in his commentary on the Chinese travels, estimates it 
at no higher than four. But these travels enable us to fix the 
distance with tolerable precision. By following Fa-Hian's route 
between places of which the identity is beyond question, as 
between Muttra and E^anouj, and between Patna and Benares, 
we find the yojan in his time to be as nearly as possible seven 


English miles ; and this agrees much better with what we find 
the yojan to be, if we resolve it into its component parts. Eight 
barley-corns equal a finger, twenty-four fingers equal a Dand, 
one thousand Dands equal one Krosa, and four Krosa one Yojan. 
Now, estimating the fingers' breadth at eight barley-corns, this 
makes the yojan equal to six miles, one hundred and six yards 
and two feet.* 

Kror, ;^ji wfVf 

Ten millions. The names of the higher numbers are thus 
given in the " Zubdatu'l Kaw&nin." 1 00 Kror = 1 Arab. 100 
Arab = 1 Kharab. 100 Kharab= 1 Nil. 100 Nil = 1 Padam. 
100Padam=lSankh. 100 Sankh = l Aid. 100 Aldznl Ank, 
100Ank = lPadh4. 

The l^ree last names are rarely met. with in other accoant 
books, but Colebrooke (Hindd Algebra, p. 4) assigns names to 
seventeen orders of superior units in the decimal scale, ending 
with Par&rdha. In one work, the name of which I cannot now 

* Wtlf* ^^ Bohtlingk and Both tvo definitioiiB are giyen. One is = 1000 dai^^x 
=4000 hasta8=| yojana; the other =2000 cLa94^=8000 hastas, but still =2 yojana, 
showing that the valaes of the daa^^^ and hasta were undefined. 

The actual kos of the present day in India is equal to two English miles in most 
places, but in the Panjab it is seldom more than a mile and a half or a mile and one- 
thipd. The further east the longer the kos, so that in Bengal it exceeds two miles ; 
and I am told that in Bundelkhand it is as much as four miles. In Bah&r and 
Gorakhpdr, and many other parts of India, there is also a kach& kos, which is not 
much more than a mile, and sometimes eyen less. 
The calculations in the text are not exact The table should stand' apparently — 
8 barley-«oni0 = 1 finger. 
6 fingers ...... = 1 hasta or hand (which is omitted in the text). 

4 hastas = 1 da^^a or rod. 

1000 dan^as = 1 kos. 

4koe b: 1 yojfltn. 

The cAet oomputatioii makes 8 hastas = 1 da^^. It is probable that the lower 
amount of 4 hastas to the dan^a represents the kach& kos so prevalent in India, and 
the larger, the pakk& or ofKcial kos. The same double system of pakk& and kachfc 
pervades all the weights and measures of India. — ^B. 


remember^ the grades in the ascending scale are carried much 
higher, and the names differ in some respects from those of 
Colebrooke. Thus 100 Sankhz=l Udpada. 100 Udpada = 
1 Maha Udpada. 100 Maha Udpada =1 Jald. 100 Jald=: 
1 Madh. 100 Madh=l Pardrdha. 100 Par4rdha=l Ant. 
100 Ant = 1 Maha-ant. 100 Maha-ant = 1 Shisht. 100 Shisht 
= 1 Singhar. 100 Singhar = l Maha-singhar. 100 Maha- 
8inghar = l Adant-singhar, which in numerals amounte to 
1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. But 
it is evident that this advance should have been made by tens, 
and not by hundreds ; by which the numerals would be reduced 
to twenty-four places— 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. This 
luxury of names for numbers is without example in any other 
language, ancient or modem, and implies a &miliarity with 
their classification according to the decimal scale which could 
only arise from some very perfect system of numeration ; at a 
period, moreover, when the most scientific people of the Western 
world were incapable by any refinement of arithmetical notation 
of expressing numbers beyond one hundred millions. — See '' Enc. 
Metrop." Arithmetic (12), and "Vishnu Purana," p. 631. 

Karorf, ^]^)^ wfvft 

When Akbar introduced his revenue reforms, he appointed 
a collector for every Karori of Dams (i.^. 2,50,000 Bs.) whom 
he designated by the title of Amil, or Amilguzar, and to that 
functionary the instructions are directed in the " Ain-i Akbari," 
the designation of Karori being of subsequent introduction. 
This sum, which was placed under his management^ agrees with 
the amount at present established under the resolutions of 
Govemmenty dated 30th October, 1837, as that which should 
form the charge of a Tahsildar. 

A Karori, however, on his first appointment had somewhat 
more power than is invested in our Tahsildars. He received 
eight per cent, on the amount of his collections, besides per- 


quisites : he was directed to see that lands were not suffered to 
fall out of cultiyation ; to scrutinise the rent-free grants ; to 
report upon the condition of the J&gird&rs, and of the subjects 
generally in his neighbourhood; to forward an account of all 
remarkable occurrences ; and to perform the duties of kotwal, if 
none were appointed within his jurisdiction ; and whenever, on 
account of drought or other calamity, he thought it advisable to 
depute any one for local enquiries, he could avail himself of the 
services of the Amin of the Subah. This system lasted till 
A.D. 1639, in the reign of the Emperor Shah Jah&n, when his 
minister, Isl&m Ehan, deputed a separate Amfn to every 
Parganah for the purpose of fixing the Jama, and the £arori 
was left in charge of the collections, to which the duties of 
Faujdar were added, with an allowance of ten per cent, on 
the collections. But it was found that the powers of the 
Faujdar and Karori were too great to be united in one person, 
and to check the abuses which began to be prevalent, Kai 
K&y&n Jiswant Ram, the Feshkar of Islam Elian, suspended 
for a time the power of the Earo^is, and appointed subordinate 
collectors for each village, who were ordered to take exact 
account of the collections of the Earoris, and the purposes to 
which they had been applied, to check all the fraudulent 
exactions of which they and their dependents had been guilty, 
and to resume all the extra cesses which they had illegally 
demanded from the people. 

When that excellent minister Sa'duUah Ehan succeeded 
Islam Ehan, he combined the duties of Amin and Faujdar in 
one person, and appointed him superintendent of a Ghakla of 
several Parganahs (see Chakla) ; and placing the Earori entirely 
under his orders, established five per cent, on the collections 
as the amount of the Earori ^s allowance, and of this, one per 
cent, was subsequently deducted. The business of assessment 
and settlement was left entirely to the Amin — ^with that the 
Earori had no concern, but it was his business to encourage 


agriculture, to make advances, station watclimen over the ripen- 
ing crops, and report when any indulgence and leniency appeared 

This system lasted during the time of Aurangzeb, and till the 
dissolution of the empire. 

The following extract, taken from the patent of the Amin- 
Faujdar, written at the beginning of last century (the title 
♦j^\C« jiri- proves that the document is subsequent to Auran- 
zeb's reign), will show how much the power of the Karon 
had declined since his original appointment. 

^b bUj jjj ^\L.Ass^ ij^i^ ^v^y J Jvr ^^j^ ^j J 

iU ^ JU j-^^ *t?ii;7^ ^^^ ^ ^^ c;^*^ s&l^ *^V 

* The laJbAbe or titles of honoTir of the six greatest Mughal Emperors are as 
follows : — 

Babab A.D. 1526 JIC« (jM9<^f^ Firdans Mak&ni. 

HuMlTthY 1630 jlsurfT vj: -•-'*» Jinnat Ast&ni. 

Akbab 1566 JLJ»T fjii* •••••• *Arsh Ashylmf. 

jAHANofB 1606 , JIC« \^ -''^ Jinnat Mak&ni. 

.... Firdaus Ashy&ni. 

ShIhjahIn 1627 'iL ^r T (m^jJ J ••• 

AuBANozEB 1668 JIC« t jj^ Khuld Makluii. 

They are aliniys mentioned after death by these titles in official and literary doca- 
ments.— See J.A.S.B. Vol. ZXXYII, Part I. p. 39.— B. 


J^ly jJ ^}^\ ^U ^ iXl\AJ ^^.o^jJ J^lO SsJ^Sj imJ^y^ '^ji 

jJ»U irjfjw« 2f|^2a>' i^j}/^, ^^ ^,iXd:u Jui»^ J^y ^ ^3^ J ^^ 

b ^.b ^'^ *^^ ^^ Jy^<Vl\ J^ jrl^flOJ iJ jyb*u^ jj i^^dAi j) y 

*'And as to the money which, is still owing by the ryots 
from the forty-second year of his late majesty's reign, the 
Karori is charged to collect at every harvest five per cent, in 
excess of the present jama', according to assessment until the 
whole be collected ; and the sums which were allowed to the 
ryots under the head of "takAvi" in the past year are to be 
realised, together with the arrears of the said year, at the first 
audit. In case of negligence he will be held responsible, and 
let him beware of venturing to collect any sum on account 
of village expenses, or imder any head prohibited by the 

'^ And according to the established rule the Karori may keep 
back one per cent, as his hakku'l tahsil {Le. his fee or allowance 
for collecting) but must enter it in his accounts under the head 
of jama', and credit will be allowed him subsequently to that 
extent; and the rest that he shall collect under his majesty's 
warrant under the heads of tak&vi and arrears is granted to him 
as salary ; if it do not amount to what he is entitled to, he may 
make good the deficiency out of the collections for the current 
year. ' 

Kachwansiy 15*^ Vr "WTH^ 

The twentieth part of a Tiswansi, of which twenty go to a 

* The second paasage I have tranalated freely, as it appeals to haye been incorrectly 
copied or carelessly worded by the original scribe, or both. I think, howeyer, I have 
Mcceeded in catching the general import. The document itself is not in my posses- 
sion, and no cine to its whereabouts is given by the author. — ^B. 


Biflwansi. The twentieth part of a Kachw&nsi is an Unw&nsi, 
or Kanw&nsf . The word Kachw&nsi is rarely used in account 
books ; the more usual denomination is Pitwansi. But it must 
be confessed that great difference of opinion prevails respecting 
these fractions. It is even sometimes stated that a Kachw&nsi 
is the twentieth part of a Biswansi, but as these denominations 
were^ even under native governments, rarely used in practice, 
and are now less used than ever, it is a matter of little conse- 
quence what precise value is attached to them. 

Sirkar, Ji^ 4*<HK 

This word is more correctly spelt Sirk&r, but is more familiar 
to Europeans as Circar, in consequence, perhaps, of the geogra- 
phical division of the Northern Sirk&rs being so written. In 
other parts of this Supplement it will appear as Sirk&r. 

A Sirk&r is a sub-division of a Subah. The North Western 
Provinces, excluding the Saugor and Nerbudda territories, com- 
prise no complete Subah, but only portions of the four Subahs 
of Agra, Allahabad, DehU and Oudh. Each Subah is divided 
into a certain number of Sirk&rs, and each Sirk&r into Par- 
ganahs or Mehals (which are used as equivalent expressions), 
and the Parganahs again are aggregated into Dastdrs or districts ; 
and as the Parganahs of the same Dastur are of course always 
contiguous, the Dastdr statement in old registers, if copied with 
any regard to correctness, frequently forms a very important 
means of the verification of doubtful names. 

Subah is an Arabic word, signifying a heap of money, or a 
granary. Sirk&r is literally a chief, a supervisor. Dastur 
besides signifying a rule is also a minister, a munshi ; Parganah 
means tax-paying land : 

It is strange that the ^'Burh&n-i K&ti'," while giving this 
Hindustani meaning, does not speak of it also as a sub-division 


of a province, for it is so given in the older lexicons, as for 
instance in the *' Farhang-i Jahangiri ; ^' and though it is omitted 
in the " Farhang-i Ibrahimf ," the word was undoubtedly in use in 
the time of that compilation, being not only found in the almost 
contemporary memoirs of Baber, but in the " Tabak&t-i N&siri," 
and the "Fatuh&t-i Firozshahi" (in which we find that about 
A.D. 1350, there were fifty-two imperial Farganahs in the 
Do&b), and even on an inscription dated a.d. 1210, discovered 
at Piplianagar in Bhopal (" Jour. A.S. Bengal," Vol. V. p. 377). 

The other words do not appear to have been in use till intro- 
duced by the Moghuls, nor do any of them appear to be used 
in similar senses in foreign countries, except Sirk&r, which is 
stated in the *' Chiragh-i Hidayat" to be used in Western Asia 
also, in the sense of a territorial sub-division, the authority 
quoted being the translation of the " Mujalis-ul Nufais/^ 

The words used before Akbar's time to represent tracts of 
country larger than a Parganah, were Shakk Jm», E^hitta ^da^* 
'Arsa <U^, Di&r jlj J, Vil&yat ^^j, and Iktd' ^HaSl, but the 
latter was generally, though not always, applied when the laud 
was assigned for the support of the nobility, or their contingents, 
and the presiding officer was called Mukta or Iktadar. Thus, 
in the early historical writers before the close of the fourteenth 
century, we find Shakk-i S&m&nah, Khitta-i Oudh, Arsa-i 
Gorakhptir (this term is rarely used for any other tract), Diar-i 
Lakhnauti, Yil&yat-i Mifin Do&b, and Ikta'-i Karr&. 

Between Sirk&r and Dustur there appears a connexion ; one 
meaning chief, and the other minister; between Subah and 
Parganah a connexion may also be traced ; one being a large, 
the other a small collection ; but whether the words were chosen 
with reference to this connexion may be doubted. 

The title of Stibahdar, or lord of the Stibah, is long subse- 
quent to Akbar's time. Sip&hs&l&r was then the only designa- 
tion of the Emperor's Viceroy in each Subah. 

I have endeavoured to restore the Sirk&rs, Dasttirs, and 













Parganahs as they stood in the time of the Emperor Akbar. 
The copies of the ^'^in-i Akbari " vary so much, and such ignor- 
ance is frequently exhibited by the transcribers, that to verify 
the names of Parganahs has been a work of great labour, which 
is by no means to be estimated by the ease with which the eye 
runs oyer a coloured map. 

The Parganahs which retain their own names have frequently 
occasioned as much doubt as those which have undergone a com- 
plete change. The annoyance may be easily estimated by those 
who know what various phases Oriental alphabets can assume ; 
and those who do not, may be convinced by learning that in a 
single Sirk&r one copy presents you with such complete disguises 
and metamorphoses as Kathal for Kampil, Sanani for Patiali, 
and Saniwarbarka for Saurakh; and the difficulty does not 
cease when, after frequent conjectures and comparisons, the 
name has been verified ; for the adjustment of areas to meet those 
represented in the "j^in-i Akbari," has frequently been the 
source of much perplexity. But it is in separating the Sirk&rs 
into Dasturs that the ignorance of the copyists has been chiefly 
exhibited, for all the Parganahs are frequently mixed together, 
as if there were no meaning at all attached to Dastur. It has 
been therefore thought proper to explain in some detail the 
principle of the construction of the map, premising that several 
copies of the " ^in-i Akbari" have been consulted for the occa- 
sion. — See Dastur. 

Explanation of the System adopted in the Arrange- 
ment OF the Maps. 
Should it be desired to ascertain the position and names of 
the Parganahs as at present constituted, they may be learnt by 
referring to the Modem Ethnographical Map, which has been 
drawn up for the purpose of illustrating several articles in this 

• NoU.—The Maps will be found in the fold of Vol. I. 


An endeavour has also been made to represent the state of 
Zamlndari possession in the time of Akbar — but in comparing 
the difference of colour in the modem and ancient map, it is not 
to be inferred that it is entirely occasioned by change of pos* 
session. There is reason to apprehend, as Ab61 Fazl generally 
enters only one tribe as in possession of the Parganah Zamln- 
dari, and seldom more than two, that he has only mentioned 
those which had a predominance or clear majority; omitting 
all consideration of the others, whose number was inferior: 
now, the map of modem possession has been drawn out with a 
view of shewing as far as the scale would admit, all tribes of im- 
portance, so that if one particular class is found in possession of 
but a small part of a Parganah, it has been entered under its 
appropriate colour. As even iu the same Parganah, the villages 
of each tribe are much intermixed, the colours of course repre- 
sent the proportions, and not the positions, of each.* 

The boundaries of the old Sirk&rs appear for the most part 
well rounded off and defined. There are some which are some- 
what doubtful, as will be seen by referring to the articles Bhat- 
tiana, Budhganga, Des, and Ghora. There is only one which 
appears to require notice in this place. 

It will be observed from an inspection of the map of Sirkars 
and Dasturs, that the Parganahs of Sirk&rs Gh&zipur and 
Jaimpur are strangely locked into each other near the confluence 
of the Gunti and Ganges. The fact of Sayyidpur Namdi being 
in the old registers entered in the Sirkir of Gh&zipur, while 
Bhitarf, which is between Sayyidptir and Ghdzipdr, is entered 
in the Sirk&r of Jaunpdr, would seem to show that the proper 
reading is Sayyidpur Bhitari, and that Bhitari has been entered 
separately by mistake; but Sayyidpur used formerly to be 
called Namdl ; so that solution does not help us. The fact is, 

* The original maps were on a large and legible scale ; but it wai found neoeesarj 
to reduce them for the press ; which could not, of course, be accomplished without 
throwing many of the limited tribee into the miteellaneotu colours. 


that Sayyidpur and Bhltari, which habit induces ns now to 
couple together, were originally two distinct Parganahs, and in 
two different Sirk&rs ; nor were they regarded in any other light 
than as two distinct Parganahs, till they were given in J&gir to 
Babu TJsan Singh, from which time as they were held under 
one Sanad (see the " Balwant-n&ma"), they began to be spoken 
of as one Parganah, and are so entered in the Hegulation of 
1795. In the Parwanah appointing Shaikh Abdullah Amil 
of Ghazipur, amongst the twenty-two Parganahs mentioned in 
his Sanad, Sayyidpur and Bhitari are given separately; and 
this consideration throws much suspicion upon the Zamindari 
Sanad given in the Azimgarh Settlement Report, printed in the 
" Journal of the Asiatic Society" for 1838, and which might 
otherwise have been of some service in unravelling the difficulty. 
Sayyidpur and Bhitari are written together in the Persian 
Ziman, and (though they certainly appear to be enumerated as 
two) yet they occur without the intervention of the word Par- 
ganah; and in a manuscript copy of the Sanad, the entry of 
Sayyidpur Bhitari as one Parganah is beyond question. The 
same is observable in Kauria Tilhani. Now, these are modem 
combinations, and could scarcely have been used in the fourth 
year of Jahangir, within twenty years after the compilation of 
the " Ain-i Akbari," where they are entered with such marked 
distinction. Kauria and Tilhani being in all respects separate 
Parganahs ; and Sayyidpur and Bhitari not only separate Par- 
ganahs, but in two different Sirk&rs. The entry of Maun&t and 
Bhanjan as two separate Parganahs in the same Sanad, which 
are entered simply as Mau in the '^ Ain-i Akbari " is also sus- 
picious. These considerations, coupled with the loose wording 
of the document, lead us to put little faith in it as evidence 
respecting the mode in which Sajryidpur and Bhitari were 
entered at an early period in the imperial records, and justify 
the implication conveyed in that report, that the document is 
not authentic. 


We must, therefore, notwithstanding the irregular appearance 
which this part of the map presents, consider that the entries 
are correct, and that the division was intentional. 




[Under this head I have thrown together all words which do 
not properly fall under the three preceding heads. This 
Part therefore is a very heterogeneous one. Names of trees 
and plants, rustic tools and implements, descriptions of soil 
when they have reference merely to agriculture and not to 
revenue purposes, and many other matters are here 
included. — ^B.] 

Literally, as stated in the printed Glossary, "abode, resi- 
dence;'* but more frequently used in the N.W. Provinces, as 
cultivated, flourishing, populous. 

Ab&d&n is used in the same, but, as the ^'Farhang-i Ra- 
shidi" observes, in a somewhat intensive sense. — Kh&i&ni 
signifies prosperity, population. — Ab&dk&r is a settler on waste 

Ilh&d is frequently used in combination with a proper name 
to denote a city, as Haidar-&b&d, Shahjahan-&b&d. When used 
in construction with a Hindu name or vocable, it generally 
denotes that the termination has been changed from b&s ^uAj 
to Ab&d jbT. Thus the Brahminab&d, mentioned in the 
" Chachnama," and " Tuhfatu*l Kiram," was originally Brah- 
minbas, or Bamanwas. — See Harbong ka Raj. 


^bpashi, L<^^^ 

Irrigation of fields^ from P. «^T water, and j.ju-S»l* to 

Abf, ^T Wft 

Irrigated land; from t-^T water. The word, though of 
general application, is more exclusively applied in Central Do&b 
to land irrigated from tanks, jhlls, and streams. As the supply 
of water is generally precarious, the rent paid for such land is 
about one-half of that which is paid for land irrigated £rom 
wells.— See Ch&hi, Part IIL 

Abij, ^\ ^rf^ 

Grain that does not germinate ; the same as Nirbij. From 
^ a, or fifT nir, priv. and bij Wtf seed,* 

Adhikari, i^j\^J\ ^rf%WiT^ 

Proprietor ; holder of a right or priyilege. 

Agal, jfr IIPW 

A long and heavy piece of wood to which the hill-men tie 
their buffaloes. The Ghikar, or grazing-tax, q.v, was formerly 
levied " fi igal," or so much per log. — E. add. 

Agar, /\ ^PR; 

Aloe wood ; lignum aloes (Aquilaria agailocha, Eoxb.)> It 
emits a pleasant odour when burnt, and forms one of the chief 
ingredients of native pastils. 

* A difitinction is sometimes drawn between these two words. Abij being used 
to signify grain which has been produced in a withered and worthless state in the ear, 
while Nirbij implies that which, though produced healthy, has been subsequently 
destroyed by weevil or damp, etc. — B. 


A salt pit. Ahari is the name of tlie small compartment 
within it. 

It is stated by some authorities that this word is the origin of 
the name of the imperial city of Agra, and from the brackish 
nature of the soil and water, there is no improbability in the 
statement ; but Ni'mat uUah, in his History of the Afghans, 
gives a very different account. He says that Sultfin Sikandar 
Lodi, after getting on board a boat at Mathura (Muttra), asked 
his steerer which of the two heights before them was fittest for 
building. On which the steersman replied, "That which is 
a-head (Agra) is the best.'' At this the Sult&n smiled and said, 
" The name of this town, then, which I design to build, shall be 
Agra.'' This must be altogether an imaginary dialogue ; besides 
which, it is not likely the steersman would speak Sanskrit to the 
Emperor. It is evident, moreover, that Sikandar was not the 
founder of Agra, as is generally reported, though he may have 
built the fort of B&dalgarh ; for the capture of it is celebrated in 
the verses of a Ghazni poet in the time of Masa'tid, the son of 
Ibrahim, the grandson of the great Mahmud ; and it is even 
acknowledged to have been an old city before the time of the 
Afghans, in the autobiography of Jahangir, whose veracity need 
not be impeached in passages where he has no occasion to indulge 
in the "Ercles' vein" respecting the achievements of himself or 
his ancestors. There is in Ferishta mention of the conquests 
made in India during the reign of Masa'dd. 

" In his reign Hajib Toghantagin proceeded in command of 
an army towards Hindustan, and being appointed Governor 
of Lahore, crossed the Ganges, and carried his conquests further 
than any Mussalman had hitherto done, except the Emperor 
Mahmud. Liko him he plundered many rich cities and temples 
of their wealth, and returned in triumph to Lahore, which now 
became in some measure the capital of the Empire." — ^Briggs' 

VOL. u. 14 


A manufaotarer of salt. See ^gar. 

Agayd, L^ 

A disease which aflEects rice^ in which the whole plant is dried 
and burnt up, from Xg v^T fire. See Khaira.— E. 

Also in Bah&Fy the lemon-scented grass {audropogon muri- 
catum) which is used as a specific in some diseases of cattle, 
such as goti or small-pox. — B. 

Agaund, jj^ ^r^ft^ 

The top of the sugar-cane cut up for seed; in distinction 
to Bel ka bij, in which the whole cane is cut up into six or 
seven pieces. The division of the cane is much more minute in 
some places. Pat comprises the leaves at the top. Ag, Ag&o, 
Agaurd, Agin, and Gaundi are the names given to a few inches 
below the P&t. Kdnchd, called also Gulli, Palwa, and Phungi, 
consists of about a foot below the Ag, and is chiefly used for 
seed. The rest of the cane is called Gdnde, Gandd and Gann&. 

Agor, j^ ^BiPrt 

Agor, or Agoraiy&, is a man appointed to keep watch over 
crops ; from agomd UjjTl to watch. The term is used chiefly in 
Benares, rarely in the North "West. 

Agwar, j\/\ VraiT 

The portion of com set apart for village servants j so called 
because it is (£ge) ^^1 — ^the first thing to be taken from the 
heap. In the East, it is used to signify the perquisites of 
ploughmen in kind. See Jeora and Th&pa. 

Agwasi, ^^^ ^vrrnit 

The body of the ploughshare.— Eastern Oudh. 

PART IV. — ^KU&AL LIFE. 211 

Aliari, gf^T HFfft 

A small pond ; smaller than a Pokhar and Talu, and larger 
than a Talaya and Marii. These two last words are chiefly in 
use to the Eastward. ^ In Dehli, and the neighbourhood, Johar 
is a large pond^ Jhari is a middling sized one, and Let* is a small 
one, more resembling a puddle. Thus, Let pdni barsd means, 
^* It has rained but little." Higher proportions are indicated by 
Kunr pdni barsd, " It has rained a furrow full ; " Kidri bhdr, 
" To the extent of the bed of a garden ;" N^aka tor pdni barsd, 
" It has rained enough to break the embankments.'' 

Tal&o in Dehli is applied generally only to such tanks as are 
lined with masonry. 

In the Do&b and Bohilkhand, the words more generally 
known are, S&gar, Tal&o, Pokhar, Dabr&, And, Liw&r, Tal&rf, 
and Qtirhaiya, or Garhela — S&gar being the largest. 

Ahar is also a salt-pit, a trough for watering cattle, a drain. 
— E. 

In Amritsar the large pools which abound inside the city 
wallst are called dab, probably meaning "depressions," from 
ddbnd, to press down. Another word used for a natural lake 

{taldo being often artificial) is ^ sar, which forms the last 
member of the word Amritsar(z= the lake of nectar). A pretty 
couplet, sometimes quoted in the Panj&b, runs — 

" Loye not the swan, o lake, for he feeds and flies away ; 
Give to the lotus thy love, the' he wither and die, he will stay." 

— B. 

* Probably from le^nd, to lie down, to be flat. — ^B. 

t I ought, perhaps, to have written ** abounded," because I belieye they are now 
nearly aU drained off. At least, the authorities were at work on them so long ago aa 


Ahita, liJbl ^rftZT 

A person appointed to watch the grain when it is ripe, and 
see that none of it is carried away before the demand is paid. 
The word is Hindi. 

-A^indan, J^'^^^'\ ^wt?l^nr 

From ^in ^J a law, and d&nistan ^i**j\j to know ; a man 
who practises on the simplicity of his neighbours by his know- 
ledge of the regulations of Government. 

Aiwara, ifj\y\ ^TT^ 

A cow-shed in the middle of a jungle, according to the " G-ha- 
rlbul-lughat " of Khan Arza. The « Tuhfatul-lugh&t" does 
not notice it. — E. 

The common words are Ar&r ^f^^f and Bathan 'RTR q.v. — ^B. 

Ajmud, j^.4^1 ij^rg^ 

Parsley (Apium involucratum) . 

Ajwain, ^\^\ ^R^Tt?r 

{Liguaticum qfowan, Eoxb.). Aniseed. 

A'k, cr\ ^IHR 

Gigantic swallow- wort (Asclepias gigantea). It is a common 
shrub all over Upper India, and is celebrated in the T&lif-i 
sharif for its many valuable properties. It is of high repute 
amongst the Indian practitioners, and at one time much 
attracted the notice of European physicians. The plant is 
more commonly known under the name of Mad4r. 

Ak is also a sprout of sugar cane. 

Akaia, Ul ^^hETT 

One of the sacks or baskets of a pannier. 


Akan, ^ 

Orass and weeds collected from a ploughed field. — See Godhar. 

Akas bel, J-j j^\^ ^mnn 5Nr 

The air creeper (Cuscuta reflexa ?) . It has no root, or leaves, 
but grows luxuriantly on the tops of trees. It is from this cir- 
cumstance that the name is derived — ^iqiiii Kkk& meaning in 
Hindi, the sky, the atmosphere. It is also called ^R!T ^IPk^ll 
Amar baunrii, or the imdying creeper, and under this name is 
much used in native medicine as ^ remedy for rheumatism, and 
in alchemy is considered very efficacious as a transmuter of 
metals. It is supposed by Hindus that the man who finds its 
root will become rich. 

Akha, \^ ^f(m 

A pair of grain bags used as a pannier. 

Akor, j^\ initT; 

A bribe. Hence it is applied in the North- West to the 
coaxing a cow or buffalo, which has lost its calf, to eat grain. 
The same process is called Toria in Benares. 

Akor, or Kor, as it is sometimes pronounced, is also applied to 
the food which a labourer eats in the intervals of work in the 
open field. 

Akra, \^\ nn^ 

A grass, or vetch, which grows in fields imder spring-crop, 
creeping round the stem of the young plant, and checking its 
growth (Vicia sativaj. Akr&, or Ankri, as it is often called, is 
something like the Mastir, and it is used as fodder for cattle. 

A'l, JT 

The Marinda cittifoUa. Its roots give a permanent red dye 


to the well-known Eliard& cotton cloth. It is said in the 
Mu'&laj&t-i-D&r& Shikohi to be the same as Manjit; but the 
latter is the Bubia Hnctomm^ or, perhaps, more correctly, the 
Rubia cordifoUa. The plant, which is very hardy and rarely 
oyer affected by drought, is generally considered not to be pro- 
ductiye till the third year of its growth. It is cnltivated in 
seyeral proyinces of India. In the Peninsula, the best quality 
comes from Maistir. In the North-West Proyinces, the Al of 
Hattd and Bundelkhand is the most prized; and the chief 
emporium of its sale is Mfis&nagar in the Do&b. It is grown 
only in M&r and K&bar soils, and, when ripe, is dug out of 
the ground with narrow pickaxes; eyery care being taken 
to preyent the small roots sustaining injury, from the bark 
of which the most yaluable portion of the dye is extracted. 
It is not an exhausting crop, and is usually followed by 

Al is also sometimes used in the North- West for a P&n&, or 
diyision of a yillage. 

Aid, XT 

Wet ; moist ; land saturated with water, especially with rain 
water. This is the correct word, but it is proyincially pronounced 
Al, Aha], All, and Ael. — ^E. Also in the Eastern districts for 
the ridge separating fields, especiaUy in land irrigated from 
tanks, or which depends on rain water for its moisture. It is 
sometimes written ^vntsff dil, and under the forms ahal and aH is 
occasionally, though incorrectly, applied to the fields them- 
selyes. — ^B. 

Almari, ^j\^\ mPRTft 

A chest of drawers ; a book-case. The word is deriyed frx>m 
the Portuguese almario, which comes from the Latin armorium^ 
an armoury, or cupboard for keeping arms and clothes in ; in 
old EngUsh aumbry. — B. 

PABT iy.*-BUBAL LIFB. 215 

A'lo, /T ^IWft 

The word is in use in Benares in the same sense as DaSii, 
q.v. to signify a portion of unripe com. 

Was formerly on onr tariff. It consists of balls of cotton 
impregnated with lac dye, and manufactured in all large towns 
where jungle produce is procurable. It is more generally known 
by the name of Mah&war. 

Anardana, ^^Ul H*H<4l* ir 

A species of millet, so called from its resemblance to the seed 
of the pomegranate. — See As. Bes. XY. 473. 

Andhi, ^jjT ^\ft 

A hurricane, or storm. The word is pure Hindi, and ex- 
tremely common every where in India ; but M. Langl^s in an 
amusing note on the travels of Mr. Hodges, presumes that the 
word is a corruption from the French. ''Aoundy, ouragam. 
J'ignore I'origine de ce mot sur lequel toutes mes recherches ne 
m'ont procure aucun renseignement. Je serais tent^ de croire 
qu'il y a erreur de la part de M. Hodges ; car plusieurs savans 
Yoyageurs que j'ai consult^s m'ont avou^ ne point connaitre ce 
mot, et ne se rappelaient pas I'ayoir entendu prononcer dans 
rinde ; peut-Stre est-ce une corruption du mot Francais ondie !P' 

Ang, v^T ^rtn 

Signifies the demand on each head of cattle for the right of 
pasture. — ^Dehli. This is paid to the proprietor of the land. 
£it is that which is paid per head to the cowherd. 

Angaddiya, UJl^l ^Nf^pn 

Said in the Glossary to be applied to persons in the Northern 




Provinces, who carry money concealed in their quilted clothes. 
The word may, perhaps, therefore be derived, or somehow cor- 
rupted, from Angarkha ; but it is used, I believe, only in Qujrat, 
and not in our Northern Provinces, where Bokaria is the term 
applied to such persons ; from rokavy money. — ^E. 

%* In Behar it is the name of a class of men who are em- 
ployed by merchants and bankers to carry remittances of cash 
from one firm to another. They travel long distances with very 
large sums of money, and are never known to embezzle or act 
dishonestly, though they are poorly paid. The facilities for 
making remittances now afforded by the introduction of the 
money-order and other systems, will probably, in course of time, 
lead to the extinction of this trade. The men are, I believe, of 
no particular caste. — B. 

Angan, ^1 ^rt'R 

A court yard. An enclosed area near a house— Angnd is also 
used in the same sense. — E. Bather the courtyard, or " patio,*' 
as the Spanish call it, formed by the rooms of the house itself, 
which is usually built round the four sides of a square. — ^B. 

Angwara, \j\f:>\ ihRTTT 

The proprietor of a small portion of a village. — ^Eastern Oudh 
and Benares. 

It is also applied in the former province to reciprocal assist- 
ance in tillage. 

Anjan, ^^ ^*vr 

A grass which grows in great abundance in the Upper Pro- 
vinces, and is largely used as fodder for cattle. 

Anjana, Uasrl iNWT 

An inferior kind of rice. — ^See Dhan. 


Ank, tl^T ^rN 

Figure, unit, number, amount, a share. Hence, Ankd&r is 
used in the Central Do4b to signify a sharer. 

The initial A is either long or short — ^both are correct ; but 
the former is most usual in Hindi. 

Anwla, 3yT "^a^^m 

(Phyllanthus emblica). A kind of myrobalan. The fruit is 
acid, and is stated in the '' T&lif-i Sharif" to be of great use in 
cutaneous eruptions, and to be known also as ^sT Bijji and 
J^^^^Uj Dhdbri PhaL 

The tree is worshipped by agriculturists on the 11th of 
Fhagun, which day is therefore known by the name of ^i^t^i 
i^^i^tilj and on this occasion libations are poured at the foot of 
the tree, a thread (generally red or yellow), is bound round the 
trunk, prayers are offered up for its fruitfulness, and the cere- 
mony is concluded by a Pran&m, or reverential inclination of 
the head to the tree. 

Aokan, ^^l^^T ^RI^t^iPT 

Straw and grain heaped up. — Benares. See Gantah. 

Aokhal, J^jT WlfNm 

Land reclaimed from waste, and brought under cultivation. 
Also spelt ^ranr iikhal^ especially in the Northern Do&b and 

Aori, ^j^ ^iritft 

Bank of a pond or rivulet to the water's edge; applied 
generally to signify a piece of dry land left uncultivated. 

At, j\ ^wk 

Ladle used in sugar factories. — ^E. Oudh. The same word, or 


rather "lIFf 9 is applied in Benares as an abbreviation of Ar&r&, 
the bank of a pond. And in Hindi generally Ar signifies a 

A cart. It is usually spelt with an ^ but the " Burhan-i 
K&ti'*' gives it correctly with an K The word being purely 
Persian cannot begin with ^ In the '^Farhang-i Bashidi'' and 
in the ^' Haft Eulzam/^ the king of Oudh's dictionary, I find no 
mention of it under either letter, but in the former, under the 
article Ban&dar, it is spelt with an ^ Ar&ba is not much used 
in India, except in writing ; but it is in common use throughout 
the Turkish empire. Bichardson describes it as a two- wheeled 
carriage ; but in Constantinople it has four wheels. 

Arab, sj\ ^rct 

Cross-ploughing. The straight furrow is khard, and plough- 
ing from comer to comer is nok-ndka. This is only when fields 
require three ploughings. — ^E. add. 

Ardr, Jljfl ^TVT? 

Outsheds for cattle; harvest floor for Mahwa blossoms. — 
Eastern Oudh and Benares. — ^E. 

Otherwise a small grass hut in the jungle, where the cowherds 
pass the night ; it is usually on the edge of a cleared patch on 
which the cattle assemble. Fires are sometimes lighted round 
them to keep off tigers. See Bath&n. — ^B. 

Ar&rd, \j\j\ ^rn?T 

Steep bank of a river, pond, or tank. 

Aral, ^j\ ij^ 

Goad at the end of a whip. The diminutive of Ar. q»v. 


Juice ; whence we derive our *' Arrack." 


Arand, jjjl ^rd 

The cafitor-oil plant (Palma Christi). 
Also"^^ renrhl, which is more common. — B. 

Ard&wa, Sj\jij\ ^rfWT 

Gbound meal. The mixture now known by the name of 
Ard&wa comprises equal portions of the chick pea and barley, 
and forms almost universally, in Upper India, the food of horses 
kept by Europeans. 

Argara, \^j\ ^rf^ 

An enclosure, or pound for cattle, in Fur&niy& (Pumeah). 
Elsewhere called Ph&tak.— B. 

Arhar, jjtj\ ircf^ 

A species of pulse {Cytism Ctyan) called also frequently 
j\^ tu4r. 

The '^ Mirat-i-Aftabnama'' says that tu&r or ttir, is only 
amongst the people of Shahjah&nabad (Dehli) synonymous with 
Arhar, and that elsewhere Tur is another species and larger 
than Arhar, having a stalk like sugar-cane. It is also called 

Arhat, \S^j\ nt^z 

%* Also and perhaps more conmionly Tf7 rahat. A machine 
for raising water from a well, usually called by Europeans the 
'^ Persian wheeL'' Its construction is rather complicated and 
may be thus described. Across the mouth of a well is laid a 
long beam or l&th, one end of which projects six or seven feet 
beyond the edge of the well; this beam serves as an axis to a large 


heavy double wheel hanging over the well^ and has at its other 
end a small wheel with cogs of wood, which fit into correspond- 
ing cogs in a horizontal wheel, whose axis is fixed into the ground 
below and at the top into a beam supported at either end by 
walls of mud. To this upright axis is attached a long brancli 
of a tree to which a buffiilo is harnessed, having his eyes blinded 
by little caps of leather. He walks round and round the hori- 
zontal wheel and sets the whole in motion. On the wheel that 
hangs over the well is a long string of little earthen pots called 
fTt^ tinds which going down empty, and coming up full, tilt over 
at the top and discharge their contents into a trough which, 
carries the water along an earthen conduit or add& to consider- 
able distances. It is obvious that such a well cannot be worked 
where the water is very far from the surface, as the expense and 
difficulty of making a long string of pots or tinds would be very 
great. Accordingly the Persian wheel is not found much lower 
down than the Upper DoSb, and is more common on the Jamna 
side of the Dokh than near the Ganges. It is, however, almost 
the only kind of well- gear known in the Panj&b. The creaking 
of the wheels and the splash and sparkle of water, with the old 
mud walls under a spreading tree, form one of the commonest 
and most pleasing features in a Panj&b landscape. As regards 
supply of water it is a question whether the arhaf or the charas 
q.v. is the better. My own opinion is in favour of the former, 
as its supply is continuous, though each tind holds but little 
water ; the huge charas discharges more water, but much time 
is lost in its descent and ascent. I think it will be found that 
an arhat worked for twelve hours— other things being equal — 
delivers more water than a charas worked for the same time. 
See Ch&hf, in Part III.— B. 

^Arfat, ^^^^J^ W(hni 

Borrowing anything which is itself to be returned — ^from the 
Arabic j^. It differs from Earz, inasmuch as in the latter, the 


articles borrowed are not to be identically returned. — See 
" Hedaya/' Book XXIX.* 

Arthia, W?;! ^rf^^ 

A client^ a broker, an agent, a dependant. 

Arwi, i^^j\ ^R:^ 

A species of Arum, an esculent root called in the Eastern 
districts a 'WWI Kach&lu, and ^t^Tt ghuniny&n. 

Asharfi, ^ji>\ ^ff[K^ 


A gold mohar! — See " Prinsep's Useful Tables," p. 4. 

More correctly Ashrafi. The gold mohar is not now a legal 
tender in British territory, though there are heaps of them in 
existence. The ordinary value is 16 Rs., but varies according 
to the character of the coin. — ^B. 

Ashjar, Jjb^\ ^Wl^in; 

Trees ; plural of the Arabic SjJb^. 

Ashraf, uJl^l ^niTT« 

Plural of the Arabic f^^j^ Sharif, noble. A class of culti- 
vators in Brohilkhand, and Oudh, and Benares, who designate 
themselves by this title, and claim certain privileges. The 
opposite of the term is J^^^, ue. those of low degree, the 
vulgar. — E. 

The term is generally used in speaking of Brahman, Rajput, 
or Bhuinhar cultivators, as opposed to Xurmis, Xachhis, and the 
like, who are razil. The privileges claimed by the Ashr&f are 
principally that they should be assessed at a lower rate, and 
have better lands assigned them than the Irz&L — ^B. 

* e,ff. If yon borrow an umbrella it ia 'ariaty if you borrow money it is ^ort. — B. 

222 suppLEMEirrAL glossary. 

'Ashr&t, izj\jj^ ^WJTRf 

Tens ; plural of the Arabic yu^e ten. 

Asfcli&, U^uf ^rat^ 

XJnirrigated ; from ^ not, and fii-q^ii to water. 

Asfl, J^\ irtfN 

A female servant amongst Mussulmans. It bears also a 
contrary meaning ; as, noble by birth. The origin of both is 
from the Arabic. The former meaning is derived from a free 
servant being superior to a Laundi or purchased slave; the 
second from the stem of an illustrious lineage. It is not un- 
common amongst ill-educated people to call a slave Asfl^ but it 
is proper to observe the distinction noted above. 

Ason, ^i^\ ^rthf 

The current year ; the word is not used much in the North- 
West, but when used is generally pronounced Eson.* 

Asihan, ^\f^\ 

An abode, residence. From the Sanskrit lirnT a place. 

Asthaly JfL^l 

A fixed residence; usually applied to the spot in which 
Fakirs remain ; a hermitage, presided over by a mahant. 

Ata, 151 W^ 

Atari, ^j^\ ^izrft 

An upper-roomed house; an upper story. The second of 
these words is a diminutive of the first. 

• From Fersiaii ,;^^ ^\ in aanna, this year. 


AtabA, ji\j\ ^rer^ 

The local name given by the resident Ahirs to a tract of 
country between the K&1& Naddl and the Eatwd, including the 
greater part of the Farganah of M&rehra. 

Athmds, {jmI^\ ^»3ifTO 

Lands constantly ploughed from As&rh to Magh for sugar- 
cane, from ^irS eight and TPi a month. See Chaum&s. 

Atbmana, Liffl 

The West. — Dehli. The word used in opposition to Athmaa& 
is TTgmana, the East. Athae ^«i«l is also occasionally used to 
signify the West, but its more correct and universal meaning is 
" the evening." • Both words appear to be derived from Ast, q.v. 

Atarpal, Jbyl WlAm 

Land which has been once under cultivation, and then 

abandoned. The word is more correctly Antarpal. — Central 
and Lower Do&b. 

A'w&, l^T WTT 

A furnace or potter's kiln. A brick kiln is g^[s:; paj&wa, a 
corruption of gj\jj paz&wa, from ^Ju3h» pazanidan, to cook. 

Awasl, ^\j\ ^RT«t 

A word used in the province of Benares (See Dadri). — ^E. 

It means unripe com picked from time to time and brought 
home to be eaten. In times of scarcity many of the poorer 
ryots are often obliged to forestall the harvest in this way to 
the detriment both of their health and pockets. — ^B. 

* Under thiB sense it is given as a local word of Bundelkhand, in the Yocabnlary 
printed in No. 144 of the '* Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal;" bnt it is a 
common Hindi term, by no means confined to that ProTinoe. In the same Vocabu- 
lary there are some other words which do not appear to be correctly entered, either 
with regard to their meaning or local application. 


A pickaxe. — Eastern Oudh. 

Babu, ^\) 

Formerly B&bti was used only as a title of respect; now, 
especially among Europeans, it is used also to designate a native 
clerk who writes English, such clerks being chiefly Bengalis, 
among whom the title of Babu has a wider acceptation than 
in Hindustan. 

In Gorakhptir, the descendants of the younger brothers of 
the Sarnet Baja are called B&bu, and there the term, still main- 
taining its original dignity, is applied generally to any man 
of family or influence. Crossing the Gogra into Benaudh&, and 
Benares, we find it applied only to the younger brothers, or near 
relatives of Rajas. Thus in Reg. VIII. of 1795, Sec. X., B&bus 
are defined to mean '^persons of the (Benares) Raja's blood and 
family.'' In the East, B&bu is also applied to Mussalmans, as 
B&bu Musharraf Ali Khan of Taluka B&z Bah&dur in A'zam- 
garh. — E. add. 

The term B&bu is now very generally used by Europeans and 
natives alike, especially in Bengal and Behar, as a title of 
Zamind&rs and native gentlemen of wealth and position who 
have no other special title. The Zamind&r of Madhoban in 
Parganah Mehsi of Champ&ran has the title of '^R&jkum&r 
Babu," to indicate his descent from the family of the Rajas of 
Sheohar and Maharajas of Betiya (Bettiah). This title has been 
confirmed by Government ; but in most cases the title of B4bu 
alone is assumed and conferred at the pleasure of the people 
themselves. — ^B. 

B4gh, ^b 

Bdghiehab, ^^^^V 

A garden. B&ghichah or B&ghchah is the diminutive of 
B&gh.— E. 

PART rv. — CRURAL LIPB. 226 

Baghichah is generally used as synonymous with «^qiO 
phulw&ri, a garden attached to a gentleman's house. B&gh 
is applied to large orchards and mango groves which pay 
revenue to Government. — B. 

Bagar, J\i in^ 

A hedge of thorns or twigs. — Hoshangabad. 
Bindhna is used in the same sense in Benares, and B&r in the 
rest of the North West. 

B4h&, \jb\i ^TfT 

A watercourse ; generally an artificial one, but in Dehli it is 
applied to a natural one ; and Eah&l and Eh&l& which generally 
signify natural, are there applied to artificial watercourses. 

To plough. The word is in common use, but is not appa- 
rently mentioned in any dictionary, except GKlchrist's. 

Bdhan, ^^L irTfT 

Fallow land, from Bahna Ujbb to plough. 

Sahara, ^U ^TfTT 

The man who stands at the well to upset the water from the 
Charas, q.v. — Dehli. 

Baj, ^b -mm 

A tax ; a tolL Originally, tribute taken by one king from 
another. The " Burhfin-i KAti' '' and the " Haft Kulzam" say— 

The word is also frequently written tb. See Altamghi, 
Part in. 

TOL. n. 16 


B&jra, ijsAi ^l^ITT 

Bajrf, i^g^U inw^ 

{Panicum spieatum, Boxb.) (Solcm spieatus, Linn.) B&jr4 
is everywhere cultivated in these Provinces ; but very sparingly 
to the East of Allahabad. The B&jri is a smaller species of 
millet than the B&jr&i and ripens a month before it. Tillage 
Zamind&rs also comprehend by the term B&jrf , the stalk of the 
B&jra, used as fodder.— ^9ee Jour. A.S. Bengal, 1852, p. 158. 

Bakrf, ^^J\i mw^ 

A cow advanced about five months in pregnancy. A smaU 
bufSdo is sometimes called a B&kri. 

Bdkhar, j^\j ifWT 

A house ; an enclosure. Dwellings contained within an 

In Dehli the word is applied to cattle sheds. 

In Bundelkhand, Saugor, and Malwa, it is an agricultural 
implement, a sort of bullock hoe, usually employed instead of 
the plough in the preparation of the black soil of those pro- 
vinces. It has an iron scythe, in the room of a share, about 
twenty inches broad and five deep, fixed to the centre of a beam 
of wood between four and five feet long and six inches broad. 
This scythe enters about eight inches into the groimd, effectually 
eradicating weeds and grass, and the beam pulverising the earth 
as it IB turned up. The land intended for the Sharif, or rainy 
season crop, is once turned by this instrument before the seed is 
scattered. It is then ploughed to cover the seed, and protect it 
against the birds. The Babi land is turned up two or three 
times with the B&khar daring the rains, and sown with the drill 
plough about eight inches deep. 

Bakand, d:S\i ^rntif 

The proportion of two-fifths of the crop, which is sometimes 

PAET rV. — nxrSLAL LTPB. 227 

paid 88 rent by ooltiyators to Zammd&n. It is also known as 
Pachdo, Paohdoliy ue. do (two) out of pancli (fiye). 

B&l, JV mm 

An ear of com. 

Bala, lb wrUT 

A grab which eats the young plants of wheat or barley when 
they are about six inches high. — Benares. 

Baldkh^mah, ij\^i\j 

An upper story; a ^^ balcony/' of which word B&l&kh&nah 
is the origin. 

Bdndh) 2rjJb wfv 

An embankment. — See Bandhan. 

Banl, ^b ^nft 

Besides the meanings given ordinarily in the dictionaries it is 
the name of a yellow earth with which potters sometimes orna- 
ment their vessels. In parts of Bohilkhand it is called Kapas. 

Bdnga, \f}U ^tm 

Baw cotton ; not confined to one species, as mentioned in the 

Binjh, ^fltHj wh| ' 

Barren. From the Sanskrit ^^W* It u sometimes used as 
an abbreviation of the word Banjar^ which owns the same root. 

Bank, clCb wtm 

A bend in a river. From the Sanskrit root m to be curved. 

Bansa, lnJb ^fm 

From (j«Jb B&ns, a bamboo ; the channel through which the 


seed descends in a drilling machine. In Dehli it is generally 
known by the name of Oma. In the North- West the Bansa is 
generally fixed to the ordinary plough. The month in which 
the seed is cast is called Daar& or N&1& in the East, and Waira 
in the West.— See Haltadi. 

In Benares the entire drilling machine is called T&r. It is a 
separate instroment, and not attached to the ordinary plough. 

Bans, c/**^^ ^tNt 

A bamboo. It has not, as far as I am aware, been noticed in 
any work that the bamboo seldom flowers in Bengal till just 
before its death. At least, so say the natives, and my own 
experience confirms the supposition. The flowering of the 
bamboo is said to bring ill-luck to the owner of it. — ^B. 

Bansari, s^/^V ^lnO 

A weed found in parts of the Do&b near the Jumna, which is 
very injurious, choking the crops, and most difficult to eradicate 
from arable land. 

Bauni, ^j\i Wr^ 

Seed time, also the act of sowing. — ^Bohilkhand and Do&b ; 
called Baug in Benares and Beh&r, and Ber& in Dehli. 

Baoli, ^^\i ^fnfN^ 

In upper India a large well where the water Ues deep, and 
steps and galleries underground are made to giye access to 
it.— E. add. 

Bdkld, HSb 

A bean; pot-herbs; the kidney bean {Phaaeolus fmlffaris). 
From the Arabic Jaj. From which root is also derived the 
familiar word Bakk&l J^^, the Arabic name of a Banya, or 
grain seller ; but, originally, a person who sells pot-herbs and 
beans ; a greengrocer. 


Bar, JfU ^T? 

A fence ; a hedge; a margin. Also Berha. 

Bar, j\i i^TT 

Bara, }ij\j uttt 

Perquisite of the Ahir in milk ^ generally the milk of every 
eighth day, — ^Rohilkhand. 

B&ra are also the little fibrous roots of trees, which are 
favorable to transplanting. — ^E. add, 

Barahi, ^\j\i wrni^ 

Land, according to the dictionary in the '' Tuhfatu'l Hind." 

Baxbardari, ^j^^Jj^. ^\K^Ki\(S 

Carriage hire. From the Persian jl; b&r, a load, and LSj\*^ji 
bard&rf, conveyance. 

A plot for sugarcane or other garden produce; an enclosed 
piece of ground ; a kitchen garden ; also cotton. From the 
Hindi Jb or jV *^ enclosure. 

Bdrhf, ^^JU ^ 

Interest in kind, paid upon seed grain. From l:J^^ barhnd, 
to increase, to rise, to advance. 

Bdrik, Cij\i ^Tfl?l 

Bain ; according to the Dictionary in the '' Tuhfatu'l Hind." 

Bariz, j^b ^^fTft'l 

A term in arithmetio. The page of an account book is 
divided into two equal parts called Zillah ; each Zillah is divided 
into two Rakans. The right hand Zillah is called the Hasho. 
The first right hand quarter (some say half) of the left Zillah 



is appropriated to the Bariz, and the remaining portion is called 
the Ir&da. The Bariz contains the sum finally brought to 
account, after the necessary deductions have been made from 
the gross amount in the Ir&da and Hasho, q.v., also see Printed 
Glossary, s.v. 

Basmatf, ^A^^, WRRPft 

A fragrant kind of rice and millet. From Hindi WTV scent. 
— See Dhan and Jaw&r. 

Bdtin, j:\i ^Tfini 

A tract of land in Etawah, lying between the river Jumna 
and the Ghar (which see). 

Bawag, ^U 

Seed time.— Eastern Ondli* — See BaooiL 
The act of sowing. — ^B. 

Bechirdgh, t]>?"«=^ %t*na? 

Without a vestige; (a village) mined beyond hope. It 
means, literally, without a light; ^«^ privative, and ^jf- a 

Seed bed ; also air, wind. In the former aense the word is 
usually spelt with an J. 

In DehU, the evening is called Biy&r. 

In Saugor, it signifies waste land fit for cultivation. 

In the Lower Do&b, it is used in the same sense as Fatti is 
elsewhere ; that is, as a sub-division of a village. 

Bias, ^^\j f^mnr 

Land cultivated, to be sown in the following year; field 
under preparation for rice cultivation. The wozd is chiefly used 
in Bohilkhand. 


Bfdd, \Li 4^ 

Mounds. — E. OudL The word is probably a oorniption of 
y^ uneyen, rugged ground. 

Sterile land ; uneven or cragged land ; waste land ; land full 
of ravines. 

Bijmar, j^**^ wNTfT 

Failure of germination. From ^ seed, and UjU to strikoi to 
kill.— See Abij. ^ 

A description of soil in which the cereal grains are generally 
grown. — ^Lower Do&b. 

Insurance. The word is also written ^U^. 

Bind, jo^ 4)i^ 

A reed ; a rush. 

Bfnda, tx^ if¥lT ' 

A kind of rope made of grass or of the fibres of the Arhar 
plant. The word appears to be derived from U>lW to plait, to 
braid. Hence i^jLj the hair plaited behind. 

Bit, ^ ^ 

Pasturage. The word is in general use, but is most common 
in Dehli and the Saugor territory. 

A parcel made up of betel leaves and other ingredients, called 
Pan sop&ri, which comprises betel leaves, areca or betelnut, 
catechu, quick-Ume, aniseed, coriander seed, cardamums and 
cloves.— K&ntin-i Islam. 


Eirbanf, l^^/^ ^ft^wrfV 

A common expression in the North West, particularly among 
the J&ta, applied to designate a man's own wife. The word 
^fV^ vira signifies in Sanskrit a warrior ; a man. B&ni is derived 
from the Sanskrit ^ftni Yanit4, a woman. 

Bit, JUj *Z 

A Dehli word. — See explanation under Ang. 

Begdr, J^L) ^imc 

Begdri, ^J^ ^'TT^ 

A person forced to work and carry burdens. Under the 
former regime, he got no pay. Now, though he gets pay, yet 
if he is ordered to work by any public official, he is stiU 
generally called Beg&r. 

In Shakespear's and Smyth's dictionaries these words are 
represented as Hindi, but they are Persian also, and are 
entered in all the best Persian Lexicons. 

And the " Hafb Ktdzam" adds that the word is spelt either 
Begar or Bekar. 

Behnaur, ^y^ ^ffK 

Behan, ^^^^ ^ 

Nursery for rice plants. — E. Oudh and Benares. — ^Panir is 
more commonly used in the North West, and J4yi in Bundel- 
khand. Piad in Dehli is used as a nursery, not only of rice, 
but of any other plant. 

Behrab, g^ ^^KJ 

Grass kept for pasturage. — ^Bohilkhand. 
The word is probably a corruption of Bir, q,v. 


Bejhara, Ij^acu f^WP 

A mixed crop^ generally of gram and barley. 

Bekas^ (jii^ 

A kind of grass growing in low ground, which resembles the 
Dub, but its leaves and stem are larger. It is good fodder for 
homed cattle, but is reckoned injurious to horses. It grows 
throughout the North West Provinces. 

Beb, ,^^ ^^ 

Babar, ^b ^TRT 

A grass firom which a twine is made, which is much used for 
native beds. B&bar is also much used for thatching. 

Bel, J-; %ir 

Bel is the name applied to a spot in which the receiving pans 
are placed when sugar is manufactured. In most places the 
pans amount to three, Kar&h, Ch&snf, and Fhulh&, the first 
being the biggest, and Ch&sni, which occupies a place between 
the other two, the smallest. In Dehli, Bojh sometimes takes the 
place of the Kar&h and Kar4hi of the Ch&sni; the Fhulhd 
being frequently omitted, especially of late years. 

Bel is also the name of the thorny quince ((Effle Marmelo%) 
and the single Arabian jasmine {Jasminum Satnbac). Also a 
creeper, a tendril, a pole for directing a boat, a spade, or hoe. 

BelbtitA, 15^ ^^1^ 

A bush. From Bel a tendril, and Btit&, a flower. 


Belchd, U^ >ir^ 

A small hoe, or spade. Diminutives of Bel. 

Belkf, ^^ ^iNIt 

A cattle grazier. — ^BaittU. 


Belak, cKLrf ^IW 

A small mattock. — See Bel, Belchak. 

Bent, (JUi-* ^ 

The handle of aa axe^ hoe^ and siiiular implementa. Bent is 
the correct word; bat it ia generallj pronounced Bit& in Bobil- 
khandy and Bint& in Dehli. 

Byohdr, ^Uj-j ^Jtfnc 

Money lending, or traffic of any kind ; a calling ; a trade. 

In Jabalptir, the name ia applied to a Kanungo. The Sadr 
Byoh&r, besides his salary, holds large rent-free estates. From 
Sansk. ^^^TfTC. 

Bera, ^ ^ 

The lotus of the ancients. J.A.S.B. 1847, p. 235.— See 

A groye of Ber trees. The Ber is the Zizyphua jt^uha. — See 

Birdr Fandia, \J^\j^ji f*liK ^itft^ 

In Baitul and the Deccan, is the Kantingo of the I^orth West 

Berhd, Uj-^ ^ 

A paling. From Be^hn&y to enclose with a fence, to surromid. 
See next article. 

Berhnd, Uj^ ^yirr 

Besides the meaning above given^ the word signifies in the 
Do&by Bundelkhand, and Eohilkhand, ** to drive off cattle by 
force/' In this sense it is used generally in Hindustan^ but 
Khedke Iej&n& is the equivalent term in the Behli territory. 


BesM, .Ji^ ^ 

^J Ma ^* 

Increase ; (snrpitu : Fran the Persian (jm^ more. 

Besan, ^^.i.*^ ^^Tf 

The flour of poise; especially of Ghan& (gram), or the chick 
pea, used for washing with. 

Beth, Aj i|3 

Sandy nnproduotiye soiL— Bohilkhand. 

Bhdnkarf, s&^W 'rt^ 

A jungle shrub found in great abundance in the Behli 
territory. It differs in no respect £rom the Gokru, q.v. It is 
used as a specific in certain complaints, and to attract purchasers 
its Tulgar name is transformed by the druggists into Hasd 

Bhat, c^lf; nm 

Advances to ploughmen without interest* — ^Benares and 
Eastern Oudh. 

Bhantd is used in this sense in Bohilkhand. 

Bh&t is also the name of a soil to the north of the Cbnges 
that retains its humidity for a long time, and contains a large 
quantity of nitre. It is a peculiar soil, and is not found West 
of the Cbmdak. 

In the Lower Do&b and Bundelkhand, Bh&t means uneven 
ground. — See Bhattia. 

Bhit, v«^ iftz 

»' » '•a 

An elevation of earth made near a tank for iihe purpose ot 
planting Pan ; mounds of a tank ; the vestige of an old house. 

BheM, ^ ^ 

A lump of coarse sugar ; generally consisting of four or five 


Bhis, ^j^ finr 

The edible root of the Lotus. The correct word is in^T 
Bhasinr, but it is proyincially corrupted into Bhisend&y Bhis^ 
and Basend. 

Bhoi, Jje iftt 

Used in the neighbourhood of the Narmadd (Nerbudda), to 
signify a '^bearer/' The same word is used in the Peninsula, 
and corrupted by Europeans into '^ hoj" Hence the exclamation 
of ''boy/' so commonly used at Madras, is not, as has been sup- 
posed, a pure English, but a corruption of Bhoi. 

Bhoi is also, to the South of the Kerbudda, applied to designate 
the head of a Gond village. 

Bhtimiya, L#jf ^fiWT 

Landlord ; a proprietor, of the soil ; descendant of the 
founder of the village. It is derived from ^|^ land. Li Ajmer 
it is the title of a village watchman who has land assigned him 
for maintenance. Tod. i. 497. 

BhAmiyawat, c:^jL«^ ^)^«|iqn 

A general plundering, or more correctly a fight between 
neighbouring Zamind&rs about landed property. — Saugor. 

One who cultivates with a borrowed plough or hand instru- 
ment. — Central Do&b. 

BMnhard, 1^^ ^jf^ 

A subterraneous dwelling; according to the Dictionary of 
Khan Arzu. 

Bhtir, ;^ ^ 

A sandy soil. The word is frequently pronounced Bhtida. 
It is in Sah&ranptir the same as the tract called Bh&bar in 


Bhurarf, ^j^^ g^ 

A term applied to the com which remams in the ear after 
being trodden out. — Bohilkhand and Delhi. 

The corresponding word in Benares and the Lower Do&b is 
Linduriy and in the Upper and Lower Do&b, Dobri, Fakuri, and 

These words are applied to the Babi' grains chiefly, as 
wheat, barley, etc. To Jaw&r, Mung, etc. Chanchari, Gdri, 
Eosi, Karahl and Thanthl are more commonly applied. 

Bhus, ^^^ v^ 

Bhtisa, <u^^ ^9T 

The hnsk of com ; chafll The English gipsies use Pus in the 
same sense. (Trans. B.A.S. vol. ii., p. 543). 

Bhusaurf, <4jf^. ^^W 

Bhusauld, "iyl^^ ygS^^ 

Bhusehra, Vv**^ ^^fTT 

The place in a dwelling house for keeping straw. These 
terms are in general use ; but Obr& ]^^1 is also so applied in 

Bhiisra, \^ ^^^cm 

An inferior kind of wheat, i.e. one which yields too great a 
proportion of bran (^T). — Saugor. 

Bhutta, 15^ ^ 

The corn-cob or ear of Tndian com ; any large bimch. 

Bhor, ^^ ^ 

Dawn of day. 

Bhadd, ll^ 9HT 

A kind of grass which grows in poor soil, attaining the 
height of a little more than a foot. It makes excellent fodder. 

238 SUPPLElfXllTAIi OL088AKT. 

Bhadbhad&n&y ^W«^ ^^^^1^1 

Used in the Upper Do&b in the same sense as Bhad&har 
(which see). It also means the shaking of frcdt from a tree. 
Shakespear does not give this application of the term in his 
Dictionary ; bnt bhadbhad and bhadbhad&hat, are said in it to 
denote the sound which is made by the &31 of fruits. 

Bhadw&r, jI^j^ VPia^rrK 

Land prq>ared for sugar cane; land ploughed during the 
Eharify and allowed to lie fallow till cotton is sown; land 
ploughed from As&rh to Bhadon for the Babi sowings. The 
name is derived from Bhadon, apparently because the entire 
rain of that month is allowed to saturate the field when 
ploughed. It is called Bhadw&r Par&ly from Pam&y to lie 
fallow, in parts of Bohilkhand and the Do&b. 


Bhadaf, ^Jj^^ n^ 

The produce of the month Bhadon. [Especially applied in 
Behar to the early rice crop. See Aghani. It is alao pro- 
nounced Bhadol H<^tl^ i^^'^]- 

Bhang, csA^ ^ 

Bhang, i^\^ v^ 

In Persian Bang. An intoxicating drink made from the 
leaves of the Cannabis saiiva. The plant from which it is 
made has female flowers; the male being the G&nja plant, 
which is also applied to the purpose of intoxication, and is 
usually inhaled from a pipe. It is commonly considered that 
there is no difference between the plants which produce Bhang 
and G-&nja, but natives generally recognise the distinction of the 
male and female plant noted above. 

O'Shaughnessy says that Bang, or Sidhi, or Sabzi, consists 


of the large leaves and capsules without the stalksy but makes 
no allusion to Bhang being produced from a plant different firom 
that which produces Gdnja. 

The best Bhang of the N. W. Provinces comes from Bahr&ich 
and its neighbourhood, and from Dandw&ri in £anauj ; the best 
O&nja, from Rajsh&hf, in Bengal Bhang is also known by the 
name of Bijaya (See Ganja). 

Bhangela, ^djC^j iKitm 

A sack or pannier made from the fibres of the Bhang plant. 
It is not so coarse or strong as the Gon. 

Bhangra, h^^m itw^ 

A small creeping herb with minute flowers which grows in a 
wet soil ( Verbesina prosirata). There are said to be two species, 
the white and the black. The white is very common, and Ib 
much used in medicinal preparations; the black is unknown, 
but is much sought after by alchymists, and is reputed by native 
practitioners to be a panacea. 

Share, ^^ ir^ 

A grass which grows in the jungles to the height of about 
nine feet, and is used for thatches and tatties. Its canes are 
known by the name of fTdnre. 

Bhama, U^ vAx 

To give property in re-payment of a debt, literally, " to fill up.'* 

Bharannd, Uj^ ^rfhlT 

A load of wood. — Ghardibu'l Lugh&t. 

Bhattiya, <uS^ i|fz^ 

The poorest kind of land in the Saugor territory and Bundle- 


khand. It is of a reddish colour, and has Kankar and other stones 
mixed up with it. It is very shallow in depth, and generally 
exhausted at the end of the third year, after which it requires 
a fedlow of four years to restore it. Only Kodo and Kutki, and 
the poorest sort of com can be raised on this kind of land. It 
is more generally called Bhatti and Bhatua in Bundelkhand. — 
See "Spry's Mod. India," n. 276. 

Bhatkataiya, \i^^, M^^^ijm 

(Solanum Jacquini). There are two kinds of this herb accord- 
ing to the ^^Talif-i Sharif;" the white is usually called the 
Kat&i, and the large and red kind the Barehta. The flower is 
called Qulkh&r Le. '^rose-thorn." It may be doubted if this 
statement is quite correct. There are generally reckoned to be 
four kinds of Kataiya, of which the Bhatkataiyd, frequently 
miscalled the camel's thorn, is one, and the common people, who 
see these weeds growing wild, do not acknowledge that there 
are two kinds of Bhatkataiy&. The only Bhatkataiyd which they 
know is much used in yeterinaiy practice, particularly in 
diseases which affect horned cattle. It is also devoutly believed 
that if the roots of the Bhatkataiyd, are shown to a man bitten 
by a snake, he immediately recovers. — (See Jawasa). 

The other three kinds of Kataiya are the following. 

Bang £ataiya. This resembles a common thistle, and is not 
applied to any useful purpose. It is known also by the name of 
Saty&n&si, and found in all parts of the country. 

Gol Kataiya. This is not so erect as the others, but spreads 
more over the surface of the ground. It has purple flowers 
and produces a roimd berry. It is frequently used in native 

Kataiya proper. This is the largest of the four, and is more 
frequently found in jungles than near the abode of man. It is 
a prickly shrub, growing to the height of ten or twelve feet, and 
does not at all resemble the other Kataiyas. 


Bhatolar, )j^^ v;itmK 

Lands allotted to Bhats or Bards. 

Bhatul&, idS^ MipiT 

The name given to bread made from the grain of Arhar, 
Ohan& and Mung. It is called also G&nkar. It is notorious 
for its hardness, and is therefore seldom eaten by those who oan 
afford to grow or purchase the better grains. 

Bhafnl^ is said to have been the cause of the elevation of the 
Bhadauri&Sy and the story, absurd as it may appear, is commonly 
believed in the neighbourhood of Bhad&war, and is not denied 
by the Bhadauri&s themselves. One of the Bhadauri& chiefs, 
Gopal Singh, went to pay his respects to the Emperor Muham- 
mad Shah. The chief had very large eyes, so much so, as to 
attract the attention of the Emperor, who asked him how he 
obtained them. The chief, who was a wit, replied that in his 
district nothing but Arhar was grown, and that from the con- 
stant practice of straining at swallowing Bhatuld, his eyes had 
nearly started out of his head. The Emperor was pleased at his 
readiness, and bestowed on him other Parganahs on which he 
could produce the finer grains. — See Bhadauri&. 

Bhatthl, ,-|2^ ^ 

A liquor shop ; a distillery. 

Bhatthfdar, J<*^y^. ^^<K 

A person who manufactures and sells spirituous liquors. 

Bhawan, ^^^ iWW 

A house ; a temple ; a fort. 

Bhaiyib&nt, cS^VW ^^J^ttZ 

See Bhaibant and Bhaiy&ch&ra. 

▼OL. U. 16 


Bihand, «Lyj fwi^ 

Land out up by a torrent ; according to the Ghar&ibn'l-logli&t. 

Bikrf, ^/j finSt 

Sale. From Bikn& l:Xf to be sold. 

Bilahbandi, ^^xjA) fwwtfw^i^ 

The Glossary is correct under Bflabandy ; but in the North 
West^ the word is most usually applied to arrangements made 
for securing the revenue. 

Billf-lotan, Ji^^, WNtCT 

Valerian. The name is derived from its reputed effect upon 
catSy who are said to be so delighted with its fragrance, as to 
roll about in their ecstasies. From billi ^^ a cat, and lotn& 
\ijji to wallow ; to roll. 

Bilaungl, ^^L f^4tt^ 

A species of grass. 

Binauld, ^^ f«r^7tWT 

Cotton seed. It is much used as fodder for cattle, and when 
steeped in oil makes a capital lamp. 

Binauriyd, ijjjuj Ol4ir<€|| 

The name of a herb which grows about a foot and a half high 
in fields which have been sown with Kharif crops. It bears 
several little flowers of a purple colour, and is given as fodder to 
homed cattle. 

Birhdna, <oU^ Pl^flill 

Lands in which culinary herbs are produced, — Bohilkhand. 


BirinjpMl, ii^J ftfC^np 

A species of rice. — See Dhan. 

Birkah, ^^ fMir 

A pond ; a Eonall well. 

Birrd, O ftfi 

Grram and barley sown in the same field. Bejara and Bejar 
are the more usual terms. 

In Dehli it is applied to Chan^ or gram, injured by wet. 

It is also the name of a ceremony connected with the building 
of a house.— E. Oudh. 

Birwa, 1^ fir^^ 

A tree. In Eastern Oudhit is the name given to the labourer 
employed upon the Dauri or Beri, ^.t?. 

Birw&hl, ^\^j fSrwrit 

An orchard. From Birwa Vj^ a plant ; a tree. 

Bisati, ^^W twnft 

A pedlar. From the Hindi Bis&t ci^^Uuj means ; capital ; stock. 
The Arabic Biz&'at cu^cLi^ has also the same signification. 
''Pars opum/' says Golius, ''qusB impenditur in mercaturam, 
lucroque exponitur.'^ Bisfiti, etc., is sometimes spelt with an 
Arabic ^ but incorrectly ; though, as Bis&t )o\mi means a carpet 
spread out, there may appear to be some reason in calling .^^ 
a pedlar ; as in that mode Bis&t(s usually dispose of their goods 
at country fairs. 

Bishnprltddr, j^*^^i:r^ OmiDd^K 

Gbantees of Brahmin caste to whom land has been assigned 
in the name of Bishn or Yishnu, from religious and charitable 
motives by Zamind&rs.*-Benares. — ^E. Oudh. 


A proYinoial term in Eimi&on for a kind of Taldkd&r, whose 
office is in the gift of Gbyermnent. 

Biskhapra, ^ j ^4^ ft^wnCT 

The name of a grass which is used in medicine (Trianthema 
pentandra). It spreads oveif the ground^ and forms a circle of 
nearly a yard in diameter. 

Bisahrti, j^fuj f^TOflb 

A purchaser. From Bisalm& \:>4^ to buy. 

Bithak, C^, fws^ 

Ant hiIls.^Eastem Oudh and Benares. Literally, a seat or 
platform, where people meet to converse.* 

Bitaura, ifjj:j frft^ 

A heap of dried cow dung, called Battaiya in Bohilkhand. 

Bitr&bandi, t/^ir^ f^RT^^ 

The same as Bilahbandi, q.v. — Saugor. 

Bo, y ^ 

Cultivation. It is usually combined with Jot, which signifies 
the same. Bo is the verbal root of Bon&, to sow. 

Boara, \Ji^ WtWTT 

Seed time ; sowing. Bo&i ^\^, B&wag v^U, and Boni ^^^ 
are also used. From Bon& Ujj, to sow. 

* Also, and perhaps more generally, espeoially in the second sense it is apelt^ 
bai^iak, from ^I^JiH ^ ^^ — ^' 


Bob, My ^tW 

The sowing of grain by the drilL — ^Bondelkhand. 
The term Jaiyd is so applied in Dehli ; and Wair in Bohil- 
khand and the Do&b.— See Bansa. 

Boda, by Wt^ 

A bn&lo. — Sangor. 

Bodar, jjy Wt^ 

A place to stand on for throwing the Daurl or basket by which 
water is raised to a higher leyel. — ^Benares. 

Paird is the corresponding word in Dehli.--49ee Danri, Boka, 

Bofb&chh, ^^^^y. '^ftfytPt 

Assessment to be realized on cultiyation. — ^DehlL From \jy 
to sow and ^i>^J seleotiony division. See Printed Glossary under 

Bojh, -fry Win 

Literally, a load. In agricnltaral language it comprises 
about five Dhokas of com. — See Dabia and BeL 

Bojbbatdf, ij^.^y. ^ftU^ZT^ 

A mode of division by stocks, or bmidles of mowed com. — 
Bohilkhand. It is derived from the preceding word. 

Bok&, i^j) wtlT 

A basket, pail, or leather bag, for throwing water to a higher 
elevation : called also Beri and Dauri (which see). This word 
is not in Shakspeare's Dictionary, bat it would appear to be 
common in India. 

BH ^Ji V( 

Literally, existing; being; from the Persian Oy ''was." 


In fiscal langaage Bud is mncli used in combination with other 
words, as Hastobddy Bud-nabdd. — See Hastobdd. 

Buk, diy ^ 

Land recovered by the recession of a river. — Bohilkhand> 

B6kara, \j\^y, ^JiTTT 

Bears the same meanings .but is applied only when the land is 
rendered useless, by a deposit of sand. — Bohilkhand. 

Bnlandi, v/*^ ^^'"^ 

High land. From Buland, high. 

Bun, ^^ in 

TJnground coffee. Coffee before it is made into kahwa ^j^ . 

Bunga, ^^y^ ^n 

A stack of Bh&a, or straw. It is frequently pronounced Bonga. 

Biint, l2^^ ^ 

A green unripe gram (Cicer arietinum). — See Ghan&. 
Also used for gram in general 

Burida, x^j) «|Ct<T 

Fields cut by stealth by a cultivator. From the Persian 
burldan (^^ to cut down. — Bohilkhand. 

Burrf, ^^ ^ 

Sowing, by dropping seed from the hand into the farrow; 
instead of sowing broadcast, or with the drill. The words 
Gurri, GKdll, Si, are also so applied. 

Bora, gjy^ iJtTT 

A sack for holding rice. 


Boro, jjl^ ^ttt 

Marsh rice. The " Fad/* which is added to the word in the 
Printed Glossary, means the harvest of this rice. 

Bauchhdr, jW*^ ^ftWIT 

Wind and driving rain. 

Baulf, ^^ ^Wt 

Synonymous with a Ehas settlement, according to section 12, 
Beg. IX. of 1805. The word may be presumed to be meant for 
BhaoU. In Behar it is equivalent to Bat&i, q,v. 

Bo4f, ^y, ifnAi 

Sowing. Boni, Bawera and Boara have the same meaning. — 

Babtil, J^ W^ 

Babtir, j^ ^^ 

The name of a tree. Called also Kikar {Acacia Arabica^ Boxb.) 
— See Printed Glossary under Bavalla. The wood is much used 
in making agricultural implements, such as ploughs, sugar 
mills, etc., and in the construction of carts. The Babtil pro- 
duces also a valuable gum, and its bark, being a powerful astrin- 
gent, is used in tanning by Gham&rs. 

Bddaml, i<*^*^V 'IT^T^t 

A species of rice. (See further under Dhan.) 

Badbdcha, ^L>-bjj if^innr 

A false or fraudulent Bach or division. — ^DehlL 

Badf, 4^j^ iT^ 

The dark half of the month ; firom full to new moon. 


A disease affecting Jaw&r, B&jra, sagar cane, and Indian 
com, which prevents the head from shooting. 

Bagar, jL irk 

Pasture ground. — ^Bundelkhand. 
Applied generally as synonymous with Banjar. 

Bagari, ^p^ iRft 

A species of rice cultivated chiefly in the province of Benares. 

Bahera, 2r^ ^^^ 

The Belleric Myrobalan {Terminalia hellericay Boxb.) 

Bajiddr, j'*NfflF7 ^"Pft^TT 

An agricultural servant in Bohilkhand who takes com as a 
recompense for his labour, in distinction to a Mihdar who 
receives money. The latter is derived from ^ -* r^ labour, 
and might therefore apply equally to both. 


Stalk of cereals, without the ear.^Eastem Oudh and 

Bak&r&, \j\L ^^irrn 

Intelligence forwarded by word of mouth. From Bak Cj\j 

Bakel, JJj ^i)Ar 

Twine made from the root of the Dhak tree. The word is 
chiefly used in the Eastern Provinces, not in the North- West. 

Bakh&, l^ WOT 

Grass kept for pasturage. — ^Bohilkhand. 


Bakhdr, jl^^ ^'BK 

Bakh&ri, i^l^Jj ip^nft 

A granary or store house. — "Eh&D. Arz6 spells it .Uar • 

Bakhar, j^^ 

A kind of plough or bullock hoe in use in Bundelkhand^ 
Saugor and Malwa. Its use has been fully described under 
B&khar, but the more correct and usual pronunciation is Bakhar. 

Bakolf, J^ irtWft 

Name of a green caterpiUar destructiye to rice crops. 

Baldhar, jibh wmWK 

A low caste servant; a village guide or messenger. The word 
is not generally in use to the East of AUahabad. In the 
'' Ghar&ibu'l Logh&f' it is spelty» jL Balfidhar. The word is 
probably derived from bulana \jh to call ; to summons ; just as 
another village menial, the Daur&ha, is derived (rem, daurna 
U^4> to run. 

Balbhog, ^}e^. ^WRftW 

Taking possession by force of another's right. The word is 
derived from the Sanskrit Bal WUt force, and Bhog ^ftV pos- 
session; wealth; enjoyment. 

Bald, Ai inr^ 

Bullocks ; homed cattle. The word is not in the Dictionaries, 
though Baldiya U jjj is given as a cow-herd, a bullock driver. 

Baldeo, ^dL 

A cow-herd. From the preceding word. 

Balua, 1^ W^m 

Sandy. The word is used chiefly in Benares. — See Doras. 


The name of a kind of soil in Azimgarh. The origin of all 
these words is b&ld JU sand. 

Bamithd, l^L«j ^^t^ 

A term applied to ant hills in the Lower Do&b. B&mbhi 
^|jb which is the correct word, is nsed in the N'orth West, 
and Bithak in Eastern Oudh. Also a snake-hole. Probably 
derived firom ITifP a stinging insect, and WHt a place. 

Bamhni, i^^^^fH ^'f^ 


Light red soil. — ^Eastern Oudh. 

Banbhdnta, ^Wu;; W^mtZT 

The wild egg plant (Solanum melongena), 

Bancharf, ^j^iiA W'Rrtt 

A high jangle grass, the leaves of which are much like the 
Jawar. Wild elephants are very fond of this grass, which is 
known also by the name of Baro. 

Bandd, tjoj ^^ 

A grain magazine above ground. — Saugor. 

Bandhdn, (^^^^ ^^nntTW 

A pension. 

Bandhdn, ^j^*^ i|i|V||i| 

Bandhfa, \^xj ^hft^ 

Baised earthen embankments for flooding lands. B4ndh 
from b&ndhnd LjbJulj to bind, is in more general use. — See 


Bandli&n, ^\ibxj ^tvni 

Bandhtir, jyb^ ^1^ 

Purohase of groin in advance of the harvest. — Sanger. 

Bandhw&s, ^\^^ ^^Tstmn 

Land embanked all round, or in such manner as to retain the 
water. It is also generally applied to level ground; uneven 
ground being called Tagar, and when surrounded by embank- 
ments Tagar Bandhia. — Jabalpdr. 

Bandll, Jxj inn[ifV 

A species of Bohilkhand rice. Galled also Baimunia and 
Tilokchandan. — See Dhan. 

Bandrfj t^j^ ^'Rf^ 

A grass which is found in fields of rice and Kodo. It grows 
to the height of about two feet^ and has an ear, but produces no 
grain. It is used as fodder for cattle. 

Bandt&l, Jljj^ ^^^fllti 

Damming a water course for the purpose of irrigation. 
Bangd, l^ ihn 

Is the name given to the white kind of Sarson (Sinapis 
dichotoma, Boxb.) It is also applied locally to well-water^ 
slightly brackish. — Central Do£b. 

Bangk4, U3!y ihWT 

An aquatic beetle which eats rice plants. It is said to manu- 
facture something like a boat from leaves, and to paddle itself 
along from plant to plant. It is harmless when the water is let 
out from the field. It is also called Katua. — ^Benares. 

Bangkl, ^ ^Hr* 

A species of rice cultivated in Benares. — See Dhan. 


Bangkataiya^ L5,w>» 44m^|,m 

See Jawasa and Bhatkataiya* 

Bangatuithd, \^^^^, ^R^ftST 

Cowdung found in the forests. — See Bankanda. 

Bangaliyd, Uicj ihrfiRn 

literally^ Bengali. A species of rice cnltiyated in the Eastern 
part of these provinces. — See Dhan. 

Banfnh&r, j^Jj ^if^fTT 

The word is used to signify a ploughman^ or labourer, whose 
services are paid in Banni, or in kind. — ^Benares. 

Banjin, ^^^ itftlH 

Land close by the village. 

Also the name of a weed about three feet high^ which springs 
up with Kharif crops. It is much sought after by Fakirs who 
practice Alchemy. 

Bankhaxd, ]^^ ^TiraitT 

Lands on which cotton has grown during the past season. — 
Central Do&b. 

The word is derived from ban, cotton, which though very 
commonly used in this sense, is not in the dictionaries. It is 
not improbable that it is so applied, because a field of cotton 
' bears resemblance to a ban ipf or forest. Baraundha is more 
commonly used in the same sense as Bankhara, in Bohilkhiind 
and the Upper Do&b ; and Mudi (perhaps from U JJ«^ to cut, to 
shave) in Dehli. 

Eapseta is also very generally used for a field of cut cotton ; 
from the Sanskrit karpas mjlil, the cotton plant, or undressed 


Bankanda, ^^i^. ^^^nwwi 

Oowdung found in a jangle or forest, or dried for fiieL From 
Ban ^ a forest, and Kanda \jL^ oowdung. Bangautha is 
also used in this sense. Ami Kandd is likewise applied to this 
useful article of Hindu economy; from the Sanskrit ^VTC^ 
a forest. In Behli this is corrupted into Bana, and coupled 
with Lu^ Gosa, i.e. a cake of cowdung. The familiar words 
I/pla and Gobar are applied to that which is collected at home. 

Bankar^ Ji:j ^pran; 

Spontaneous produce of jungle or forest land, such as gums, 
brushwood, honey, etc.* It is generally supposed that the 
person who possesses the right of collecting Bankar, or any tax 
or cess in lieu of it, holds necessarily a Zamind&ri title in the 
ground which produces it. But this is an erroneous impression. 
The Sudder Dew&ni Adaulat have ruled that the sale of 
Bankar does not convey Zamf nd&ri right. One case is reported 
in which A. purchased, at a public sale, a portion of a Zamin- 
d&ri. — ^B. purchased another portion, besides the bankar of the 
whole estate. The Oourt ruled that the purchase made by B. 
conveyed to him a right over all the forest timber of the entire 
estate, though growing on the portion purchased by A. It was 
declared however that the latter from his right in the soil was 
permitted to clear away the trees, and to cultivate it; the 
proceeds of the timber felled appertaining to B. — (See 
« Reports,'* Vol. II., p. 105.) 

It will be seen also at Section 9, I. of 1804, that the 
British Government consider Bankar as a thing altogether 
distinct from Zamind&ri. 

Bankas, ^jJjj ^wm 

A grass used in making ropes. 

« See J. A. 8. B. for 1845, p. 543.— £. add. 


Baokatf, ^^Lj wmit 

The right obtained by clearing jungle, and bringing it into 
cnltiYation. — ^Benares. 

Banni, ^^ mft 

. A portion of grain given to a labourer as remuneration for 
his services. — ^Benares. 

Bans4) L^ ^nrai 

A grass which grows in fields of rice and d&l. It is given as 
fodder for cattle. 

Bansf, j^^«*ij 'Prtft 


A kind of wheat with blackish ears, — ^Hoshang&bad. 

Bantarid, b/uj ^^R^r 

A class of wood rangers in some of the northern Parganahs 
of Gbrakhpdr, holding about 20,000 acres granted by the native 
government in lieu of police services. As the services are no 
longer performed, the lands have been resumed, and settled at 
very easy rates with the occupant Bantari&s. 

Bar, y. ^ 

The Banian tree ; the large Bengal or Indian fig tree 
(^<^ Indica)^ It is commonly also known as the Bargat 

Bardhf, ^1^ wmft 

A small species of sugar cane. — Saugor, Lower Do&b, and 

Barar, j\ji ^^kjk 

Tod says (Annals of Raj. Vol. I. p. 143). "Barrar is an 


indefinite term for taxation^ and is connected with the thing 
taxedy as Halbarrar, plongh-tax/' 

An apportionment of Bhyachara Eists (or instalments of rent) 
according to the agreement of the Tillage community. Gene- 
rally, any diTision ; bearing much the same meaning as B&chh. 

The wordy though common in the Do&b and Western India, 
is not foimd in Hindi dictionaries. 

Barban, ^^ irff 

A North wind according to E[han Arzti. — See D&ndw&ra. 

Bardf, c^j^j ^^ 

Light stony soiL Also Bard&r. — Saugor. 

Barehtd, \S^j ^l^fZT 

Land of the third quality ; also a plot of ground on which 
sugar cane has been lately grown. — Saugor. See Bhatkataiya. 

Barej, ^ 

Barejd, Ur^ nfn 

A betel or p&n garden. 

Bargan, J^j w^im 

Partition ; a share. — ^Hoshangabad. 

Barhd, U^ ^^[fT 

A channel for the passage of water from a well to a field, 
or from one field to another. To the eastward it may be con- 
sidered the smallest size of watercourse; the size in the as- 
cending scale is indicated by the terms Barh&, Nalki, Nell, Narw& 
and GtiL But in the West, Barh& is by no means a small 
water course. The word is probably deriTcd frt)m Barhna Li^ 
to increase, though the usual mode of spelling it is against that 


A field in which oowb are fed ; a rope, or string ; especially 
one by which a harrow is drawn, or one that is thrown over a 
cart to keep the load from felling or getting injured. 

In parts of Central and Upper Do&b| Barh& is the term 
applied to the land of a township which is feffthest from the 
homestead. B&r& is the nearest to the village ; Manjha between 

Barhiyd, Uj; ^T^f^ 

The name of a sugar millstone, extracted from the Ohanar 

Barhotarf, s£/y^ ^^t^rft 

See Barhi. 

Barkuiyan, Jo^jf ^^TfT* 

A Eachha weU, i.e. one without a cylinder of masonry. — ^E. 

Baro, jji irfr 

The name of a high jungle grass. — See Banchari. 

BaronkhA, l^ji^ W^ 

A kind of sugar cane with long thin joints. 

Baranndha, ^«^ir^ ^^^tw 

Cotton land. — Bohilkhand. 

Barroh, y^ wcff 

A name given to the uplands in the Parganah of J&nibrast, 
i.e. the right bank of the Jumna, Zillah Etowah. 

BaTs4n&, UL^ infr^rT 

To winnow the grain ; literally, to cause to rain. 

PART rv. — RURAL LIFE, 257 

Bartush, ^^ ^^^ 

Land sown with sugar cane, after a rice crop. — ^Bohilkhand. 

Barat, cjy i|^ 

A disease which affects rice crops. 

A leathern girth, or large cable; especially one used for 
drawing water by a pdr, or large well bag. 

In the Dehli territory, Barat, or Barit, is also used to signify 
the Government Jama, or a portion of it,— See Bharit. 

Basfkat, c:JL^ injN?f 

Inhabited, From Basna L«^ to dwelL 

Baslt, c:^^ ,^ 

The head manager in a viUage ; the same as Mahetya or 
Mukaddam. — Central Do&b. 

Basend, JL^ ft%^ 

An edible root which is found in jhfls or marshes. 

In Rohilkhand the word signifies a Kh4krob, or sweeper. 

Homestead ; site of a village residence. From L«j to dwell. 
The word is pure Hindi, but is more used in Eastern Hindustan 
than in Western. 

Basiilf, J^ ^^ 

A small instrument for cutting. The diminutive of Basula, 
an adze. 

Bastah, ^tu«j ^^ 

A doth in which papers are bound up ; a bundle of papers. 
From the Persian ^a^**) to bind. 

TOL. II. J. 

258 SIJPPLEMEirrAL glossaby. 

Baswdrf, ^j^y^. W^nTT^t 

Basaur, jymj W^ftr 

A bamboo garden. From Wtll a bamboo. 


A partition ; diyision. From l:ib to be divided. 

Batdf, ^l5i irzit; 

Is derived from the word preceding, and signifies tbe same 
as the Metayer system of Europe ; but it includes not only the 
literal Metayer, ue, " k moiti^ fruit," but the " tier franc," or 
any share into which the crops may be divided. In poor lands 
a bat&i of one-sixth only is not un&equently the extent of the 
Zamind&r's demand. 

Bat&i nav&siya is applied to a division which gives nine 
shares to one party, and seven to another.^-Benares. — See 

Batenth^ ^tfu^Sj 

Batania, USj WZf^RTT 

Proprietor, or holder of a share. — Central Do&b. — See above, 
under Bat and Bat&i. 

A passage ; a pathway. Batia USj is in more general use in 
the same sense. Both are from the Sanskrit B&t ^ITT? a road, a 

Bathdn, ^l^ ^WTf 

Pasture ground. From U^ to sit, to settle, or more probably 
fi^m ^^ a bullock, and WPf or TPf a place. Eastern Oudh. 
— See Baisak; which is also similarly derived. Abathdn is 
more usually applied to the little shed erected by cowherds in 


the jungles to sleep in at niglit, the cattle being all collected 
round it. It is also called ^m\ or ^inTHf ^ ?«<^- 

Bathud, Ijfj if^Hf 

A herb which springs up with Babi' crops, and in the 
neighbourhood of water. It is sometimes cooked as a pot-herb 
by the poorer classes (ChentJpodium album). 

Bathiyd, Lfj ^rftWT 

See Bitaura. 

BatArf, c^yu i|g;ft 

A name given in Benares to Chani, or the small kind of 
Ghana, q.v. 

Batolan, Jfi ipft^nr 

Batoran, ^^ ^^Zt^ 

Gathering or collecting grain in one place at the time of 
harvest. From U j*Sb batom&, to gather up. 

Batar, jij ^nr^ 

Land in a state fit for the plough.— Saugor. In the Panjab 
I have heard watar ^^ used to signify the rain which falls in 
January, and by softening the soil enables the young wheat to 
sprout and grow. — ^B. 

Batwdr, j\^ 

A custom or police officer stationed on a road. 
A tax gatherer, who collects taxes in kind. 

Bawada, ^rj^y ^VTT^ 

A herb something like the Turmeric. It springs up in the 
raios, and it is sometimes sown, as it is considered a specific in 


Baib, .«^ tf 

Afar off — ^at a distance. — ^BundelkhancL 

Baijild, ijsxj %f%raT 

A species of black pulse. — ^E. Oudh. 


Sale. — ^Eastern Oudh and Benares. 

Baisak, CJi^, %^rv 

A spot in a jungle to which cattle are sent out to graze. — ^Dehli. 
It is elsewhere called Kharak (a cowshed) and Bath&n. — q,v. 
The word is also applied, generally^ to old and worn out 

Chanda, irjjU- ^t^ 

A common station of the revenue survey. 

Ohdk, vin^ 

A wheel. Especially applied amongst cultivators to the pulley 
over which the lao, or well-rope passes ; called Bhon in Dehli, 
Chalf and Charkhi in Brohilkhand, Garri and GariU in Benares 
and Bundelkhand. But these four last terms are only applied 
if the wheel is formed out of one block of wood. 

Ch&k means also a mill ; rings of earth for forming a well ; 
a vessel in which sugar is manufactured, after being transferred 
from the Oh&sni or Karahi. — See Bel. 

Ch&nti, ^U ^tii 

Oesses levied from artizans and others. From Gh&ntn& \i3j\^ 
to squeeze, to press. 

Chaimrf, s£/j^ ^^^ 

A police station ; usually the kotwal's. — Saugor. 


The refiise of the Jharberi after the P&la is beaten from it. 
Dehli and Upper Do&b. — See Jharberi. 

Ch&pre, ^y\^ ^ml 

Cakes of cow-dung. They are also known by the names of 
Gobar^ l/pla, Gosa, Boja, Thepri and Ghot. 

Chara, 2f^U. irm 

Truss; sheaf; grass; food. 

Chasnf, vV-'V' TW^ 

A pan in which the juice of the sugar cane is boiled. It is 
much the same as the Kar&hi^ except that it is somewhat larger. 
From the Oh&sni it is transferred into the Ch&k^ q.v. 

It is probably a corruption of the Persian jJ^\>^ fiavour, 

Ch&wal, JjU- ^TRnr 

Bice undressedi but cleared of the husk. 

Chfbhar, ^f-o- ^^ 

Land which remains long moist. — Saugor. 

Chik, viX^ ^«^ 

Chikar, J^ ^fN^ 

Mud; slime. The name of Chik is consequently given to 
the turf or rushes on which the water pot of the Dhenkli is 
made to rest, when it is brought to the top of the well. P&r- 
chha and Chilw&i are likewise so applied. 

Chfkat, vJUC^ ^tVS 

Chikti, ^^ f^fmit 

Clayey soil. — Saugor. 


Chita, Auj- 'iftm 

The name of a cFeeping herh. It is used in medicine as acure 
for leprosy {Plumbago Zeylonica), 

Chihra, Hj^ Vf%^ 

A desoriptive roll of a servant or fiigitive. Literally, a fjEU)e. 

China, L^ ^YtT 

Canary seed (Panicum Miliaceum) (Panicum piloaum, Roxb.) 
It is sown and reaped in the hot season, after nearly all the 

rabi' crops have been cut. It requires much irrigation, and is a 

precarious crop ; hence the saying : 

'< Take of master ChM, 

Qive him fourteen waterings, 
- Let the wind blow, and you'll haye nought to give or take ;" 

i.e. You may irrigate your Chind as much as you like, but a 
blast will destroy it, and you get nothing for your pains. 

Chenoh, -ilo- ^ 

A herb which springs up in imcultivated places during the 
rainy season. Its fruit is frequently called Jonk, from its 
resemblance to a leech. 

Chhal, ^^ ^ 

A pad, to prevent laden bullocks from being galled. 

Chhaj, ^l^ HT* 

A basket used in winnowing grain. 

Chhaknd ^^ ipnPTr 

To clean the water of a well. 


Chhap, VW?" ^n^ 

A stamp ; generally the Potdar, or cashier's, stamp. 
In Dehli and the Upper Do&b it is the name applied to a 

small bundle or heap of thorns about a foot high. When 

larger, it is called Ehewa L^ q.v.* 

Chhdpa, \A^ IPTTT 

The village seal used to impress grain with. — See Chank and 

It also means the heap of refuse com and chaff which is 
formed in winnowing. In a heap of cleaned com there is about 
four per cent Chh&p&. Also, a small heap of grain appropriated 
to purposes of charity. 

Chh&p& is likewise in some places the name given to the 
basket used for throwing water out of a pond, for the purpose 
of irrigation.^-See Beri, Boka, and Dauri. 

Chhdr, j\^ iBpnc 

A bank of a river; hence Chharchitti, a permit, or pass, over 
a river. 

Chhedd, ^«\^€^' ^^^ 

A destructive little animal similar to the weevil {Calandria 
granaria). From Ohhed ju«>- a hole. It is also the name of the 
disease which the com sustains when affected by the ravages of 
this animal. 

Chhida, \*^ti^ ^ft^ 

Thin, not close — according to Shakespear^s Dictionary, *• said 
of a person or animal whose legs are much separated.^' But it 
is also applied to com fields, or plantations, in opposition to 
Ghan& [i^or Ghiiik& IC^ close, thick. 

• See J.A.S. Bombay, No. III., p. 119.— £. tuUU 


Apod; alegame. 

Chhfnka, Kua^ ?ff«T 

An ox muzzle. — DeUi ; called Mukha^ Mushka, and Jali in 
Eohilkliand and tlie Do&h, Ehonta in Benares, and Muska in 
Bnndelkhand. Also a net for hanging pots, etc. — (See Jab.) 

Chhfnta, l2L.|^ ^fel 

From chli(ntn& l *dv ^ ^ to sprinkle; a field in whicli peas 
and linseed have been sown by broad-casting, while the rice 
crops are standing on the ground. When the rice is cut, these 
crops are left to grow, and harvested in the beginning of Ghajt. 
In Dehli, the term Chh&nta is applied to throwing more seed 
amongst a growing rice crop. 

The same word is employed in Gorakhpur to signify lands in 
which seed has been scattered after a single ploughing ; more 
particularly at the extremities of villages, with a view to secure 

A jungle tree ; called also Dhak, q.v. 

Chheond, ^jtif- ^^T 

To extract juice from a tar tree. Literally, ''to slice," as the 
bark is sliced off and a pot hung underneath to catch the sap as 
it exudes. — ^B. 

Bears the same meaning in Bohilkhand as Farighkhat&na, 
q.f>. The word is perhaps derived from Ohhinkw&n& l}\yj.^a». 
to cancel. 

Chhilka^ iSi^ f^f^Pti 

Bark; rind. 


Sowing broad-cast. From Chli{iitii& l'«». |>^ to sprinkle. — 

The usnal words in the Do&b, Rohilkhand, and Dehli, are 
Paberl, or Pabar phenk dena^ or Jel kama. In Bundelkhand 
it is called Chhfntab, from the same root Chhfntn&. 

Chhitri, <s&H?" fipn^ 

Said in Shakespear's Dictionary to be ^' a small basket 
without lid or handle/' but it is more generally understood to 
be a broken basket, or Daliya ; one nearly ineffective from being 
worn out. 

Chhold, iiji^ ^mx 

Gram— Saugor and Bundelkhand. Also the title of the man 
who cuts the standing sugar cane. He strips off the leaves, and 
lops off the heady which he receives as his perquisite, besides 
about ten canes per diem during the time he is employed. The 
name is derived firom chholna IJLf^ to pare, to scrape. 

Chholnf, lT^^ 'ftW'ft 

A scraper. 

Chhaur, j^^ ifhc 

A large stack of Juwar or Bajra collected for fodder, com- 
prising several smaller stacks called Syi. In years of plenty this 
is added to, till the village stock amounts to several hundreds 
of maunds. — Dehli. 

In some districts, as in Bohilkhand, this is known by the 
name of Garri ; elsewhere by the name of Eundar and Eharai. 
— See Ghuri. 

Chhad&m, /^\*^ ^^PR 

Literally, six dams ; equal to two damris. The proper 


amount is six and a quarter dams, but by abbreviation it is 
called Chhad&m. — See Damri, Adhela, and Ganda. 

Chhahkur, J.^ nyc 

Division of crops where the Zamind^ gets only one-sixth. — 
E. Oudh. 

ChhaJqra, \f^ W^IVT 

A carriage. It is built on the principle of a baill, has no 
sides like the Gari, but carries burdens on a sort of platform. 
It is much used for the conveyance of cotton, to which its con- 
struction is well adapted. The names of some of its component 
parts are ^asauri, Gori&, Tul&wa, Akari, Korha, Phar, Shagun, 
Ank, Tiph, D&ntu&, Chaukhard and Bichud, the uses of which 
it is needless to particularise. — See Gtui. 

Chhatdo, ^\S^ WZFT 

Clearing rice firom the husk. 

Chhatrf, s£r^?" ^^ 

A small ornamented pavilion, generally built over a place of 
interment, or a cenotaph in honor of a Hindti chief. Literally, 
" an umbrella.'^ 

Chihel, tW?" t^^ 

Wet oozy land. From chihld 1^^ mud. 

Chikhar, j^ f^rar; 

The husk of Chan&, q.v. 

Chikharwdf, ^^aj^^ t^^TT^ 

Wages for weeding. — E. Oudh ; called generally Nirai and 
Naulai elsewhere. 


Chiknawat, ^^^^^ IVVfnZ 

A clayey soil. From Chikni U^ greasy ; oily. 

Chilld, ^d^ ffWT 

A holy place where fakirs abide : so called from the initiatory 
abstinence of forty days (in Persian ly^ chahili) which they 

Chilwaf, v^^^ t^^wri; 

See an explanation of its meaning under Chik. 

Chimbur, j^j^ Wt^T 

An inferior kind of grass which grows in the Bhatti territory. 
It is perhaps the same as the Ohapruda of Hariana. 

Chin, ^^ fn^ 

A kind of sugar-cane. — ^Tipper Do&b and Bohilkhand. — See 

Chirchira, ir^jf- W^TT 

Name of a medicinal plant (Achyranthes atpera). Its ashes 
also are used in washing linen. It is also called Ghfcharay 
Chitirra^ and Satjira. In Sanskrit it is known by the name of 
Ap&m&rg ^MI4||4- There is a white and a red kind. The 
former, if it is carried about the person, is firmly belieyed to 
render one invulnerable, particularly against scorpions, and the 
application of it to the part affected is as immediate and certain 
a remedy as was the application of basil according to the clas- 
sical writers. 

C!hirchitta, ^j^ fit<fi | j T 

The name of a grass which somewhat resembles young Bajra. 
It produces an ear like that of the Kangnl i^^ (Panicum 
Italicum), and its grain is about the size of a barley com. This 


plant also is said in native herbals to have secret virtae. If 
any one will eat a chatt&k of its grain lie will not feel the 
pressure of hunger for twenty-one days. As the experiment is 
easily made, and it is not a common practice to eat Chirchitta, 
we may presume it is somewhat nauseous. 

Caiittha, V^ f^ 

A rough note ; servants' pay ; a memorandum. 

Chi wand, \j\^ t^TTHn 

A place for cremation ; called also Chihai and Chihani. These 
three are derived from Esh&i, ashes. Marghat, Bhoidagdha 
and Smasan, or Samsan (in Benares) are also employed to 
signify the same. 

Choyd, \j^ "^nyn 

A hole dug in the dry bed of a river to get water. Also a 
name commonly applied to rivulets. 

Chohd, U^ ^t^ 

A small welL Both these words are derived firom Chiin& 
U^ to leak, to be filtered. 

Choka, l(^ ^Tt«T 

Bice. — Saugor. 

Chonda, \lj^ triT 

Kachha wells where the water is near the surface. — ^E. Oudh. 

Chtia, \j^ ^ 

Chtid, Battd, or Marsa forms one of the chief Eharif pro- 
ducts of tiie hills. The flowers are of a fine red color. It is 
supposed to be the AmaranthiM oleraeeua. 

ChM is also the siliqua, seed vessel, or pod of a pulse. 


Chug&i, ^l^ ^^nt 

Pasturage. From Chugnd U^ to peck; to graze. 

Chonchi, ^f^^ ^^ 

A tiny creeper wIucIl grows roiind the Piy&zi plant and 
ripens its seeds at the same time with it. The Piy&zi seeds are 
eaten by the poorer classes, and daring the famine at Ambala 
in 1861 cases occurred of persons being poisoned by eating 
Piy&zi bread in which Chonchi had become mixed. I was not 
able to learn the botanical name of either plant. Piy&zi grows 
spontaneously in fallow lands in April and May. — ^B. 

ChuUi, ^ ^ 

The supports which are placed below stacks of straw or stores 
of grain ; called by English farmers staddles. In some places 
the ground is merely cleaned and devated, and no supports are 
raised ; it is then called Gh&i. 

ChuUA, jU ^ 

The palm of the hand contracted for the purpose of holding 
water. Sometimes incorrectly pronouned Challu. — See Ajaulf 
and ChungaL 

Chtin, ^^^ ^ 

ChAnf, ^^ ^ 

Flour ; pulse coarsely ground. 

Chtmgal, jLj- ^ifW 

A handful of any thing dry ; as Chullu is of any thing 
liquid. Ehonch is used in the same sense. In Bohilkhandy 
Lap, or Laf, is as much as two hands joined can hold ; but in 
Benares, BehU, and the Boab, it means only one handfuL — See 
Ajauli, Chulld. 


ChAntrii, ^^ ^ 

Head man of a district in Dehra Diin. 

Chopnd, ^^ ^ft^Tf 

To throw water from a Bauri^ q,v> — ^Ulohab dena is the 
equivalent term in Bundelkhand. 

Chot, (JLr^ ^fte 

An ingenious way adopted by shepherds and husbandmen of 
folding a blanket or sheet into a covering for the head and 
shoulders^ making it nearly impervious to the rain. It is some- 
what similar to the mode by which a Scotchman converts a 
plaid into a sleeved great coat. It also signifies the tying the 
end of a blanket in a knot, and so placing it over the head, 
which in some places is called Ghtinghi; but that word is 
generally otherwise applied. — ^See Ghtinghi. 

Chan, ^ ^ 

A ploughshare.— See Hal and Haks. 

Chaukhd, l^^ 5|t^ 

A station where four boundaries meet. — See Chaugadda. 

Chaukara, Ij^^ ^^^l¥T 

Division of a crop, in which the cultivator gives only one- 
fourth ; called also by the name of Chauktir. 

Chanld, !l^ "iltwr 

A kind of pulse commonly cultivated in Hindtistan {Dolichos 
sinensis). It is also called Baw&s and Bam&s; but it is best 
known throughout the country under its Persian name of Uj*j) 


Chaulai, ij^y^ "ff^^ 

The name of a weed which shoots up during the rainy season^ 
particularly in old buildings {Amaranthua polygamwi). It is 
also sometimes sown and eaten as a pot-herb. There are two 
kinds of Chaul&f, red and green. The one is called Gandar, 
and the other Marsai. 

Chaimra, |}5^ 'ftlT 

A subterranean apartment for grain. 

Chauntali, vJ^-^ "^hlTift 

Cotton pods, in which the fibre is equal to one-fourth of the 
whole produce. Tih&li, in which the fibre is one-third. Pach- 
duli (i.e. two out of five) when it amounts to about 16 seers in 
the maund. 

Chaupdl, J^^ ^ft^nw 

Chaupar, j^^ ^^n^ 

A small shed in which the Tillage community meet ; generally 
built by the head man of the Tillage^ and used by him in former 
days as a kind of E^hahri or office. 

Chaur, j^ ^ 

A large open space in the forest. — ^Bohilkhand. 

A large tract of low land. — Eastern Oudh. 

Achaur is one of those long low strips of semi-marshy land, 
formerly beds of small streams so common in Northern Bih&r. 
They are generally appropriated for the purpose of growing 
rice and indigo. — B. 

Chauraha, *^^j^ ^^ItHT 

The junction of four villages, or roads. — See Chaugadda. 


Chaursf, ^ry^ ^(V^ 

A granary above ground.' — ^BohilkhancL 

Chans, U**^ ^^^ 

Land four times tilled. — Bohilkhand. * 

ChausingM, l^L)^ ^ft^hETT 

A raised mound indicating where the boundaries of four 
Tillages meet. — See Chaugadda. 

Chauthiyd, Wj?" ^WtTT 

A measure in general use for grain and about equal to a seer 
of wheat. Chaukari is a quarter, and Adheli is a half Chau- 
thiy&. Five Chauthiy&s are equal to a Kuro, or Faseri, and 
twenty Kuros to one Khanri. These words are equally used 
in superficial measures. Thus an area which would require 
five Paseri of seed to sow it, is about equal to a Bigha (which 
in Hoshangabad is a little more than a statute acre, being 
4,900 square yards), and was rated at about a Eupee of Be- 
venue. A Khanrf would be about equal to four Rupees, and 
a M&ni to twice that amount. — Saugor. — See Bisi and Jarib. 

Chautra \p^ ^ftlTTT 

A Court ; corrupted perhaps from Chabutra. 

Chah, ^j>. ^ 

A platform ; a pier-head. 

Chahli, \J^^ ^?fWt 

The wheel on which the rope revolves at the top of a well. 
—See Ch&k. 

Chahoma, ^j^^ 1ft <1I 

To transplant. — Bohilkhand. Elsewhere it signifies to stick 


up^ to fix. The word Bompna is also frequently used to signify 
transplanting. In Dehli and the Upper Do&b, Chahorn&y 
though rarefy used, is preserved in the word Ghahora, which 
signifies rice dibbled in a field, after being sown in a nursery. 

Chahal, J^ ^^fm 

A strong soil, ranking between Bausli and D&kara, or 
D&nkra. — ^Dehli, 

Chakka Uo- ^nRT 

The weight (generally of clay) used to press down the small 
arm of the Dhenkla. The usual meaning is a wheel or circle, 
and the word may be therefore applied thus, as the Ghakkd is 
almost always of a circular form. 

Chakkat, u:.X»- ^rSRcT 

The loss of a whole plot of ground by diluyion ; the contrary 
of Bitkat. 

Chakwand, ^/^ ^r^Pnnr 

A common weed, of which there are generally reckoned to 
be four kinds, though they bear but little resemblance to one 
another. — Ghakwand, Ghakaundi or Kasaundi, 6ul&li, Batoka. 
The Ghakwand, which grows from about eight inches to two 
feet high, and bears a long legume, is very common in Mango 
groves, and in fields grown with Kharif crops. It is used by 
the poor people as a potherb. 


Chalti, ^jd^ ^^ 

Gultivated lands. — ^Dehli. 

Chambal, J-**'^ ^fl^T^W 


A log of wood with grooves, fixed on banks of canals. It is 
used in drawing water for the purposes of irrigation. 

VOL. n. is 


Gram. Ctcer arieiinum. The origia of this word has been 
much disputed, but is, I believe, a corruption of the Portuguese 
grama, meaning grain in generaL 

There are generally i^eckoned to be three kinds of this widely- 
used legume : — 1. Pil& (also called Bakswd, Chapt&i, and Eas&ri 
in the Eastern part of these proyinoes) ; 2. Pachmil, which is a 
mixture of Pil& and Kass& ; 3. Kassi, the superior kind. 

There is also a small kind of Chan&, called Chani and Baturi, 
and Chan& itself is frequently to the Eastward called Behla and 
Lena. But in general Lena is the name of the oxalic and 
acetic acid which forms on the leaf of the Chan&. It is used in 
this country in alchemical processes, and in the preparation of 
nitric and muriatic acid. Cloths are spread over the plants of 
the Chan&, and being well moistened by the deposition of dew, 
they readily absorb the acidulous salt, which the plants secrete 
abundantly on the surface of their leaves and shoots (Boyle, 
''Antiquity of Hindu Med.'' p. 42). The presence of this acid 
is found to injure the feet occasionally when people walk in 
Chan& fields, and a local tradition has hence arisen that Sft&, 
when she was going to bathe in the Manwa river, is said to 
have cursed the plant, and directed that it should not be grown 
between that stream and the Gogra, and consequently no Chan& 
is now cultivated between those two rivers. 

In the Western part of this Presidency there is a Kabul! 
Chan& sometimes grown. It differs from the Desi, or country 
Chan& in having a white flower and smaller leaf. It is also 
grown in the extreme East, and in Bengal, to the I^orth of the 
Gtinges. It is there considered a fit offering for the gods, pro- 
bably on account of its rarity. 

This useful grain is highly valued in India, and its praises 
have been sung by the poets. The following doggrel lines, 
which are attributed to the celebrated minister Birbal, are 
greatly esteemed by the natives : — 


Wliich may be thus literally translated, 

''Among all gods, Mahadey is greatest; among all cereals, channd is 

Whose stalk is longish, its flowers rose-colonred, the more it is 
picked the thicker it grows. 

Quoth Bfrbal, listen, Sh&h Akbar, with salt and pepper it is wonder- 
fully good." 

The fitYorite way, however, of cooking grain is to parch it. 
It is then called C!haben&, and is generally carried in the comer 
of the scarf to eat on a journey. By far the most common use 
of grain is as food for horses, for which purpose it is un- 
rivalled. — B. 

Chanchar, ^acU- ^'RT 

Land left untilled for one, two, or three years. 

Chand4, 1 

Subscription; assessment. 

Chandell, Jjjoa^ i*^ 


A very fine species of cotton fabric, which is of so costly a 
description as to be used only in native courts. It is made 
firom Berar, or XTmr&vati, cotton, and every care is taken in 
its manipulation. The weavers work in a dark subterranean 
room, of which the walls are kept purposely damp to prevent 
the dust from flying about. The chief care is bestowed on the 
preparation of the thread, which, when of very fine quality, sells 
for its weight in silver. It is strange that women are allowed 
to take no part in any of the processes. From a correspondence 
published in Yol. X. of the " JToum. As. Soc. of Bengal," it 


would appear that the Chandelis are made solely from Narma 
cotton ; but this is a mistake, for XTmr&vatl cotton is alone used, 
and the Narmay or Narma-ban, instead of being confined to 
Malwa, is cultivated in small quantities all over Hindustan, and 
its produce is in great request for the manufacture of the best 
hind of Brahmanical thread. It is a bushy plant, grows to the 
height of about seven feet, and lasts about six years. 

Chandelis derive their name from the town of Chanderi, on 
the left bank of the Betwa, in Sindhia's territory. — (See Chandel.) 

Chandeya, ^'^^ '^^^ 

Deep places. — ^Eastern Oudh. 

Chanl, ^jj>^ ^nft 

A small species of Chan& ; called Baturi in Benares. 

Chaneth, ^i^Lc^ ^3 

Drugs for cattle. 

Changel, jA?- ^'Nr 

A herb which springs out of old Eheras, or ruined buildings. 
It has a round leaf, and its seed, which is used as a medicine, is 
known generally by the name of Khabaji. Also a round basket 
of straw. 

Chanwan, u^y^ 

Name of a small species of millet. — ^Eastern Oudh* 

Chaprf, ^j^ wr^ 

A puddle. Also the name of a small pulse somewhat re- 
sembling Ohan&. 

Chari, ^jjj>^ ^ 

Unripe Jaw&r, cut as fodder for cattle. It is always sown 


much thicker than the Jaw&r which is intended for the thresh- 
ing floor. 

Chari is also the name given in the Lower Do&b to small 
portions of land held rent-free by cultiyators : derived either 
firom its chiefly producing fodder, or by a corruption from 
Sir.— See Ghhir. 

ChaAhf, ^j^ ^^ 

The pulley by which water is raised from a well by two 
water-pots tied to the ends of a rope and raised alternately. 
Literally, a spinning wheel. It is generally made of pieces of 
bamboo lashed together in the form of a cylinder. — See Ch&k. 

Chami, kJjT" ^T'^ 

A feeding trough, 

Charas, c/V?" '"^^ 

The exudation of hemp flowers. It is collected in Nepal, 
and elsewhere also it is said, by persons running through a field 
of Gbmja with leathern aprons to which the exudation adheres. 
In these provinces the Charas of Bokhara is most admired, and 
fetches double the price of the country product. Bahadurgarh 
in the Dehli Territory appears the grand depdt for the Gharas 
of the Western and Northern States. 

Also, the large leathern bucket, or bag, used for fiUing water 
from weUs ; derived from L^^ leather. In some parts of the 
country it is called Ptir and Moth. All parts of the apparatus 
of a well are diflisrently caUed at different places. Thus, the 
upright posts over the weU's mouth are in one place, Fflp4ya 
(elephant leg), in another Thunf. The beam which they sup- 
port is in one place called Bharsahi, in another Patao and 
Bharet. The rope is in one place called Bart, in another Lao. 
The reservoir into which the water is poured is in some places 
called Pareha, in others Chabacha, and so on. — See Arhat» 
Bahoro, Gh&k, Ohakti, Ciharkhi, and Garari. 


Oharwahiy l5^W" ^^Tfft 

Wages of a oharw&ha, grazier or herdsman, in grain. From 
Chamd U^ to feed, to graze. 

Chatri, Sr^r?" ^^rft 

The name of a herb which springs up with the rabi' grains. 
It is used as fodder for cattle, and the poorer class of cnltiyators 
eat the seeds of it mixed up with barley. 

ChaU, J-^ ^ 

Land twice tilled. — ^Bohilkhand. 

Chain, ,.,-^ %if 

Cultivated land. 

Chaitf, . jur- %^ 

The harvest of the month Ghajt (March- April). In Bundel- 
khand it is applied generally to the Babi', or spring harvest. 

The name of a grass, better known by the name of K48 or 
K6sha. (Poa eynosurides. KaBu:) It is generally applied 
only to the first shoots of the K&b grass, and is called Dabsa 
in Bohilkhand. The extreme acuteness of its points is pro- 
verbial amongst Hindus. The intellects of a clever man are 
said to be as sharp as the point of a D&b, or Eds, leaf (Sir W. 
Jones' Works, YoL Y. p. 79). D&b is not in much request as 
fodder for cattle, but, when soaked, it makes very good twine, 
and is occasionally used in thatching houses. These are, how- 
ever, profane uses : for the grass is especially holy, and is in 
great demand in almost all the votive offerings and religious 
ceremonies of the Hindus. It is considered very desirable that 
a man should die upon a bed of D&b ; and it is consequently 
the duty of attendant relations to spread the grass on the floor. 


and after covering it with a cloth, to lay the dying man upon 
it, in order that he may emit hia last breath in that hallowed 

See Dabiya. 

Dabak, cJj\1 wn^ 

Fresh well water. — Dabk& is used in the same sense. 

Dabar, ^\j irm: 

Low ground where water settles ; a small tank ; a vessel for 
washing in. 

Ddkara, \J\1 wnr^T 

Is the name of the best, or second best, quality of soil in the 
Upper Do&b or Dehli. It is sometimes pronounced Dh&kar 
and Dankra. 

The soil called Bausli in many places ranks above D&kard. 

Dal, Jb jm 

''A pulse, PhaseoltM radiatus, Linn., Phaseolus aureus, Bozb., 
green gram, or rayed kidney bean.'' — K&nfin-i Islam. 

In the North Western Provinces it is applied only to the 
split pea of Mung, Arhar, Urd, and a few other pulses (from 
dalnd U J to grind coarsely) ; and there appears reason to appre- 
hend error in the passage quoted from the ^' K&ntin-i Islam.'' 
The Printed Glossary also says of Dol that it is a sort of pea. — 
See Dalia. 

D41, J^J ^TO 

A bough. In Dehli and the Upper Do&b it is applied to the 
basket used for the purpose of raising water by artificial means 
from a canal. From ddlnd U!b to throw, to fling. It is made 
sometimes of leather, but generally of Munj or of Jhao. D&l 


irrigation is used where the course of the canal is much bdow 
the general leyel of the oonntrj, and is, in consequence of the 
labour attending it, more ezpensiye than irrigation by Tor, 
which consists in merely breaking down the field ridge, and 
allowing the water to pass through it. 

Dal, Jj ^ 

Wild rice. 

Bamcha, ^Ls^b ^PR^ 

The platform on which a person is posted to protect crops. — 
Dehli. Jaunda and Tand are also used in this sense in Dehli ; 
and the latter in Bohilkhand also ; in the Do&b, Mattula (firom 
matti, earth), and Menra and Mainra* (from its position on the 
border of the field) ; and in Saugor, Marwa, for the same reason. 
Mach&n and M&cha are in common use elsewhere, and even 
within the limits of the local words above-mentioned. 

Damar, j^\j TfftK. 

Hesin— ^more especially, in commerce, the resin of the S&l 
tree {Sharea robusta) : also called Dhumni and Dhtind. 

Dand, Sj\j Vfv 

High ground, opposed to Dabar ; sterile Bhdr land ; elevated 
land of Domat soil ; also a fine ; a land-mark ; a stick. The 
word is spelt with either an initial V or ^« 

Dang, (^Ij 7^ 

A hill or precipice ; the summit of a mountain, as L&l-d&ng. 
In Dehli, and generally in Upper India, the word is used to 
signify the high bank of a river. It is provincially corrupted 
into Dh&ng and Dhayang. — ^B. 

D&ngrd ^t^TIT is common in Nepalese for a hill. — B. 

* ifMn Mendt *^^^'^ signifles a limit. 

PART nr.— -KURAL LIPB. 281 

Ddngar, j!j'5 ^tnK 

Superannuated homed cattle. It is applied also as a term 
of abuse to a fooL But D&ngar, in Dehli, is not confined to 
old cattle; for it is there applied generally to homed cattle, 
exclusive of buffidoes. 

D&nti, ^\d ^ 

A sickle. From dant, a tooth. 

Danth, i^\j vf3 

Befuse of harvest floors, especially applied to Kharif pro- 
ducts ; and so is synonymous with Jhora, q.v. It is also called 
Datai and Danthl&.— See Danthli. 

Danwan, ^\y\j ^t^T^ 

Burning stubble, or a conflagration in a forest. This word 
is provincially corrupted into damar and do, and is derived from 
the Sanskrit ^i^i«i^, a conflagration in a forest. — ^*' Yates' 
Nalodaya/' p. 368. 

D4nwari, sfo^'*^ ^<^ 

See Dauri. 

Dao, yj ^T^ 

A hatchet with a hooked point ; a sickle. Among the Sing- 
phos and other savages of the north-eastern frontier it is the 
name of a heavy knife about two feet in length like the 
Nepalese kukari. — B. 

Darfi, ^j\o 1^ 

Spirituous liquor. 

Dds, (jwb ;^ 

This name, which literally means slave, is borne chiefly by 
men of the Banii caste, by Bair&gi Fakirs, and by Ejtyaths and 


Bralimins. It is usually coupled with, the name of some deity^ 
as Shib D&s, N&r&yan D&s, etc., eto., to imply subjectioii to 
some special tutelary God. It is a mistake to suppose that it is 
the name of a particular family^ as was asserted by a celebrated 
statesman, who when inveighing against the treatment of some 
D&s of Lucknow, stated him to be a member of ''the Doss 
family, one of the most distinguished in India/' 

In the time of Akbar we find it was not uncommon for 
Bajputs also to bear the name of Dds. Thus we read of Baja 
Bhagwan D&s, the Kachbw&ha, who was the father-in-law of 
Jahdngir, and grandfather of Sult&n Khusru, and who is stig- 
matized as the first who sullied Bajput blood by a connexion 
with the Imperial family of Dehli. The name is now seldom 
given to Bajputs, except to illegitimate children. — ^E. 

By Europeans in India this word is often written and pro- 
nounced ''Doss/' and in that shape it appeared in the earlier 
editions of this work. The last (or perhaps I should say the 
last but one) generation of Anglo-Indians always pronounced 
the long d (W or I) like aw or o, this error was originated by 
that able but eccentric scholar, Dr. Qilchrist, who taught that 
the sound of d was the same as that of the English a in bail, 
wall, water, etc. Hence his pupils persisted in speaking and 
writing iJj^^ breakfast, as hauzree, ^Jl^ water, as pawnee, 
nabdb (the Hindi corruption of ^\y nawwdb) as nabob and the 
like. The fact however is that the long li in all Indian lan- 
guages is sounded like the English a in far, father, past, etc. 
In Persian the long d is sounded as in water, war, etc., 
and the Persians are said to dislike to hear Indians talk 
their language because of their pronunciation of the d, which 
they consider effeminate. Thus, a Persian would say tk^ |%lJ 
jjtfb aj>. nawmi shumaw chih bawahad, while an Indian would say 
mfAmi shum^iA chih b^A-shad. The name D&s is in Behar in- 
dicative of the possessor's holding the office of village patw&ri. 
It is one of the recognized appellations of the K&yaths, who are 


all called so-and-so It&L, Parsh&d, or D&s; also, though less 
frequentljy Singh. — ^B. 

Dasa, Lb ipm 

A reaping hook. Also d&n8& ^|^|. 

Water falling from above ; a waterfall — ^Bohilkhand. The 
word is perhaps a cormption of Dh&r&y a flowing stream. 

In Sanger, Bhadbhada is used in this sense ; but its general 
appUcation is somewhat different. — See Bhadbhad&na. 

Diyard, Ijfbj f^^dft 

Di&ra, or D&wara, or Diard, signifies an island formed in the 
bed of a river. — Eastern Oudh and Benares. — ^E. 

It is a Hindi diminutive of Sanskrit ^^^ an island, and means 
a large sandbank formed by a river, which, after being in ex- 
istence for a couple of seasons, frequentlj becomes sufficiently 
consolidated to be cultivable, but is always liable to be carried 
away again by a change in the course of the river. Some of 
these di&r&s or diaras, as they are also caUed, are very large 
and old. The B&mpur diar& in the Ganges near Maldah for 
instance is forty miles long and two or three broad, and is as 
firm as the high land on the banks of the river. — B. 

Used in the Benares Province and the Lower Do&b to signify 
the site of a deserted village. The Persian Deh being used for 
an inhabited one, 

Dflld, L^j ^^ 

A small mound ; same as the above. 

DihAla, ^^j f^9m 



Dahnimf , ^^^ 2r j <l[f4'Mt 

Five per cent. — Dehli. The literal meaning is half of ten. 

Dehri, g?^5 %f^ 

A marshy soiL — See Dahr. 

Dihindah, ^rjcjbj t|[f^ 

A Persian word signifying one that is willing to pay or give ; 
a good payer. 

Dahyek, il^ti f^Tf^T* 

An allowance of 10 per cent.^ which used to be given to the 
Amil as his profit, and for the charges of Mofassil management. 
See Sec. 6, Reg. II. a.d. 1795. In the Printed Glossary it is 
called Dahyck. 

Del, Ji5 %W 

Land ploughed and ready for Rabi' crops. — Bundelkhand. 
Land prepared for cotton after having been cropped with Gram. 
— Sanger. 

DeulA, "iyj l^rWT 

Mounds ; high groimd.-^Eastem Oudh. 

Dhaman, v:;^^^ VT^ni 

A grasSi of a good quality, which is found in the Bhatd 

Dhdn, ^Uj ^aun 

The rice plant. Yeiy many kinds are grown in these pro- 
vinces. The best known in the North-West and Eohilkhand 
are Basmattl, Hansraj, Raimunia (called also Bandli and Tilok- 
chandan), Eamaura, Motichdr, Pila, Sunkhar, Jabdi, Sung* 
kharcha, Soh&gmatti. These are aU of superior quality. The 


inferior are Anjana» CEakua, Bad&mi, Dalganjna, Anandi, 
Kaldhanna, Seodhf^ S&thi, and Seodha. 

In Saugor the most common kinds are Maltf, Siamjiru, 
Nnnga, L&yachi, Dilbagsa, Antarbed, Tilsein, Batru, Seinkhir, 
Deodhan, Khur&ban, and Jhan&sar. 

In the central part of these proyinces we find the names 
chiefly of Deokala, Dudhi^ S&th{« B&ki^ Baimunia, Bat&si, 
Naurangi^ Dunkharcha, Lnmbha, Motichur, K&la, Hansraj, 
and Basmatti. 

Those cidtiyated to the Eastward and in Benares are, for the 
most party Bagari, Dehtila, Dudha, Mutmuri, Selha, Nanhya, 
Banikajar, Bingan, l^aindosh, Basmatti, Jiria, Kalijir, I^ain- 
sukh, Khattar, Birinjphdl, Bangalia, Bangki, Sdmbha, Selhi, 
Motisirri, B&t, Baibhog, Motijhtil, Naurangi, Xharrar, Samun- 
dar^phen, Hansraj. Of these the best kinds are Naindosh, Bas- 
matti, Hansraj, Nainsukh, and Birinjphul. Basmatti and 
Hansraj appear to be the only kinds which are known generally 
by the same name. The yarieties are still greater in Behar 
and Bengal. 

It appears from Abu'l Fazl that the most noted varieties of 
his time were the Sukhd&s of Bharaich, the Dojirah of Gwalior, 
and Khanjan of B&jauri. — E. 

In Bengal and Behar, where rice is the staple crop, the 
people say there are two hundred distinct kinds, but, as usual 
with these exaggerated sub-diyisions, they are seldom able to 
name them all. Many of the names are as purely fanciful as 
those given by EngUsh gardeners to their apples and pears. 
The better sorts are classed under one head as Arw&, and are 
the only sorts eaten by Europeans and the upper class of natives. 
The inferior second sorts are Josh&ndar avval, Josh&ndar doyam, 
and L&L — ^B. 

Dhana, <cUj ^aTPTT 

The Gond portion of a village, which is always separate froxn 


the rest. Also applied generally to Marza, Nagia, and Punvra 
in the North- West. — Sanger. 

One-fourth of a koss. — See Dhapi&. Also applied to a Ghat, 
or passage ; a large expanse of low ground. 

Dhar, Jjbj ^n; 

A heap of com. — ^Benares. It is called more correctlj Dher 
in the North- West. 

Dhar, ^Uj vtT 

A hollow tree inserted in the mouth of wells in the Tar&f ^ to 
keep them £rom Mling in. — ^Bohilkhand. 

Dh&r or Dh&ra is also used in the sense giyen under Dhala 
and Dharbachh : it is frequently pronounced Dharua. — ^These 
words may either be derived from Dhala^ as above-mentioned, 
or from dhamd ^j^f^f to place down, to impose. The word is 
entered in the Printed Glossary under Dara. 

Dhardhamd, bybj^Uj ^KM4,< II 

See Dhariyana. 

Dhi, ^j ^ 

A high bank of a river. — Saugor. 

Dhiha, ly^j VtTT 

Kising ground ; mounds. Diha is similarly used. 

Dhinkhar, j^^^ tHqt 

Is the name applied to the bimdle of thorns tied together and 
drawn by bullocks over com for the purpose of beating out the 
grain. It is also used as a harrow for eradicating grass and 
weeds from ploughed land. — Dehli and Upper Do&b. 

Vol u. p '^: 

i M'TTi^ir far husking rU* ) 


Ml vsul ' Ricebeattf ) 


Husea (Su:kJe I 




iliir "•r:r:r;f;i?iiirti#»»»»»i»i 


(fur smopth'in^ x nela a/ter soyrm^) 


.ii ••nv' ^»,*t ■<!% i S»i,lj'i '4*vJj.* 



Dhela. l^j %wn 

A clod of earth. 

Dhen, ^J ^ 

A milch cow. 

Dhenkf, ^^J^^i %^ 

An instrument for pounding rice^ tobacco, etc. It is worked 
like the Dhenkli, and is similarly derived ; corrupted by Euro- 
peans into ^' donkey.'' 

Dhenklf, ^i:*^j ^inlt 

A machine for raising water, consisting of a horizontal lever 
with a weight at one end and a bucket at the other. The name 
is provinciaUy corrupted into Dhtikli, Dhikli, and in Gorakhpur 
into Dheokal. The word appears to be derived from dhalk&n& 
UUlftJ to roll, to overturn. The posts which act as the fulcra 
are called Thunia ; the rope, Bart ; and the bucket £arwala. 

Dhenri, i^j^^ '^tft 

Has the same meaning as Dhondh. — See Dhondh. 

pheri, i^/*^*^ %^ 

A heap. 

In the Upper Do&b it is used to signify a sharer, principally 
in knded property. 

Dhingd, l^j f%hrT 

See Jell. 

Dhoka, i^ybj ^itWl 

See Daria. 

Dhoka, a^^j ttwt 

Small stones of an inferior quality, extracted from the Chan&r 


quarries. In Kegulation XXII. 1795^ the names of several 
other stones are mentioned^ such as Chauki, Hurs&, Soli^ J&nt&, 
for grinding ; and for building, D&p&, Chapet&y Ahhot; Bujauti, 
Patera, Pattea, Khtinth, Khamha. 

Dhonda, ljjy>j vtVT 

Dhondi, t^jJjj^j ^^rtV 

A grass which grows in rice fields, and sometimes chokes the 
plant. It produces an ear, and the seed is frequently used by 
cultivators for making bread. In some places, as in the Bareilly 
district, it is called Bat; and in Eastern Oudh, Dhauni. It 
appears to derive its name from Dh&n, rice ; if we may be 
allowed to judge from the following familiar couplet, in which 
both words occur — 

*^ We sowed rice, it has come up dhon^^ ; 
What will the fJBonily {lit. the male and female daves) eat ?" 

n. tt 

Dhondh^ gjj^j ftf 

A capsule, or seed vessel ; especially of the poppy, cotton, or 
gram. — See also Dhundi. 

Dhfii, fc/y^J ^ 

Soaked pulse. 

Dhundi, f^Sjjibj 1^ 

The pod of gram (Cicer arietintim). — ^Benares. The correct 
word is Dhendi, or Dhenri, q.v. It is also in Benares and many 
other places called Thonthi. It is known by the local name 
of Ghittri in Bohilkhand, T&t in Dehli, Dhauri in Bundel- 
khand, and Dhundh, and Ghenti in some places. When it is 
somewhat imripe, it is called Patpar, Chatk&, Ghegar&, and 


Satpar, in different parts of tiieie Prortnees. ^8ee Dhondli and 

Dhus, (^J ^ 

A sloping eleyation of ground ; and hence applied to the glacis 
of a fort ; sterile sandy eminences. It is also the name of a soil 
in some parts of the Xiower Do&b and Benares. — See Dh£h. 

w II 

Dhor&y or Dhola, is the name of an insect very destructive to 
stored gram. 

It is also applied to the mound of earth ndsed by the side of 
a ditch. 

Dhaul, Jybj ^fNr 

Bhaur, j^j \ft^ 

A kind of sugar cane. — ^Rohilkhand^ Upper Do&b| and Dehli. 

Dhadda, \lhO WT 

• • • ' 

Dhaddi, ^^jjbj f^ 

A term applied to low ground. — Bohilkhand. 

Dhandhol, ^^1 tUki 

The scum of the sugar cane juice, of wUch half goes to the 
Jhokia, and half to the Jhfmar. — ^Dehli. It is called also Mallf . 
The corresponding word in Bohilkhand, Benares, and Bundel- 
khand is Mailia ; in the Do&b, Patoi, and Xtfuio* 

Dhania, L^J ^tfvRlT 

Coriander seed (Coriandrum satipum, Linn.). 

Dhankar, Jjjb^^ Mkk 

A stiff soil producing rice (Dhan), which can only be ploughed 
and sown in the eyent of suf&cieut rain falling. 

TOL. n. 19 


Alao a field whioh has been ciopped with rioe during the 
previouB season. 

Dhanihiyd, Lf^j ^tf^RTT 

This also signifies a field on which rice has been cut.— 

Dhapid, L^J Vf^RTT 

A short koss. From Sanskrit ^IFf going or running ; from 
which also is derived Dh&p, a fourth of a koss, or that distance 
which a man is supposed to be able to run without stopping to 
take breath. 

Dharawat, d^jly^j 

Land ascertained and apportioned by estimate ; not measured. 
— Benares. — See Begulation LI. 1795. 

Dhaiiyana, UbybJ ^R^HT 

To separate the good from bad grain ; to winnow. The word 
is used throughout the North-Western Provinces, but the pro- 
cess is usually called Dh&rdhama in Dehli, Suretna in Srohil- 
khand, and TJs&na in Bundelkhand ; but this latter, as weU as 
Barsana, is also general in the North-Western Provinces. 

Dharingd, l&ybj \lf<«rT 

A kind of rice. — ^Bohilkhand. 

Dharohar, >V^*^ vOf< 

Deposit. From Dham&, to place. 

Dhartf, ^ybj \iR7ft 

Land ; the earth. 

Dharakha, l^jjbj ^S(^Wl 

Dharalld, iytj ^ar^m 

A scarecrow. — See Bijhgah, Dhokha, and Dhtiha. 


Dhas&n, ^Lj^j WTTf 

Dhasan, ^^^j \nR 

Dhasao, ^LjbJ ^sFTRT 

Dhasam, ^m^j^j lanRT 

A swamp ; a quagmire. From Dhasnd, to sink into^ to enter. 

Dig, v^j f^if 

Dig, or Dik, is one of the regions of the earth, of which there 
are reckoned to be ten. They are frequently called by the 
names of their supposed regents ; as Isan for North-East, Nairit 
for South- West, Agni for South-East, B&yu for North-West, 
etc. These regions are more usually considered to be eight, 
but there are in reaUty ten, by adding Ananta and Brahma, the 
regents of the nadir and zenith. ''Decem mundi partes pro 
omnes mundi partes, quarum octo quae sunt hyperbolice decern 
dicuntur." — Lassen, ^* Anthologia Sanskritica,'' p. 234. See also 
Johnson's Selections from the " Mahabharat,'' p. 91 ; Lassen's 
" Gita Govinda," p. 84, and Bopp's " Nalus," p. 198. 

Dighf, ^J t^ 

A large oblong tank. Corrupted by the English into Diggy. 

Dil, Jo f^ 

A small eminence; the site of an old Tillage. — ^Benares. 
Called in other parts of the North- West, Dhlha, Putha, Tfla, 
Theh, and Thera. 

Docha, a^j 4^^\ 

Docha or Dohcha is the second reservoir to which water is 
raised by the Beri and Dauri for the purposes of irrigation. 
The third is called Tehcha, and the fourth Chauncha. These 
words are used chiefly to the Westward. To the East other 
terms prevail. — See Daurl. 


Dofasb', ^J^j*^ ^^t'PRft 

Lands producing two crops a year. It is also known as 
Dohar, Dosai, Dosahl, and Jutheli. 

Dabehrf, s&rvirf^ ^f^ 

Is the name given to a light kind of plough in the Western 
parts of Oudh and Bohilkhand. In Eastern Oudh it assumes 
a masculine form, Dabehra, and is there applied to a large 

Dabrd, Xjij ^nJJ 

A marsh ; a puddle ; a small pond. 

A small field, applied synonymously with Tapra. — ^E. Or 
rather a plot of land, whether consisting of one or more 
fields. — B. — Upper Do&b. 

Dabri, ^5^0 1^0 

Division of prc^t amongst the village 4x>mmuni<y aocording 
to their respective shares. — Upper Do&b. 

Dach, g,j ;^ 

Homestead. — ^Eastern Oudh. 

Dadri, ^^jj ?[;^ 

Unripe com, chiefiy barley, which is cut from time to time, 
and brought home to be eaten, instead of being taken to tiie 
threshing ground. The word is in general use, but Alo, Arwan, 
Aw&sf, Kawal, and E^awarf, are also terms in local use. 

Daftari, s&r^*^ ^[WH^ 

A man employed in the vernacular offices of the Civil offidals 
in India in preparing and taking care of articles of stationery, 
and in ruling or binding sheets of paper for official purposes. 

FA:BT IV, — ^RTIBAI,. LIPB. 293 

A path. Also ^^ dahar. The word is derived firom Dag, 
a pace^ a step ; now rarely used^ but we find it in the familiar 
couplet describing the fertility of Malwa» which is given in the 
article G^mbhir. 

Dahendi^ c^^jLj^j ^[^^ 

A vessel for holding dahi, or curds, \,e. the solid part of the 
milk separated firom the liquid. Dohni is the name of the vessel 
which hokb diidh, or fireak milk. 

Dahiyd, U*> Ijftlfl 

A field;, land near a village.-r^BenaTeft and Saugor. The 
name perhapa is more generally spelt with a oerebral or lingual 
i{ or ^ 

Dahmard^, b^j^ ^ipra^ 

A cart smaller than a Q&rt and Chhakri, anid larger than a 
Behl6. — ^BdhilUiand. The name is derived firom its eapadty 
to carry ten men. It is also caUed a Dobardi or I)obaId&, the 
origin of which is difl^rent, bring derived firen a word signifying 
two bullocka* 

Dahr, ^o ^fT 

Stiff day soil (in low ground). It is usually applied to a 
marsh or any inundated land in Dehli. 

Dahal, Jjbj 

Sometimes used as the equivalent of Daldal, fox a quicksand 
or quagmire. From Dahalnd Uub J to tremble, to shake. In an 
extract fix>m a History written in Jah&ngir's time, and ascribed 
to Ferishta, — (the author seems wrongly quoted)— -it is stated 
that the name of the Imperial Qity gf D^hU (correctly Dilli, 


Dlhli^ or Dhilli) is deriyed from this word — ^the ground on 
which it was built being so loose and infirm (dahal) that tent- 
pins could not be fixed in it. 

Ll^jdj\ ^ ^Jxa^JiJb J J ^^\jy ^^j\ iZJj^l; v::^*^^^ <tijUi!j 

*^/ (♦j-r' l/^*^ ^Jjr^ u^ ^j^A^ 

*^ And Dihli is one of the cities which are both ancient and 
modem, and in one of the months of the year 307 (Hijri = a.d. 
919) TJdit the Rajput of the Tuar clan built the fort of Indarpat 
in Hindustan^ and as the earth there was very soft so that they 
could with difficulty fix a tent-peg in it he called the city DihlL'' 

The same origin is ascribed to the word in the Nuzhatu'l 

Histories usually ascribe a different orign to the name, saying 
that the city was founded by Raja Delu. Common tradition 
differs from these accounts. It is universally believed that the 
name is derived (flVI or flVT loose) from the sacrilegious 
attempt of the Tomar (Tuar) to see wheQier the iron pillar 
had really, as was supposed, penetrated the head of Sahesnag. 

'* The pillar became loose (dhillf), the Turner was fooHsh : 
First in Dehli was the Tumar, then the Chauhin, 
And afterwards Mughal and Patym." 

Colonel Tod says the name of Dehli was not given to the 
Imperial city before the eighth century* — Trans. B. A. S. Yol. 
III. p. 150. See also Quart. Or. Mag. No. XVI. p. 133.*— E. 

• See alBO J. A. S. B. 1866, vol. XXXV. Part I. p. 199, for a long and carefiillx 
elaborated topographical deecriptlon of the city of Dehli by C. J* CampbeU*— B. 


General Cmmingliain fixes conjectorally the original founda- 
tion of Dilli in 57 B.c.9 but says that after a few years it was 
deserted for 792 years by the kings, though probably not by the 
people. In 736 it was rebuilt by Anang Pal or Bil&u Deo (see 
Tomar in Fart I.). As to the origin of the name the safest course 
is to acquiesce in the opinion that it has been lost in the lapse 
of ages. In 57 b.c. the Hindi word dhiUi certainly was not in 
existence as far as we know, and the corrupted modem spelling 
Dihli or Dehli seems to point to a different source. The 
General's article is too long to quote here ; it may be found 
in J. A, S. B. Vol. XXXIII. for 1864, Appendix.— B. 

Dahar, ^j ^f^ 

Applied in Benares, Oudh, Lower Bo&b, and Bimdelkhand to 
a road ; elsewhere, Dagar or Dagra is used. — See Dagar. 

Daldal, J^^ ^^!^f^ 

A quagmire. 

Daliyd, Uj ^fvm 

Any sort of split pulse, ground finer than dal — ^in which the 
seed is understood to be split only into two pieces. 

Dalganjana, Ujs^j 4i|4|i|i^<ll 

A kind of rice. — See Dh&n. 

Dalhard, [,l^j i^irvm 

A grain seller. From dal, split pulse. 

Damka, lC«j ^jRm 

A hiUock. — ^Eastern Oudh. 

Damrf, ^^j ^nft 

In the Dehli territory, the term is applied to the sub-divisions 
of a village. Thus in GK>p&lpur of Bohtak, there are 150 

296 suFPLSsaoTAL ai/MAXt. 

DtanrlB, ettibh Damri bemg univalent to twenty-fire kachelia 
bighas. But Damri is commofnly known as a nominal coin, 
equal to 3| or 8^ Ddms ; or between two and three Chtndae— eo 
that a Damri varies from 8 to 12 GowilSy according to the good 
wiU and pleamire of miscmpulons Banyas* 

It may be uaefbl to subjoin firom the " Diw&n Paaand" a table 
showing the Talue of Damris and D&ms : 

1 Damrf 8J D4ms. 

2 „ 6J „ 1 OhhadAm. 

3 „ &i „ 

4 „ I2i „ lAdhelfl. 

6 „ 16 ff 

6 „ 18f „ i Paisa. 

• >9 • 22 „ 

8 „ 25 „ 1 „ 

8 99 28 „ 

10 „ 31i „ li „ 

11 „ 34i „ 

12 „ 87i „ IJ „ 

13 „ 40 „ 

*-^ » " ff ■■•J « 

15 „ 47 „ 

16 „ 60 „ I Taka. 

The table is given with some slight variations in the '' Zub* 
datul Kaw&n(n." but in neither are the smaller fractional 
amounts given with correctness. — See Chhad&m, Gknda. 

Damaf, Ji.j j^ki 

Amount of assessment. The word is derived from the D&m 
of account, which was formerly used in revenue accounts* — 
Central Do&b. 

Danda, iJbj "ilT 

A collector of mazket dues, in which sense Dan^ also is 


used; the beam of a pair of scales; the step of a ladder; a 

Dandf, t^Jjj ^it 

A handle ; a weighman ; the beam of a pair of scales. 

Dandwara, iJyXjo ^tl^lTTT 

A south wind. !Eh&n Aizd aays it is sometimeSj but im- 
properly, considered to come from the opposite quarter — and 
that the real name of the North wind is Barban. 

A sickle. — See Danti. 

Dangwdra, i(j\/jj ^'RITTT 

Beciprocal assistance in tillage. — Dehli and Northern Do&b. 
— See Angw&ra, HaH^ and Jita. 

Dantdoli, \J^^^ ^['WFrtft 

A harrow, or rake. From Dant^ a tooth. 

Danthla, )lfjj INniT 

The bare stalks of Bajra, Jowar, and Indian com ; apparently 
from Dant, a tooth ; but it must be confessed the word is usually 
spelt with the hard or cerebral d, and Danthal is so spelt on the 
high authority of Professor Shakespear, which, if correct, would 
militate against this etymology. They are also called Khtinthi, 
Ehdntla, Dund, Danthal, Thiint, Ehutel, and Khobori. These 
names are in use in different places. In some, they represent 
the crop with the heads of com cut off the stalks ; in others 
they represent the roots which remain in the ground after the 
crop has been cut. — ^See Datoi and Dantb. 


Danthal, Jfjj ^lw 

This word bears the same meaning ; and is also applied to the 
roots of Ghana, remaining in the ground after the crop is cut. 

Dares, c/^^*^ 

A road-margin ; any line yery straight. It is derived from 
the drill- word ''Dress/' which has been introduced by our 
retired Sepoys into their native villages. 

Darklidl, Jl|^j ?[T^9Tir 

A cattle enclosure.— Benares. 

Daxar, jjfj ^x 

A water-fall, or impetuous flood ; corrupted apparently firom 
darerd ]j^ J hard rain. 

Dasotara, »yj^j ^^It^ 

Ten per cent. From das (jm J ten. 

Dasti, if^^ 7^ 

A present given to native officials at the Dasehra. From the 
Persian l:l^^O a hand. — E. 

Also the small portable kalamd&n or inkstand which the 
native aml& use. — ^B. 

Datoi, JyJ ^t 

Land which has been lately cropped with Makha (Indian 
com or maize), Bajra or Jawar.— Dehli or Upper Do&b. 

There is much the same difficulty about spelling this word, 
as in spelling Danthal. Professor Shakespear, whose authority 
is not to be slighted, gives WSl as a stalk, which would make 
Datoi to be more accurately ropresented by VStv or VZn^« 
CHlchrist also spells it V3T* 


Datara, 2yj ^WQ 

A large rake used for gathering high grass together into a 
cocklet. Kilwai is a smaller implement of the same kind.^ — 

Dorl, ^j^j tt^ 

A chain^ or line> with which lands are measured. — See Dauri. 

Doras, ^jwjjj ;ftT^ 

Literally^ two flavours; used in the Eastern districts ; as Domat 
in the North- West> to signify a mixture of two soils, Mattl&r 
and Balu&, clay and sand ; and, like Domat, is in some places, 
as in Azimgarh, considered the best quality; in others, as in 
Gorakhpdr, the second quality of soil, except in Tilpdr and the 
forest Parganahs, in which the Mattl&r is considered too ad- 

Dosahf, _ibLi^j ^ftvri^ 

Dos4hf, or Dos&f, signifies lands yielding two crops a year. — 
See Dofasli. 

Dosari, 4^g^j ;^t^ 

The ploughing of land twice ; the land itself when ploughed 
twice. When ploughed three times it is called Tesari ; when 
four, Chaurasf . — ^DehlL — See Dor and JaeL 

Daula, !t^j ^itm 

A boundary. 

Daimgra, \»6jj f[^^ 

A heavy shower. The author of the ** Araish-i Mahfil,'* in 
his preliminary chapter on the praises of Hindustan, speaks of 
the As&rh ki Daung^i s£^ji<>> Sawan ki Jharf&n ^^^^, and 
Bh6don ki Darepi ^^JJ. 


Daur, j^^ iftx 

The slings attached to a basket for irrigati<Hio The mere 
usual terms aje Jat& aDd Joti. 

A Tillage me6senger.--*See Dalfihar» 

The rope which binda the bullocks together when threshing. 
This ia the general name^ but there are many others in local 
iiS6| as 6and&war> Dftmrf^ Gur&war, D&nwarl^ Pakhar, and Jor« 
The stake to which the bollocks are tied is called Mend G^^)» 
and hence Mendhya, the inner bullock. The outer or off bnl* 
lock is called Pat in Benares,, Pagharia in Bohilkhand^ and 
Pankarari in Pehli. Daurit which is q>elt both with the Hindi 
and Persian Dal^ appears to be derived from Dor, a string* a 
rope ; whence Dorea, lace. In the gipsy language, Dori, which 
means a riband, is perhaps the same word.* 

Dauri ia also used to the Eastward in the same sense as 
Puroha, Beri, Chh&pa, Boka, Ddgla, or Lehari, to signify a 
sling basket used in irrigation, and is generaUy made of spUt 
bamboo. It means also the act of throwing the basket, as 
DauH lag&, *' irrigation by Dauri has commenced.^ 

The lowest reservoir from which the water is raised is vari- 
ously styled Nyani, Goiora, I^andhu or Nadhao. It ia raised 
from that to the Pachti, and from that again to the Thauka. 
The raised bank between the Nandhu and Pachd is called 
Odi ; and the place where the throwers stand on each side of 
the Nandhu is called Paidha. 

* Doriyfr, a dog-keeper, is also nmiJUrly deriyed, beeanse be ii ptenwed to lead 
dogs with a string. Dori dalna also is to prolong the stitch of a qnilt^ or dress ; and 
hence is applied, metaphorically, to the lengthened note of the bird called Chittf, the 
female of the Amadnyade, or AradnTat {FHngiilia Afiumd^va), i.e, the FiingiUa of 
of Ahmedabad in the Dekkan, for so the word has been corrupted by the NatnialislB. 


Dabbiyd, Uj ^flr^ 

A box ; also written I)ibbiy&. A term applied to aboat ten 
baxidfuls (Mattha) of Eharif produce. Ldrna is the wordtised 
in the same sense with respect to Babi produce. About fbcer 
Muttha make a Lehna; about four Lehna, a Dabbiyd; about 
five Dabbiyd, a Bojh ; and about a hundred Bojh make a Pahi. 
!Five Dabbiy& of Kharff produce amount to a Dhoka, and about 
ten Dhoka make a Bojh, or load, and an aggregation of several 
Bojh make a Kundar. The application of all these words yaries 
very much in different districts, and even in different Por- 
ganahs. The text represents the words used chiefly in the 
Eastern portion of these Proyinces. 

Doh6o, ^Ujj ffifnr 

The Zamind&r's perquisite of milk from Byot^^ cows. 

Dohiir^ yjbjj 

A sandy sub-soil. — Central Do&b. 

See Koluh. 

Debar, ^y ^tf^ 

The old bed of a river. — ^Eastern Oudh. Johar is elsewhere 
used in the same sense. 

Dohar is likewise aj^ed to land which bears two crops in a 
year. — Central Do&b. 

Dojfra, irr^j^ ^frft^T 

A kind of rice. — See Dhan. 

Dokhf, ^^j ^Wft 

A raised mound indicating the junction of two boundaries.— 


Pol, Jy ^W 

Applied locally to signify the richest black soiL^— Baitul. 
Pol is generally used to denote a bucket for drawing water. 
From the Persian ^ J. 

Dolawa, y«!|^j ^t^TTTr 

A well haying two Laos, or well-buckets and ropes. Dopaira 
is also used in this sense. 

Dolchf, ^jj ^frtNt 

A small bucket. — See above under DoL 

Domat, lI^jJ ^t^VZ 

A mixture of two Mattis or soils, clay and sand, Matti&r and 
Bhdr. Like Doras, in some places, it is considered the first 
quality, in others, the second quality of soil. Li Agra, Far- 
rukhabad, and parts of Bareily, it is considered the best, but it 
is more usual, as in Bad&on, to rate it as second quality. 

Dongf, ^j5 %nft 

A small boat. From which our dingy is derived, according 
to some, but there exists also a form %^ which is more likely 
of the two to have originated the word. 

Name of a grass {Agrostis linearis, Koan. Cynodon Dactylon^ 
Boyle). ''Its flowers in the perfect state are among the love- 
liest objects in the vegetable world, and appear through a lens 
like minute rubies and emeralds in constant motion from the 
least breath of air. It is the sweetest and most nutritious pas- 
ture for cattle, and its usefulness added to its beauty, induced 
the Hindus in the earliest ages to believe it was the mansion of 
a benevolent nymph." — (Sir W. Jones' Works, Vol. V. p. 78), 


There are generally considered to be three kinds of Dub. 
The best, which throws out the creeper-like stem,* is called 
Paund&. This is essentially the same as the fiorin grass of 
English farmers. The second, which is smaller, grows on hard 
ground, and is called Khutya. The third is called the white 
Dub from its peculiar colour, and is used by native practitioners 
as a medicine in fevers. This is called by Wilson (" Sanskrit 
Diet." p. 279) Gand&li. In Dehli it is frequently called Dhauri. 
In Sanger the Khutya is known under the name of Chhattu. 
Where the division into three kinds is not known, the recog- 
nized varieties are Ghur-dub and Ban-diibia; the first being 
derived from Ghora, a horse, as it is excellent pasture grass ; 
the second from Ban, a forest, or jungle, as it is a coarser kind. 

The nutritive qualities of Dub have caused it to be a great 
fieivorite with the natives of India, and frequent allusions are 
made to it by the poets. Its tenacity whenever it once fixes its 
roots has caused it to be used in a common simile when the 
attachment of Zamind&rs to their native soil is spoken of. 

N&nak Shah also, in exhorting himself to humility, uses the 
following simile respecting the modest charms of this herb, 
alluding to the fact that it remains green even in the hot 

TTW 'PfT ft Tft SNrr f'ft ^ 

" Kdnak, be humble Hke the humble dub, 
Other grasses are burnt up, dub remains fresh and fresh." 

A term sometimes applied to a bribe, given whether the donor 
gain or lose his cause; in distinction to Tarai, in which the 

* From this peculiarity of creeping along the ground this gran deriTes its name, 
from >B^«|| to be pressed down. It would be more correct, perhaps, to write it 
^|[W, but Hindi spelling is very capricious. — B. 


bribe k returned if the suit is loBt. The words are used in the 
Do&b and Bohilkhand, and their existence indioates a degree of 
refinement in the art of bribery, which perhaps no other lan^ 
goage can parallel. The origin of the terms is in the one case, 
dibnd ^»*y to sink, to be immerged ; and, in the other, tami 
\)Ji to pass over safely, to be ferried. 

Dubsf, ^5 ^^ 

Inimdated land, or land liable to be flooded. From dtibn& 

n , \ 

'1:jj«> to sink, to be immerged. 

Diidlia, UjjJ ^^ 

A species of rice. — ^Bee Dhan. 

Dudk&y l^jj ^HPIT 

Is the name of one of the many diseases to which the rice 
plant is subject. There are various others, as BaguU, Eatri, 
Purwai, £ans{, etc. 

Dugla, ^J jj^Wl 

A sling-basket of large size, round and deep, used for the 
purposes of irrigation. — See Beri, Boka, DaurL 

Durkhi, ^jj "^ 

An insect whose ravages are very destructive to indigo, when 
the plant is young. 

Dor, j^j ^ 

Land ploughed twice. When ploughed three times, it is 
called Tiar; when four, Chawar, the ar in these words being 
from ^ a plough ; thus dor = do-har ; tiar = tin-har ; chawar= 
chau (for ch&r) har, etc. — Central and Lower Do&b« — See 
Dosari and Jael. 


Diima, UjJ J[in 

Is the name of the leather case in which tea is imported from 
Tibet into Guf'hw&l and Eam&on. It contains about three seers^ 
and bears a price of six or seven rupees. About one hundred 
Dum&s are imported annually into £am&on^ which is consumed 
chiefly by the Bhotiy&s of the passes, and seventy Dum&s into 
Ghirhw&ly of which a portion finds its way to Hardw&r and 

D6n, ^^J f^r 

A valley. The word does not appear in Shakespear's Dic- 
tionary^ but is locally applied in the Sewalik Hills under the 
Himalaya, in this signification : as Patli Dun, Dehra Ddn. The 
word may perhaps be formed by elision from the Sanskrit ^tlft 
''the imion of two mountains, the valley or chasm between 
them'' (Sanskrit Diet., p. 431); and hence Dronakas, ''the 
people of vaUies (Yishnu Purana, p. 196). 

Dunda, \1j^j ^ 

A bullock with only one horn. The word is in general use ; 
but in parts of Dehli it is applied to a bullock with two horns, 
and Tunda to a bullock which has only one. This word also 
means the broken stump of a tree. 

See Xolhti. 

Dunga, li^j ^ 

Deep ; an excavation, such as that of a trough ; a canoe. 

Fdlez, jJU iST%l 

A field of melons. 

TOL. n. 20 


Fards, ^ji xg^jE 

(Tamaria fards.) The Far&8 occur in tlie drier parts of the 
Do&b, and in the neighbourhood of Dehli ; where it is called 
Asal or Atal, because in Arabia the galls which are formed on 
the tree are called Samrat-u'l AsaL Chhoti Mai is the Hin- 
ddst&ni name of these galls. Yery little use is made of the tree, 
except occasionally in buildings when nothing better can be 
procured. — See Jhao. 

In the Do&b it does not appear to grow to the East of the 
Arind river. 

Farrdsh, ^\ji xf^jq 

From the Arabic ^ji a carpet ; a person who spreads carpets; 
a sweeper. The term is correctly explained in the Glossaiy 
under Ferash^ Firashe^ and Farash. In ancient times his duty 
appears to have been that of a Ehal&sf, or tent-pitcher, and the 
latter term was applied chiefly to sailors. 

(Ain-i-Akbarf.) JCJa^ 

** Tindel (our modem word tindal = the boatswain of a native 
crew) the head of the Khalamis (vulgo clashies) in the language 
of the sea-going folk ; also called H&warah.'^ 

Firirf, ^j\J fiPT^t 

Absconding; a person who has absconded. From the Per- 
sian j|/ fir&r, flight. The word is more usually pronounced 
Far&ri in India. 

Fota, ^y tftm 

A bag ; collections made firom the tenantry in general ; trea- 
sure; revenue. 


A pad put oyer the back of a beast of burden ; called also 
Oaddf, Gathf, Bakhr&, Pal&n, Liw&, Pad£d, Cbhai, and by 
seyeral other names^ which are merely local, and even then 
not applicable to every beast. For instance, where the pad of 
the ass is JAwi, that of the bullock is Chhai-Bakhr& ; abd so on. 

G&d, jlf m^ 

The sediment of dirty water. 

G&dar, or, more correctly, Gkiddar and Gbidra, signifies half- 
ripe fruit or com. — See Bhadahar. 

Gddar, jjlf W(WK 

Sheep. — See Ghtdariyd in Fart I. 

To tread out com. — See Daen. 

Gahan, ^\^ i(Tf^ 

A harrow with teeth for eradicating grass from ploughed 
land. The Maira, which it resembles in form has no teeth. 
The implement is little known to the East of Farrukhabad. 

Gdjd, U-l^ ^TWT 

The first rice sowing in the districts at the foot of the hills. 
The sowing is in Baisakh (April- May), the cutting in Bhadon 
(August-September). The word is, perhaps, derived from (h^ 
j&na, to ferment, to rot, which aptly expresses the condition of 
this early crop. The second sowing is called Bhijoa ; it occnis 
in Jeth, the cutting takes place in Ku&r. The third is called 
Rassauta, or Butiya, seasonable, because it takes place in the 


most natural rut (vulg. for rit, season). The sowing is in Asa^li 
(June-Jiily)y or S&i?fan (July-August), and the harvest in £&tik 
(October-November), or Aghan (I^ovember-December). 

Gdjar, ^\f ^TWR: 

A carrot. 

G41, jir inn 

A sort of tobacco. 

Gdla, dJlf imrr 

A pod of cotton, or, more usually, a ball of carded cotton, 
which is known also by the name of Godhd Uj^jS. 

Gam, ^\^ vm 

A village : more usually G&nw. 

Sugar-cane-^See Agaund, Ikh, and Qanna. 

G&ndal, jJblf irtiw 

G&ndar, jlilf ^itWK 

(Andropogon muricaiumj. Thatching grass. G&ndal grows 
in land subject to inundation ; and its root yields the Ehaskhas, 
or scented grass, so much used for tattis or screens against 
doorways in the hot weather in India. The produce of this 
grass has of late years much diminished, owing to the great 
extension of cultivation in those parts where it used formerly to 
grow spontaneously. G&ndal is the common name of the grass, 
but it is known by the name of F&nhi in Dehli. 

G4nja, ^rlf ^rt^ 

G&nja, or G&njha, is a plant from which an intoxicating drag 

PABT nr. — ^RUEAL LIFE, 309 

of ihe same name is procured, which is used as a liquor in the 
Upper Provinces, and smoked like tobacco in Bengal. That 
which is procured from Balugarrah in Bengal is of high repute. 
It is divided into Ghapta and Goli,* of which the first is chieflj 
in demand in Hindustan. 

G&nja is largely cidtivated in the hills of Sirmtir and Garhw&l 
and the plant grows wild imder the hills from Seh&ranpur to 
Tirhut, and on the banks of the Ghmges ; but it appears to be 
not ihe same as the smoking G&nja of Bengal, as it is declared 
to have none of the gum-resin qualities peculiar to the latter. 
O'Shaughnessy describes G&nja to be the dried hemp plant 
which has flowered, and from which the resin has not been 
removed. This resin in certain seasons exudes, and concretes on 
the leaves, stems, and flowers, and is called Oharas, and sepa- 
rately taxed and sold. 

Buchanan, in his statistical account of Dinajpur, says that 
the hemp when young is called G&nja ; and Siddhi when the 
flowers have fully expanded. Authorities, however, seem little 
agreed respecting the exact diflerence between G&nja, Siddhi, 
and Bhang ; nor are they more agreed respecting the difference 
between the G&nja of the Upper and Lower Provinces, and the 
identity of the Cannabis Saliva and Indica. 

It was only this year that some G^nja procured at Seharan- 
pur was sent for examination to the superintendent at Bajshahi, 
who thus comments upon it. 

''The specimens sent bear more the character of the hemp 
plant grown for Sanni, than of the Gfinja plant. The Cannabis 
Indica, or G&nja plant, is dioecious, annual, about six or seven 
feet high; the stem is erect, six or eight inches in circum- 

* The three kinds of Gfinja, or rather three qnalitiee or methods of preparation, 
now known in Bengal are fol, or *< round," which is the natural plant dried in its 
natoral shape; ehiptdj or ''flat," which is the plant pressed flat for conyenienoe of 
packing; and rofd, or <*dn8t," which is the broken flowers and stalks and reftise 
generally, and is less yalnable than the other kinds. — ^B. 


ferenoe, «nd branched; leayes alternate or opposite^ on long 
weak petioleSy digitate, scabrous, with linear lanceolate, sharply 
serrated leaflets, tapering into a long smooth entire point. 
Hales lax and drooping; branches leafless at base. Females 
erect, simple, and leafy at the base. Small jattfs, the size of a 
walnut, form on the branches, of an absorbing nature, con- 
taining resinous narcotic juice, which is the part of the plant 
used. Each plant will yield from 20 to 26 branches, weighing, 
when dry, from two to two-and-a-half seers. 

'^ The natives prepare the drug in a very rude manner, the 
branches are cut off when the resinous jattis are ripe, and left 
to dry for a few days ; they are then spread on mats, and the 
jattis are compressed with the toes. By this means a great 
portion of the narcotic resin is lost on the mats, and by adhesion 
to the toes. The sticks being retained is also very objectionable 
when the drug has to be sent to a great distance ; for out of 
1000 maunds prepared in the customary way, not more than 
thirty maunds of the drug can be obtained, the remainder being 
useless sticks.'' 

It is evident, therefore, that in his opinion the G&nja of 
Bengal is of superior quality to that of the Upper Provinces, 
from which intoxicating Bhang only can be extracted, and that 
the Cannabis Sativa is not the same as the Cannabis Indica; 
yet Roxburgh, Wildenow, O'Shaughnessy, and several other 
authorities declare that G&nja is the Cannabis Sativa ; and the 
former, on comparing plants raised from European hemp-seed 
with the G&nja plant, could not discover the slightest difference 
between them. — ^Asiatic Itesearches, Yol. XI. p. 161. — See 
Bhang and Gharas. 

G4njar, jar\^ ^\^ 

A kind of grass. It is known also by the name Ganjerua, 
and is considered very difficult to eradicate when it has once 
taken root. 


G&nkar, Jj\^ il1^ 

An inferior kind of bread made of Arhar and other hard 
grains. It is also, more generally, appUed to any bread not 
baked on an iron plate (the primitive ^'gribble" of Ireland)— 
made, in short, in a hurry, and covered with embers till it is 
considered baked enough to eat. It is also known by the name 
of G&kar, GKrdi, Ang&kar, Bhanra and Satti. — See Bhatnla. 

G4nta, lalf utel 

G&nth, iSj^ Iff? 

G&nth is literally a knot, and is applied by agricoltarists to 
the refuse of straw, consisting of the knotted parts of the stalk 
and ear-ends, which are known to English farmers under the 
name of '' colder." This is formed into a heap, and put aside 
on the threshing ground. As an illustration of the difference 
which prevails in the agricultural terms of different parts of 
these Provinces, it may be interesting to give the names of the 
various heaps which are at different times raised on the thresh- 
ing groimd, during the process of winnowing the com. The 
names which are given as synonymous with G&nth, do not all 
represent the same thing. The words beginmng with S signify 
generally the '^colder'' after it has been re-winnowed; and 
some of the other names applied only to Kharif, or only to 
Babbf produce, specially ; the same word being rarely used for 
both.— See Bhurari.— E.* 

• K6]i Bai says, <<The small lieapa put aside for blidmi ganesh (or the offeringa 
to gods and penates) are called t^aW and tydwafh t|||«|^; grain left on the threshing 
floor after remoTing the bulk of the crop is called mef ^^9 ^^ ihdpd ^mi» 
and the grain which foUs to the ground with the chaff in winnowing is called ghdn^^ 
J>(»\ and is the perquisite of the Gham&n. It is also called ffo^harwd WS^t* 
Gleanings of fields which any one may can7 off are called Rl^l MU—E. add. 



















♦- " 8 



















5 P<4 

i i I 









^ I 

Q P4 o S 








a I 






s ^ 







A dwelling house ; a family ; a cow-house. — ^Dehli. 

Gabrautd, Z^jS i i ^iO^ T 

A large beetle found in old cowdung and dung-lulls. It is 
called also Ghibrau|tt and Qobaraunda (Searabtsua stercararius^ 
Linn.). From ^tW^ cowdimg. 

Gkd, j!f w^ 

A boundary mark. — ^Dehli. 

Gaddl, 4^j^ ir^ 

A throne, or cushion. — See Gachi. 

A sheaf of com. Perhaps this would be spelt more correctly 
with a Hindi ^ d. 

Oaddhrf, s^J^ llrtt 

The unripe pod of the Ghram plant, or CHeer arietinum. — 
Dehli.— See Dhtindhi and Gaddar. 

Gaddar, j^ 

Qadr&, \j^ 113^ 

Unripe com, or fruit. 

Gadf chat, \S^ji^ ^I^Hz 

A grass generally found growing with Dtib, which it re- 
resembles, except in being about three times larger. It is much 
used as fodder. 

Gadgol, j/j^ iT^^ftV 

Muddy water. 

Gahdi, J\^ ^^ 

The custom of treading sheaves of com by bullocks, with the 


view of separating the oom from the ears and stalks. From the 
verb G&hn&y q.v. — See also D&ln. 

Gfahnd, L|f i|f«rr 

Anything in pledge ; the original meaning is jewels, orna- 

Swampy ground. 

GaUy&, Ur nffRn 

GaUy& (sometimes, but incorrectly, pronounced Gtuiy&r) is 
the name given to a bullock which lies down in the midst of its 
work ; generally from its neck (^VlfT) being galled — henoe the 

Galt&r, jUf ^nmrv 

The name given to the inner pegs of a yoke. The word 
appears to be derived from ^RTT Gtd&, a neck, and Wf Ar, a 
protection.* G^ta, Shamal, and Pachai are used in the same 
sense. — See HaL 

Dying without issue. From ^\ right, lot, inheritance, and 
l:i^to melt, to be dissolved. 

Gambhir, y-f^ 'hftT 

A Sanskrit word signifying deep. It is generally applied to 
soil which is of a rich quality, and attains a more than usual 

* I should prefer to ^nite it mth ^, and deriye it from gal&, the neck, and ^TT^ 
a thread or string, as its nse is to festen tiie string which goes nnder the nedk of tiie 
ox. The derivation in the text does not aooount for the 7(. — ^B. 


depth before the subsoil is reaohecL This quality is ascribed to 
the fertile soil of M&lw&. 

** The land of Mflw£ is deep and rich;! 
At every step bread, on eyeiy path water." 

The two words Gaihar (for ^ffT() and Ghunbhir in the fore- 
going couplet are in fact the same ; the former being the modi- 
fied or Prakrit form of the latter. See Wilson's Introduction to 
** Specimens of the Hindu Theatre," and *' Sanskrit Dictionary/' 
p. 283. 

Gfanda, \SJ itWl 

This word is giyen under Gandfil, in the Printed Glossary. 
Like the D&m, the Gkmda of accoiint and the Ganda of practice 
do not coincide. Gknd&s of accoimt are but little used in the 
North-Western Proyinces, except in Benares and the Dehra 
Dun, and, in consequence of its former subjection to Oudh, the 
Nazar&na accounts of Bohilkhand are frequently drawn out in 
Gandas. This Ghmda is the twentieth part of an Anna. The 
Gtuidd known to the conmion people is not of stable amount, 
sometimes four, and sometimes five, and sometimes even six, 
go to a packa Damri, or Chhad^m, according to the pleasure of 
the money dealers, or the state of the market. Notwithstand- 
ing this yariable amount, as a Ganda is equivalent to four 
Kauris, ''to count by Gkndas" signifies to coimt by fours, or by 
the quaternary scale, to which the natiyes are yery partial, — ^in 
the same way as to coimt by g&his or panjas, is to count by fiyes, 
or by the quinary scale. 

As four £auris make one Ghmdi, so do twenty Gandas make 
one Pan, and sixteen Pans make one Kah&wan. But there are 


grades of monetary yalue eyen below that of Kauri ; for the 
Hindus seem as fond of dealing with these infinitesimal quanti- 


ties, as they are with the higher numbers^ as exemplified in the 
article E^aror. Thus 3 £rant, or 4 Kak, or 5 Bat, or 9 Dant, or 
27 Jauy or 32 D&r, or 80 Til, or 800 Sano are each equivalent to 
one Kauri. These Ure not in practical use in the N.W. Pro- 
yincesy but are entered in several account books, and many of 
them appear to be employed in the bazaar transactions of 
Eattack and parts of BengaL — See '^Bushton's Ghizetteer," 
1841, Vol. L p. 182. 

The Kauri or cowry shell, the Cyprcea moneta^ has been sub- 
ject to strange diminution of value, in consequence of the 
facilities of commerce, by which their worth has been depressed 
below that of the precious metals. In 1740, a Bupee exchanged 
for 2,400 Kauris ; in 1756, for 2,560 Kauris ; and at this time 
as many as 6,500 Kauris may be obtained for the Eupee. 

Kauri in Persian is translated by Khar-mohra, literally, a 
jackass's or mule's shell ; because mules are ornamented in that 
ioun^ ^a. teroing. of 4,1^ » . G«»in'. bulKK* i. in thi. 
country. In Arabic it is known hjtoada 90^, which Ibn Batuta says 
is carried in large quantities from the Maldive Islands to Bengal, 
where it is used as coin ; and therefore there can be no doubt 
that the CyprcBa maneia is meant. The K&m6s adds (J^ 
^ji^\ ^ jJ — ^that it is suspended from the neck to avert the evil 
eye, as it is in India to this day,* provided the shell is split or 
broken. — E. 

These minute amounts are of great and constantly occur- 
ring use in calculating the shares of proprietors in the enor- 
mous Zamind&ris in Behar and Bengal under the perpetual 
settlement. Each estate, however large, being considered for 
purposes of partition as one rupee, a person whose share is only 
two or three kr&nts may have an interest in the estate equal to 
several thousand acres, and worth many lakhs of rupees. — B. 

* (hoi^k is also tlie name applied to the knotted string which is suspended round 
a child's neck for the same purpose ; but not, apparently, because it has any connec- 
tion with the Kaori amnlet. 


Gbnda-biroza, ij^jitiS:S 4|«^ir^0^l 

Olibamum, male frankmcenBe, the produce of the BoaweUia 
thurifera. The same name is also given to the produce of the 
Chip (Finns longifolia). — (O'Shaughnessy's Dispensatory, pp. 
283 and 612). 

Gandasi, ^iJLf ^t^ipit 

Gardsi, lT*!)^ Tlrtft 

An instrument for cuttiag sugar-cane, Jaw&r stalks, or thomj 
bushes. Also, in Dehli, an assessment on the number of Gan- 
d&sis, a tax which used to be levied in former days. — ^E. 

The gandas& of Benares and Behar is a formidable weapon, like 
a battle-axe, capable of inflicting in the hands of a stalwart 
Rajput peasant severe wounds, as is demonstrated by the cases of 
wounding which so frequently come before the criminal courts. 
In Shah&b&d the village chokidars are often armed with it. — ^B. 

G^ande^i, s^*^ 4i<V 

Gareri, 4^jf illft 

Pieces of sugar-cane. 

Gkndhel, J-ax^ iJ^W 

The sweet smelling grass known as Gandhel (from Gandh, 
perfume), is most probably the same as Gandhbel, which Boyle 
{** Ant. Hind. Med." p. 143) says is the Andropogon calamus 
aramaticus; from the leaves, culms, and roots of which a fra- 
grant essential oil is distilled. 

Gandarwald, i\jjl^ ^>f<<H^l 

See Eolhu. Gareran, Gandrdra, and Gandhra are also used 
in a similar sense. 


Gandaild, h^ ^4^wr 

Gtuidail&, or Ghindliiy6y is the name of a grub destractiye to 
Ghan& and Arhar. — ^Eastern Oudli. It is usually called GIndar 
elsewhere^ q,v. 

Qangdld, 211^ *TTflT 

Lands subject to inundations of the Ghuiges. — Bohilkhand. 

Gkmgbar&niad, j^ljii^J^ 4^m^H^ 

Gangbardr, ^^Ji^^S^ ^^l^ili 

Alluvial land recoyered from a river, especially the Ganges. 
— See Dary&bar&r. 

Gang sbikasty vr ^.n^^u)^^ ^4^Nfhnr 

Encroachment of the Ganges, or of any other river, by 
diluvion. — See Dariy&burd. 

Ganj, ^ ^ 

A granary ; a market, and especially one of grain. It is used 
chiefly as an affix to proper names ; as Isl&m-gange, Hardoa- 
gange, Captain-gange. 

Ganjell, ^^^ ^^ift 

The same as Bhangela, ;.f • 

Qankatd, \i^ TWPn 

Is the title of the man employed to cut the sugar-cane into 
lengths of about six inches for feeding the mill. 

Gann&, liS" «nn 

Sugar-cane. There are various kinds cultivated in these 
Provinces. The principal in Bohilkhand are Dhaul (white). 


Neiilfy Eat&ra, Lakri, Paunda, Ohin, Manga; in Benares, 
Manga, Pannday Barankha, Beora, Khnsyar, Sarauti, Kat^ra, 
Bakra, and Ehiw&hi. 

The most noted of the Do&b are Saretha, Dhanl, Pannda, 
Chin, Eathori, Dhdmar, Barankha, K&l&ganday Eon&ra, £arba, 
Matna; in Dehli, Surtha, K&l&surthay Pannda, Bhtirastirtha, 
IiUtI, Gharari, Kin&ra, Dhanl, and Bejhar. Many of these 
names are identical ; but the kind called Paunda seems to 
be the only one generally known. It is eaten raw, not manu- 

The amount of acres mider sugar-cane cultivation throughout 
the North- Western Provinces, in the year of survey, is shewn 
below : 

Dehli Division 6,307 Acres. 

Bohilkhand Division 168,277 

Mirat Division 106,861 

Agra Division 47,090 

Allah4b6d Division 33,410 

Benares Division 317,636 

Saugor Division 12,919 

Total Acres 690,399 

Ganel, J^ ^niNr 

A species of long grass, which is used for thatching, and 
grows on the banks of the OhambaL The word is a corruption 
of Gbndal, q,v. 

Ganf (gunny), ^ irft 

The name given to the coarse bags made from the fibres of the 
P&t {Corcharus capaularis). It is derived from Gbniya, a name 
which Bumphius gave to the P&t from some native source. 

Ganaurf, s&y^ ffW 

A bulrush.— -Eastern Oudh. 


Oanthd, l^ ifTT 

A fractional part of a Jarib. — See Gattlia. 

Gara, \f iTlT 

A large sheaf; except in the Dehli territory, where it is 
usually considered to be a small one. The word is in use chiefly 
to the westward. 

Gard batdi, v^^]/ TfTWart 

Division of produce without threshing, by stacking the sheaves 
in proportionate shares. — ^Bohilkhand. 

Grdm, ^\J iTPif 

A village ; more usually Ganw. 

Garao, ^^ ^>m^ 

An instrument used for cutting Jaw&r stalks, etc., for fodder. 
— Central and Lower Do&b. It is called Gud4si in Bohilkhand, 
and Gandds& and Gand&si elsewhere. 

Gaxari, ^)<^ 'ITT^ 

The block over which the well-rope traverses. — ^Benares, Bun- 
delkhand, and Lower Do&b. Garili, Garri, and'Girr& are also 
similarly used. — See Ch&k. 

Gardaunra, 1??^^ TT^tTT 

A small pit. — Baitdl. 

Gareran, ^ji^ ^1%^ 

See Kolchti and Gandarw&la. 

Gargawd, \^^ ^^ 

A grass which grows in low ground during the rainy season. 


When it gets into rice-fields it checks the growth of the plant, 
and is yery injurious. BufiUoes are fond of the grass, but 
other homed cattle do not like it. 

Gauchardi, \J\ri^3^ ^H^ili 

Grazing ; a grazing tax. From Qau, a cow, and Char&na, to 
graze. It is known also as Kahchar&i. From Eah, grass. 

Gaoli, Jjlf ^TJ'nft 

A cowherd. 

Gari, ^fjlf irrit 

G&ri, or G&di, is a cart, and the man who drives it is called 
a G&riw&n, given in the Printed Glossary as Gadiwan. The 
following, are the names of the different parts of the North- 
Western G4ri: — Harsa is the long wood extending on either 
side, from the front to the back ; the transverse pieces are called 
Patti; those extending beyond the wheels are called Tak&nl, 
B&nk, or Painjani is the wood that joins the two Tak&nis ; and 
Chakol the pin by which the wheel is attached to the B&nk ; 
Sujah, the pins which attach the B&nk to the Tak&nis ; B&n- 
kaia and Gaz, two pieces of wood in the front of the G&ri, 
where it narrows to a point; Phannah and TJntara are parts 
that project beyond the yoke ; Kharrua, the upright posts that 
support the covering or awning; Dandeli, something like a 
drag ; Nah, the nave ; Putthi, the quadrant of a wheeL The 
native wheelwrights make their wheels in four parts, each with 
a double spoke, which are afterwards joiaed together. Each of 
these parts is a Putthi. 

Garah, *Jl^ ^TRf 

Low lands on which water does not lie long.— Upper Doab. 
It is, perhaps, a corruption of gdrha, de^. 

VOL. n. '21 


G6t4, ^"ir HTZT 

The yoking of bullocks together for the purpose of treading 
out grain. — ^DehlL 

G&t& is also applied in Dehli to a Brahman^ or Banya, that 
forms an illicit connexion with a woman. 

G&ti is also used^ generally, in the N.W. I^yinces to signify 
a plot ; a piece of land ; a division of a village ; a field. 

GehM, ^yj %# 

Wheat. There are several names of wheats in different parts 
of the country, but they all, according to native opinion, resolve 
themselves into the two families of red and white ; the former is 
known by the names of L&l, Laliy&, Kathiy&, Bansiyd, Sama- 
riya, Itattiy&, Jal&liy&, Pisiy&, etc. The latter by the names of 
Ujur, Situa, Dhaula, Pili, D4ud Kh&ni, etc. The beardless 
wheat (Munriy&, from ^tf^^ Munriy&, to shave), is also both 
red and white, and in seed, flavour, and price, does not differ 
from the bearded kind. In opposition to Munriy&, Tikur&ri, or 
T6ndiy&, is used to represent the bearded kind. The beardless 
wheat appears to be much more common in the Eastern than 
the Western parts of these provinces. 

The following table shews the number of acres under 
wheat cultivation in the N.W. Provinces, during the year of 
Survey : 

Dehli Division 225,084 Acres. 

Rohilkhand Division 883,009 

Mirat Division 890,309 

Agra Division 472,364 

Allah4bdd Division 423,901 

Benares Division 635,642 

Saugor Division 953,687 

Total Acres 4,383,996 

PAST nr. — SURAL UFB. 323 

Ghdnl, ^1/ ^rft 

A Bugar-cane prew. 

GMr, j\^ WX 

Clay soil in low edtnationSy where rain-water lies for a tima. 
Land worn away by running water is said ghdr Aoj'dna, 

A sub-diyision of Mattiy&r. Also, a long strip of land* in 
Etawa, lying for the most part between the Jumna and the high 
road to Agra. In Sekandra of Kaunpur it is called Kh&r. 

All these words are probably mere corruptions of Gahra, a 
cavity. The former is spelt with a common, and the latter with 
a hard or cerebral r, and Gh&r itself is also spelt indifferently 
with either letter. The word bears a close resemblance to, 
and is possibly a corruption of, the Arabic Qh6r jU a cavity, a 

Gh4rf, ^j^ ^^^ 

Cattle sheds. — ^Eastern Oudh. 
A valley, or ravine. — See Gh&r. — Rohilkhand. 

Ghentf, JL-/ "^tit 

The imripe pod of gram, arhar, and other pulses. — See 
Dhiindi (correctly Dhendi, Ghegari, and Thonthf). 

Ghonghi, ^^ tf^ 

Ghonghi, or Ghoghi, signifies the tying the end of a blanket 
in a knot, and so placing it on the head as a protection against 

• On the opposite side of tlie riyer there are other strips of land called Ghftr, as 
Kachhwftha-gh&r, Taahar-ghiir, and one in Seh&ranp6r (see G<Sjar) ; but whether it 
is applied to the oblong shape of the land, or to the worn surfiwe of the soil in the 
^nei^ibonrhood of riyers^ on the banks of which those Oh6n oocnr, it is not easy to say. 

324 suppLEMEirrAL glossary. 

rain. It also signifies the enveloping oneself entirely in a sheet 
or blanket, so that, when one sits down, no part of the 1;>ody, 
except, perhaps, the head, is discernible. It is also applied as 
Chot, q.v. The application of these words varies in different 
provinces. — See Khdrhu. 

GMf, J/ ^ 

The name of a herb which grows during the rains on high 

Ghun, ^ ^ 

A weevil, destructive to wood and grain; hence, Ghuna, 
weevil-eaten. The term appears generic as well as specific, for 
it is appHed to the Bh&bi, Dhola, Pap&, P&th&, Khapr&, 
Eliri, Pitiri, Sursari, and various other insects destructive to 
stored grain. Indeed Ghim is in many places not known as a 
grain- weevil, but, that it is nevertheless properly so applied, the 
common proverb teaches us, 

Shif % ^tr ^ fxw ^TOT 

" The weevil has been ground with the wheat ; " applied to any 
indiscriminate calamity which involves equally both high and 
low. — See Journal of Agricultural and Horticultural Society of 
Bengal, VoL III. Part 2, p. 89. 

Ghundf, 1^^^ ^^ 

The name of a herb which grows in rice fields after the crop 
is cut. Camels are very partial to this herb ; and it is used as 
a specific in various diseases by the country quacks. 

Ghungclif, ^^J^ ^irft 

A small red and black seed (Abrua precatorius). It is known 
also by the name of Eatti, Chhontili, Chirmithi, and Surkha ; 
and as it is the primary unit of Indian weights, it is important 


to establisb its exact value. From a series of experiments 
detailed in the thirteenth nmnber of the ^'Mirat Magazine/' 
it appears that the average weight of 267 seeds amounted to 
1 '93487 grains. Prinsep, in his "Useful Tables/' gives the 
weight of the Masha (8 Battis) at 15} grains, which, divided 
by 8, affords 1*9375 for the weight of the Batti. As these 
results were obtained independently, we shall be quite safe if 
we assume the QhungchI, or Batti, as equivalent to 1*933 grains. 

An insect destructive to crops of certain kinds of cereals. — 
See Qindar. 

Ghur, jj^ ^ 

The name given to the soil of the sandy ridge to the East of 
Muzaffiumagar. Also pronounced ^§pV or ^. 

Ghurat, ti^ ^g[?3T 

Cattle pens. — ^Eastern Oudh. 

Ghnsrdnd, jjJ/^ ^^T^ 

A kind of creeping grass with a yellow flower. It bears a 
bitter fruit resembling the Kakori. It is used as a condiment 
for horses, but it is considered poisonous to men. 

Ghotf, J^ ^tiV 

Land which has been under a rice crop. — Bundelkhand, Lower 
Do&b, and Benares. Dhankar is used in the North West. The 
word is probably derived from ghotn& Uj^ to shave. 

Ghalla, aU vm 

Grain. The word is Arabic, but in common use. 


Ghangol^ Jj^ iNln 

Hie name of the water lilj which produces the celebrated 
NQ6fiur flower. It produces a greenish fruit about the siae of 
an orange^ and the seeds of it are eaten by the poorer classes. 

From ghan& li^dense, close ; a sporting preserve ; the same 
as ramn& or shik4rg4h. 

Ghard, \^ mi 

An earthen water pot» 

Gharki, JJ. ^TT* 

Overflowed; inundated. From the Arabic ^J^ghark, drowning. 

Gharar, ^^ ir;!" 

The dry Moth plant, cut and given as fodder to cattle. — 
DehlL — ^It is in some parts pronounced Kurar. 

Ghattf, ^ -^ 

Loss; decrease; deficiency. 

Ghai, ^ ^ 

Aplatform of earthy artificially raised and levelled and smoothed, 
on which stacks of com are placed ; when staddlea or suj^rts 
are used they are called Chullf , q.v. 

Gindurf, ^jl:^ XA%^ 

A pad of grass to support an earthen pot. — ^See Jur&« 

Gindar, j^ V\^K 

An insect which is very destructive to growing Gram and 
Arhar. Jdi, Jur&f , and Ghtingi are similarly applied, but chiefly 
in Bundelkhand, Benares, and the Lower Do&b. 

PA.Kr IV. — RURAL LIFE. 327 

Qintf, ^ju^ f^lWlit 

From ginna, to oount, signifies number ; reckoning ; the first 
day of the month ; a muster ; of which word Gilchrist observes 
that " it is much used in India for a sample, but why I know 
noty except from mister, a rule/' The truth is, that muster in 
its Anglo-Indian sense is derived from the Portuguese amostra, 
a sample, a word which, as well as our muster in its ordinary 
sense, is derived from the Latin monstrare, to show. 

Qir&nl, ^1/ inKplii 

Deamess of provision ; scarcity. 

A sort of grass which grows about a yard high, and is found 
in certain parts of H&nsf, particularly in that part known as 
" Skinner's Sir." The names of other grasses found there are 
gand&, or '* scented ;" sarw&l&, or " head-bearing ;" kheon, bur, 
ganthil, or "knotty;" palwfi, or "large-straw;" and roish. — 

Giro, j/ fifft 

Giro, or more correctly girau, is a pledge, a pawn. 

Qirwl, g?j^ rmA\ 

Anything pledged or pawned. 

Girwi is also, in Persian, an insect mischievous to standing 
com. This is the same, no doubt, as the Genrui of the Hindus 
which ia a disease of the cereaUa, in which the plant dries up 
and assumes a reddish colour. The word is derived from Genrfi, 
a kind of red earth or ochre, and is in common use, but Ilat& is 
the term used in the Do&b, Benares, and Bohilkhand, and Batwai, 
Bori, and Batua in Dehli. From rat, or rata, which is the origin 
of, and bears the same meaning as, red. — See Halda. 


It is a popular delusion entertained in some parts of the 
country that the neigbourhood of Alsi, or linseed, is necessary 
to generate this disease ; but in most parts of the N. W. Pro- 
vinces the opinion is now repudiated. iN^evertheless, as the dis- 
ease first attacks Alsi, and the ova floats in the air, the pre- 
caution is perhaps wise of eradicating it, as farmers do the 
barberry-bush at home, which in many parts is supposed to be 
a great generator of rust. 

The real nature of the disease has hitherto, as in the case 
of similar diseases in Europe, eluded the search of enquirers, 
whether practical or scientific ; but an interesting account of 
its ravages has been given by Colonel Sleeman. 

" It is at first of a light beautiful orange colour, and found 
chiefly upon the Alsi (linseed), which it does not seem much to 
injure; but about the end of February the fungi ripen, and 
shed their seeds rapidly, and they are taken up by the wind 
and carried over the corn fields. I have sometimes seen the air 
tinted of an orange colour for many days by the quantity of 
these seeds which it has contained, and that without the wheat 
crops suffering at all when any but an easterly wind has pre- 
vailed : but when the air is so charged with this farina, let but 
an easterly wind blow for twenty-four hours, and all the wheat 
crops under its influence are destroyed. Nothing can save 
them ! The stalks and leaves become first of an orange colour, 
from the light colour of the farina which adheres to them; 
but this changes to deep brown. All that part of the stalk that 
is exposed seems as if it had been pricked with needles and 
had exuded blood from every puncture, and the grain in the 
ear withers in proportion to the number of fungi that intercept 
and feed upon its sap; but the parts of the stalk that are 
covered by the leaves remain entirely iminjured, and when the 
leaves are drawn off from them, they form a beautiful contrast 
to the others, which have been exposed to the depredations of 
these parasitic plants. 


''It is worthy of remark that hardly anything suffered from 
the attacks of these fungi but the wheat. The Alsi, upon 
which it always first made its appearance, suffered something, 
certainly, but not much, though the stems and leaves were 
covered with them. The gram {Cicer arietinum) suffered still 
less ; indeed, the grain in this plant often remained uninjured, 
while the stems and leaves were covered with the fungi, in the 
midst of fields of wheat that were entirely destroyed by ravages 
of the same kind. None of the other pulses were injured, 
though situated in the same manner in the midst of the fields 
of wheat that were destroyed. I have seen rich fields of unin- 
terrupted wheat cultivation for twenty miles by ten, in the 
valley of the Narbadda, so entirely destroyed by this disease, 
that the people would not go to the trouble of gathering one 
field in four. 

"The great festival of the Holi, the saturnalia of India, 
terminates on the last day of Phagoon, or 16th of March. On 
that day the Holi is burned ; and on that day the ravages of 
the monster (for monster they will have it to be) are supposed 
to cease. Any field that has remained imtouched up to that 
time is considered to be quite secure from the moment the 
Holi has been committed to the flames. What gave rise to 
the notion I have never been able to discover ; but such is the 
general belief. I suppose the silicious epidermis must then 
have become too hard, and the pores in the stem too much 
closed up to admit of the farther depredation of the fungi.'' — 
Rambles and KecoUections, Yol. I., pp. 250-262. See also 
Spr/s Modem India, Vol. II., p. 282. 

Girwinamali, *^^sftr f'lT'ftTRn 

A deed of mortgage. 

Fndaimed land. — DehlL — See G^al. 


Gnrhaur, j^f ipcft^ 

Stacks of cowdung. — Eastern Oadh. 

Gurab, c^ ipCf 

Deep weeding, in which the ground is broken and pnlverized. 
It is the opposite of Nir&i, which applies only to superficial 
weeding. The word is derived from a rustic word, Gurahnd, to 
dig — a common Terb, but not in Shakespear's Dictionary, in 
which we rarely haye occasion to notice any omission. 

It is also the name given to the process of ploughing 
through a field of B&jr& or Jaw&ri when the plant is about a foot 
high. The operation requires some nicety to prevent the young 
plants sustaining injury. Gurab, as applied to this process, is in 
general use, especially in the Upper Do&b and Eohilkhand ; but 
Bid&hn& and Chhantd den& are more common in Dehli and the 
Central Do&b, and Dadahm& in the Lower Do&b. 

Gurari, ^g^ ^fff^ 

See Jiira. 

Gopban&y W'j^ 'ftVlT 

A sling used by persons stationed on a D&mcha, q.v. 

From ^ a cow, and "Ri^ or «4i«^i a sling, as it is used to keep 

the cattle from eating the crops. — ^B. 

Gord, \j^ iftTT 

Applied to men, it means fair-complexioned ; but when applied 
to homed cattle, it signifies red. 

Gorait, *^=-^j/ '^^ 

A village watchman ; an intelligencer. The meaning is 
correctly given under Gdr&it and Gor&y&t in the Printed 

PART lY. — ^EUBAL LIFK. 331 

The homestead ; fields near the village. — See Goend. 

Gor6, yj^ ^t^ 

A coif ; cattle in general. 

Gtorasf, \jt)^ ^^tr^ 

A milk-pail. From, gonUy cow-jaice, «.e. milk. — See Jhfikarf. 

Got, CL>/ ^llf 

In common parlance Got has the same meaning as the more 
classical Gh>tra of the Glossary. Properly, those only are Gk>t8 
(v. Colebrooke, Trans. B.A.S. Vol. I. p. 237), which bear the 
name of some Bishi progenitor, as S&ndilya, Bharadw&j, Ba- 
shisht (Yasishtha), Kasyapa ; but it has become the custom to 
call all sub-divisions of tribes Oots, and, according to the Nimaya 
Sindhu, there are no less than ten thousand. The early genealo- 
gies of the Bajputs frequently exhibit them as abandoning their 
martial habits, and establishing religious sects, or Gotras. Thus, 
Beh was the fourth son of Pururavas of the Lunar Bace, *' £rom 
him in the fifteenth generation was H&r(ta, who with his eight 
brothers took to the office of religion, and established the Eausika 
Gbtra, a tribe of Brahmans." — See Colebrooke's Miscellaneous 
Essays, Vol. I. p. 115 ; Joum. B.A.S. Vol. III. pp. 354, 366 ; 
Sansk. Die. p. 298 ; and Vishnu Purana, p. 405. 

Gothdn, ^^ ^llTTil 

Place of assembling the cattle of a village. From the Sansk. 
^tWPt • — Saugor . 

Gauohani, ^^^ ^4^7^ 

Gauchand, or Gochani, is a field of wheat and Chan& (gram) 
sown together. The practice of sowing culmiferous and legu« 
minous plants together has been much ridiculed, and has been 


brought forward as a proof of the ignorance of Indian agricul- 
turists. Mill emphatically declares it (Hist, of India, YoL 11. 
p. 26) to be '' the most irrational practice that ever found ex- 
istence in the agriculture of any nation." But, notwithstanding 
this denunciation, which is too much in accordance with the 
usual spirit of his comments on everything Indian, the real fiEict 
is that the practice is highly advantageous to the land, as well 
as to the crop. Dew readily forms on the leaves of the Chand, 
or gram, which would not form on the wheat ; and in seasons of 
drought the practice is very often the means of preserving both 
crops. It may be carried, perhaps, to too great an excess in 
Madras, but the same charge cannot be made against the agri- 
culturists of these provinces. As for its being irrational, it is a 
practice encouraged by the first agriculturists of Europe. 
Nothing is more common than to sow clover with barley, flax, 
oats, and Lent-corn ; and with the same object which has esta- 
blished Gauchan& in native agriculture as a highly rational and 
beneficial system (Yon Thaer, '^Principes Baisonn^s d'Agrio. 
YoL lY. § 1304).^See Gojdi. 

Gauhani, i^^^ ^fhfnft 

Lands situated close round a village ; the village itself; fields 
on which cattle graze. Gauh&nl is also a general term for the 
entire lands of a village. — ^E. 

This word is probably substituted for «iNf^ gdhwhani,'wbich. 
is rather difficult to pronounce, and is derived from the Sanskrit 
Hlf*l«n (sc. ^t'T), of or belonging to a village. — ^B. 

Godhar, ybj/ iprtl 

Is the name given to the weeds and grasses which are col- 
lected from a ploughed field by the Dhinkhar. — Dehli. 

It is known to the eastward by the name of !Khedhi ^s^, 
Gurhal Ja J^, Akan ^1, and Ghdr jj^. 


Godari, y^J^f 'ftrCt 

See Jura. 

Goin, ^J ifrtt 

A pair of plough oxen ; sometimes called Dog&wa. Gor& is 
more used in Dehli. 

Goend, jLj^f iftlf^ 

Goend, or Gwendd, signifies a suburb ; yicinage ; fields near 
a village ; homestead. 

The treading out grain by bullocks. From Gahna, 9.9. — 
Bohilkhand. More correctly spelt gahdi. 

Goharf, ^J^^ ^ft^l^ 

Rich, highly-cultivated land; derived, perhaps, from its 
capacity of growing Gohun, the provincial pronunciation of 
^t gehhun, wheat. — Saugor. 

Goja, Xp^^ ^V^rr 

In Behar an ox-goad ; also a bamboo staff — ^B. 

Gojhd \^^ iftljT 

A species of thorny grass which springs up during the rains. 
It is used medicinally, and Chamars eat it as potherb. 

Gojara, ^/ 'ft'lTT 

Barley and Chand sown together. It is known also by the 
name of Bejhar& and Jauchani. — ^See Gojai and Gauchani. 

Gojai, L5^/ '^^ 

Wheat and barley sown together in the same field. Adhga- 


w&a, Goj(y and Gojaii are used in the same sense. This mixed 
crop is scarcely known in Saugor, Dehli, Lower Do4b, and 
Benares, but it is very common in the Upper and Central Do&b, 
Bohilkhand, Gorakhpur, and B&nda. 

Gokhrfi, ^/ ^ftm^^ 

The name of a herb which springs up on Bhur land ; called 
also Hathichinghar, Kanthphil, and Bhankarf. It produces a 
small fruit, covered with several prickles. In famine, the poorer 
classes of Hari4n& feed on the pounded seed of this plant. It 
somewhat resembles Chan&, or the chick pea, and is known by 
botanists under the name of Tribulus lanuginosm (Boxb.). There 
is a large kind called the Gokhru dakhini, of which the fruit is 
of a triangular shape, and has prickles at the angles ; hence the 
name is given to the iron crowsfeet thrown on the ground to 
check an advance of cavalry. 

Gol, J/ ^m 

A party from another village sojourning with their cattle for 
pasture. — Dehli. 

Gond, Jj/ irt^ 

The name of a rush which grows in marshy ground, and is 
much used in making mats and baskets. 

Gonra, \y^ 5ffTT 

This is the name given in the Central and Lower Do&b to 
the reservoir from which water is raised by the Lehari, or 
Beri, to the reservoir above it, which is called Parchha, Odh, 
and IJlaha. 

Sometimes Gonr& is applied only to the straw or reeds which 
are placed to protect the side of the upper reservoir. — iSee 
Doari, Docha, and Bikh. 


Gudrf, 4^j^ i|^^ 

A daily market. 

Gill, J/ ^ 

A channel cat to conyej water to a field. 
A road ; a path. — Saugor. 

An unripe bunch of Indian com; when ripe it is called 
Kukri.— Dehli 

Gulal, jxr ^wnm 

A farinaceous powder which Hindus throw on each other's 
clothes during the Holi. It is generally the meal of barley, 
rice, or Singhara, dyed with Bakkam wood. 

Gulkhar, j\A^ ^S^^l^^ 

See Bhatkataiya. 

GalphxLnan&, ^(X j^^^^l 

The name of a herb which grows in fields sown with Kharif 
grains. It somewhat resembles the Guma. 

Gtd6, jlf ^ 

The pod of the Mahw& tree {Bama latifolid). It yields a 
-very useful oil, and is sometimes eaten by the poorer classes ; 
but it contains no intoxicating qualities, like the blossom of *that 
valuable tree, from which a spirit is produced by distillation, 
which is much used in Benares and Bah&r in spite of its sickly 
smell. The word appears to be a corruption of Gilaunda, which 
is said in Shakespear's Dictionary to be ** the blossom after it 
has fallen off;" but this application of the word is not known 
in these Provinces. The blossom is called Mahwa, like the 
tree, and the pod only is called Gilaunda, or Gulenda. 


Giilar, )f ^^ 

Cotton pods which have not yet burst. — Bohilkhand. — See 
Dhund& and Ghegara. 

Giima, k^^ ^|in 

A medicinal herb which grows on high ground during the 
rains^ and in fields grown with Kharif crops (PAarnaceum 
mollugo). It produces seyeral small flowers^ the beauty of which 
is much admired by natives. « 

" On fruit flower, on flower leaf, 
On that a firefly all coloured red," 

Is a distich applied by some poet to the regular order in which 
the flowers of the Gum& alternate with the leaves, as well as to 
the appearance of the flowers which are said to resemble 
fire flies. 

There are two species of Gum&, one grows to the height of 
about two feet, the other seldom exceeds a foot. 

Gunth, ^/ ^ 

Land assigned rent-free for religious purposes ; the endow- 
ment of a temple. — ^Eamaon and Garhw41. This word is 
sometimes, but incorrectly, pronounced Ghunt. 

Gut, y 5T 

Molasses. The gipsy name for sugar is Gurlo and GhuUo 
(Trans. R.A.S., Vol. II., p. 653). This is no doubt derived 
from our Gur. 

Gurao, ^\J ^pj^ 

A stock, or collection of sheaves. — Bohilkhand. A similar 


word, but with the addition of a pentdtimate nasal n, is used in 
the Lower Do&b and BenareSy to signify a heap of mixed chaff 
and com. — See Ganteh. 

Ghirbhdf, J\i!/ 5^int 

Fellow disciple. From ^ Guru, a spiritual teacher, and in^ 
brother. The priests and teachers of the Sikh religion generally 
take the title Bh&i.— B. 

Gurda, \jj ^ 

See Eolhd. 

GarW, ^/ ^ 

A village fortification of mud, flanked with towers. Under 
the former government there was scarcely a village without its 
Garhl. Under our strong admimstration it is scarcely known 
except by name. 

Garhal, ^/ Wft 

A small pond. 

Qairf, 4^ ^PCf 

A hay-stack; a rick; a stack of thatching grass; more cor- 
rectly, Kharhi. 

A small mound raised between heaps of com and bhtisa on 
the threshing floor. — ^Lower Do&b. 

A large stack of wheat or barley, containing two or more 
senkd, which generally comprises several thraves of com, the 
produce of one field. — DehU and Upper Do&b. 

A large stack of Kharif produce. — Bohilkhand. 

Kundr& \j^ is in general use elsewhere in the same sense, 
and also within the limits in which Garri obtains, but in the 
latter case is always larger than a Churl. — See Ohhaur, Dabiya, 
Gar&hi, Jhuha, Pahi, and S&ntri. 

TOL. n. 2M , 


Presents to a revenue officer on his tour. From the Persian 
uu^^ gasht, rounds. 

Gathf, ^ irft 

See Oachi. 

Gathaund^ ^^ i|^«^ 

A deposit, or trust bound up in a bag (gathri). 

Gathri, ^^^ ^raft 

Literally, a bag; and hence applied to money brought in 
payment of reyenue in a bag. — ^Benares. 

Gathw&nsf, ,-**J^j|2f ^(TrNft 

The twentieth part of a Gtttha. 

Gathiy&j U|5f ^Vm\ 

A pannier ; a sack ; a bundle. 

Gayarf, ^j\J iRJTCt 

See above under Gyal. 

Gaird, \j^ ShCT 

A sheaf of com. 

H61f, ^^U frtft 

A man employed for tiie duties of ploughing — ^fiom i^ 
a plough. In the Glossary, Halis are said to be agrestic slaves ; 
it would have been more proper to say, labourers. — See Harwaha. 

Hdpar, y^U ^Tinc 

A nursery for sugar-cane. 


To examine the correotneBS of a pair of scales. — Dehli and 
Do&b. T&r lena is used in Bohilkhand. S&dh lena to the 

H&ta, ^U- Jjjn 

Premises ; an enclosure ; a compoimd in Anglo*Indian lan- 
guage. It is a corruption of the Arabic Ihata. 

Hdthfchak, CJ^^\ib frft^if 

Is the name of a grass which grows about a. foot high, and is 
given as fodder to cattle. It is also, by an easy conversion, the 
name given by gardeners to the prickly, and to the Jemsalem 
(girasole) artichoke. 

A person appointed to take care of the standing crops^r— See 

Heng4, l^:^ f^TT 

A harrow. This word, as well as Soh&ga, Mai, Mainra, and 
Bir&wan, is in general use ; but the implement is known locally 
by various other names, as Patoi, Pahtan, Patela, Patri, and 
Dandela. The part to which the ropes, or thongs, are attached 
is called Marwah. The cylindrical harrow, or roller, is called 
Bari in Rohilkhand ; Bilna and Belan in the Lower Do&b and 
Benares ; and Gherij Qirari, and Kolhd in Dehli and the Upper 
Do&b. The harrow made of two parallel timbers joined together, 
is called Mainra Soh&ga in Dehli and the Do&b, and Sohal 
in Eohilkhand. G&han is the name of a forked harrow. — See 

Hirankhnrf, f^j^uj^ tfTW^ 

The name of a creeping herb which grows in the rainy season. 


Its leaves resemble an antelope's hoof, and hence it derives its 
name — Hiran, an antelope, and ESiariy a cloven hoo£ 

Hulhul, J> 

Hurhura, sjbyb VTVTT 

A small herb which springs up in the rainy season, and is 
used as a culinary vegetable, The commonest kind has a white 
flower, and produces a long pod, like that of the Mung, and is 
used as a medicine in fevers (^Cfyandrcpsis pentaphylla, formerly 
Cleome pentaphpUa, or piscosa). There are said to be four kinds 
— white, red, purple and yellow. The three latter are much 
sought after by alchymists. 


Hundhy arju^ ^ 

See JIta. 

A liquor shop. The word is common, except in Saugor and 

Hadbast, ^:^wa»^ ^(?[W9 

This word also signifies the demarcation of boundaries, pre- 
paratory to survey. 

Hakam&y \jJSjb f^K^T 

To drive oxen. A corruption of H&nkna, to drive. 

Hal, Jjb fW 

Har, y> ^?: 

A plough, — if an instrument may be dignified by that name 
which has neither coulter to cut the soil nor mould-board* to 

* Bat when anything like a monld-board is required, the people hare sufficient in- 
genuity to frame one. The onlj occadon which calls for such an expedient is when 


turn it over. Nevertheless, simple as the Hal is, and wretched 
in constmction^ it is admirably adapted to our light Indian soil, 
and does its duty well under the able agriculturists of our pro- 
vinces. Of the operations of this simple plough, Dr. Tennant, 
who has led the van in the abuse of everything Indian, observes 
(" Indian Recreations,'' Vol. II. p. 78), " Only a few scratches 
are perceptible here and there, more resembling the digging of 
a mole than the work of a plough;'' yet this prejudiced and 
superficial observer remarks in another place that the average 
produce of the Province of Allahabad is fifty-six bushels* of 
wheat to the English acre : as if these '* scratches and diggings 
of a mole" could by any possibility produce double the average 
of the scientific cultivators of England. He had forgotten also 
to remark that the drill, which has only within the last century 
been introduced into English field husbandry, and has even yet 

ragar-cane is sown. Large and deep fiirrows are then required, and yarions means 
are resorted to, to make the plough accomplish the purpose. In Dehli and the Upper 
Do&b it is usual to bind canes on the part into which the sole is fixed. Generally 
not more than two ploughs are used when planting sugar, but in the Do&b as many 
as four sometimes follow one another, on two of which are fixed mould-boards of the 
name of Boh and P&khi, the former being stronger and smaller than the latter. The 
Boh is made of one piece of wood, the P&khi of two. 

* The yield of wheat would certainly not be so great now, whatever it might have 
been in the Doctor's days. It may be as well to make this reserration, with reference 
to the yery common remark, that land in Upper India does not yield now so much as 
it did in former days. Where this is really the result of obeeryation, the causes are 
obyious — ^the greater infrequency of fellows — ^the little manure that is giyen being 
diffused oyer more fields than formerly — ^the decrease in the fell of the periodical 
rains, owing to the immense mass of forest and jungle which has been cleared away — 
and the fields being less cultivated than formerly, when ploughs and hands could only 
be employed upon a limited number of fields. These are all to be traced to the 
operation of a more remote cause — the entire security afforded by the British Ck>yem- 
ment. The number of hands, ploughs, and bullocks has not increased in proportion 
to the increase of cnltiyation. 

It should never be forgotten that the decrease in the fertility of the soil is an old 
and popular complaint, and arises chiefly firom the universal tendency to depreciate 
the present and exalt the past. 


in the northem counties to combat many native prejudices, has 
been in use in India from time immemorial. If lie had only 
reflected on this single fact (leaving out of consideration the 
universal practice of rotation and complete expulsion of oom- 
weeds)^ he would have saved the poor Hindus frx>m much of the 
repi^>ach which has been so lavishly heaped upon them by Mill 
and his other blind followers. 

The principal parts of an Indian plough are — T^ Haras, the 
beam ; flH^ Hathdi, f^T Hath4, PuJXilf Chiriyd, or ^[ftWl 
Muthiyd, the handle or stilt ; m^iO Panh&rl or mO'HI Parauthd, 
the sole, which is generally at the end shod with an iron share, 
called mm\ Ph&l&, ^ Chau, or ^jJBTT Kus&. The Hal, or MT^fT 
N&ngal, is the body of the plough, the main piece into which 
the Panhari and Haras are joined; but these terms, besides 
being exclusively applied to a particular part of the plough, are 
used to signify the entire plough. The ^HUl Og is a peg, or 
wedge, which fixes the Haras firmly into the Hal ; a second is 
sometimes added which is called ^(^^ Gandheli; the ^9^^ 
Pacheld, ^laftWT Pachhfl&, or mnj Phanni, is a wedge which 
fixes the Panh&rf to the Hal. The ^|]CT Khuri, ^Rw Bamel, 
or ^T^% Narhel, is an indented, or notched, part at the end of 
the beam, corresponding to the copse, or cathead, to which the 
yoke is attached by a leathern thong, called a ^T^ Nadah. In 
some parts the beam is not notched, but drilled with holes, into 
which pieces of wood are inserted. The yoke consists of the 
^nw Ju4, or upper piece, and the wSp^ft Tarm'&chi, or lower 
piece. The iNf Sail is the outer pin, and Gata the inner pin 
which join the Tarm&chI and the Ju&, and which are on each 
side of the bullock's neck when it is yoked. These are the 
names usually applied to the parts of a plough in the Do4b cmd 
North- West ; but in Benares and the Eastward the names are 
somewhat different. There, the ^«!ft^ Ohandaulf answers to 
the Chiriy&, ITRT or vn^ Path to the Og, 1^^ Nareli to the 
Pachel&. Har is the part on which the ahare is fixed* There 


are knots also, called Mah&dewa, on the yoke of the Benares 
plough ; and some other differences not worth mentioning. 

Besides the common Hal of the country^ there are others used 
in some places which vary but little in their structure from 
it. There is, for instance, the Nagar plough, which is used in 
Bundelkhand for planting sugar-cane. It is very heavy, re- 
quires six, seven, or eight bullocks to draw it, and enters very 
deep into the ground. The cane is put into a hole of the 
wooden part of the plough, through which it is passed and 
deposited in the earth, to as great a depth as the share can 
attain. The American cotton planters were much pleased with 
this plough, and preferred this manner of sowing sugar-cane to 
any they could adopt with the American plough. There is also 
the ^fPST B&khar, used to take off the crust when the soil is 
hide-bound, and by skimming the surface clears the soil from 
grass, weeds, and stubble. — See B&khar. There are also the 
Kudhiya, the Kadh, the Kathu, the Kusiyar, the Pachranga, etc., 
which need no particular description. — See the illustration. 

Hald&y IjJjb flR^ 

Eardd, \j^ f?;^ 

A disease of the Gerealia, in which the plant withers, and 
assumes a yellow tinge. The word is derived from Haldi, 
turmeric This kind of mildew differs but little from the 
Girwi, q.v.f except in attacking the plants in an earlier stage of 
their growth. 

Haliydk, clAJjb fflRTPI 

Wages of ploughmen. — Dehli and Upper Do4b. 

Haltaddf, 4^JcU finixt 

A drill plough. — See B^nsi. 

344 suppLEicEirrAL glossabt. 

Halas, fjjjb fV9 

Hanas, (^/^^^ l^>ra 

Haras, (jw^ fX'ff 

The beam of a plongli. Shakespear says wrongly HaHs ib 
the tail of a plough. Br. Carey gives Is as the beam of the 
Dinagepiir plough. — ^Asiatic BesearcheSy vol. x.^ p. 25. — E. 

It is probably from f^ and 1^^ ish, * lord or ruler/ as it is the 
principal part of the plough. — B. 

Handa, IJLih tWf 

A grass which is found on the banks of tenks and marshes. 
It produces a little red flower^ but is not applied to any useful 

Hansraj, -j^*yyjb ^¥U9 

Literally, '^ goose-king/' i.e. Brahma to whom it is sacred. 
A herb which springs up on brick walls during the rains. It is 
used medicinally. — ^Bohilkhand. It is known by the name of 
Fareshaw&shan in the Do&b. It is also the name of a kind of 
rice. — See Dh&n. 

Hardf, J\^ f^ 

The portion of land in a field which is included within one 
circuit of a plough. To commence another circuit is styled 
Hor&i ph&ndn&y '* to knot the plough-circle.^' 

Harghasit, iS^jm^f/b fi^Miild 

All the cultivated land of a village is so called. From bar, 
a plough, and ghasitna, to draw. — ^Lower Do&b. 

Harhd, Uyb f^fT 

ITnbroken and vicious cattle; plough bullocks. — ^DehU and 


Do&b. Besides tliese local meaningSi it is generally appUed to 
stray oxen. 

Haijins, t/^^^^T/^ T^fiRWr 

Grain of sorts. From har^ every, and jins, species. 

Hark&ra, itj^jb irWPCr 

A messenger. From har, every, and k&r, business. The 
usual occupation of an Hark&ra at present is by no means in 
accordance with the derivation. 

M. Garcin de Tassy, in a note to p. 219 of bis *^ E&mrdp/' 
observes on this word — '^ A la lettre factoton. Ce nom d^signe 
un des trente-sept domestiques! que les Indiens, et les Euro- 
peans, ont a leur service." * 


Cutting rice while it is green and unripe. — ^Bohilkhand. 
From hara, green, and katna, to cut. 

Harauri, grjjy* f<Kt 

The occupation of ploughing, or place where ploughing is 
going on. Harauri par jao signifies, " go and put your hand to 
the plough." 

Also, an advance of about two rupees in money, and two 
maimds in com, given to a ploughman when first engaged. — 

Sondh&r is the term applied in the North- West. 

* In spite of the implied sneer in the text the learned French author is right both 
as to the literal meaning of the word, the original occupation of the of&oer, and the 
number of serrants nsoally maintained by both Europeans and wealthy natiTes. In 
ikcty to this day the indigo planters keep a serrant called harkfrra whose business 
is precisely that of a fiM^totum. He has to be constantly perambulating the land 
under indigo cultiyation, and keep the ryots up to their work besides making himself 
useAil in a yast variety of ways. The Hindu ryot of Behar and K Oudh, howerer, 
corrupts the word into halkdra^ as though from Ao^ a plough, because one of the 
harkara's duties is to see that the lands are properly ploughed. — B. 


Harsing&r, J^jb %kS^^\K 

The weeping Nyctanthes {Nydanthes arbor tristis). It is a 
small forest tree growing to the height of about twelve feet. 
Harsing&r yields a deliciously fragrant blossom^ from which a 
yellow dye is prepared, which was borne on our tariff as an 
excisable article till the late revision of the Customs law. Har- 
sing&r is also much used in medicine by native .practitioners, 
and is occasionally cultivated in gardens. 

Harsot, iz^y^jjb fT?5ftl! 

Harsot, or Harsotiya, signifies ploughing a furrow; the first 
ploughing of the season. — See Halaeta. 

Affording assistance in ploughing. — See Angwara, Dang- 
wara, and Jita. 

The term is also used to signify the bringing the plough 
home across the back of a bullock, or with the share inverted, 
after the conclusion of the day's work : 

Yidere fessos vomerem tnvermm'boYes 
GoUo trahentes languido. 

—Ebr. Epod. IL 63. 

These terms are used in Dehli; and, in the last meaning, in 
Brij also. 

Harsajj4, U-yb ^t:9«^T 

Literally, a sharer in a plough ; reciprocal assistance afforded 
in ploughing fields.^Bundelkhand. From har, a plough, and 
sajja, partnership. — ^See Angwara, Dangwara, and Jita. 

Harat, Cjjb 

A Persian wheel for drawing water from a well. The word 
is a corruption of Arhat, q.v. Eight bullocks employed at a 
Harat are capable of irrigating an acre of ground during the 


Harwaha, Ul^^ T^^TfT 

A ploughman. The word is most commonly used in the 
East. H&li is more usual in the West. 

Hariyd, \j^ ffw 

A ploughman ; a worshipper ; a devotee. The double meaning 
attached to this word is very elegantly conveyed in the following 

fft^ IT % %fi^ 'St ftWTf 'ft "5^ 

^Tf ^PITT fr'T ^fT ^Rl^ %?T%^^ 

"Loye Hara, o worshipper, after the fashion of the peasant, 
The rent is heavy, his debts are many, still he loves his field." 

The two first words signify "Ploughman and Plough/' as 
well .as "Worshipper and Hara (Siva) ;" which gives the poet 
the opportunity of conveying the morale that no vicissitudes 
of fortune should affect a man's love for labor and devotion. 

Hasiyd, LoJb vflnrT 

A reaping hook. Hansiya is also correct. 

Hatta, \sjb f^ 

A large wooden shovel or spoon^ about five feet long, used for 
throwing water into fields from aqueducts. — E. Oudh. 


Sugar-cane ; a field of sugar-cane. — Ganna. 
fkh is used in Western Hindustan, iikh in Eastern. In the 
Panjab the name is ^VITCI kumddh. — B. 

Ekfardi, s?*^;^ IWWwff 

Land producing only one crop annually ; opposed to Jtitiy&ri 
and Dofarda. It is also known by the name of Ekfaslf , Fard, 
and Fardh&(. 


EkfasH, l/*^»^ ipwwwt 

Land yielding but one crop annnally. 

A pad placed on the top of the head to support a water-jar. 
See Jdra. 

Induri, ^j1j\ tf^ 

A pad for supporting a round-bottomed jar. — See Jura. 

Irdda, ifj\j\ f|^<m 

A term in arithmetic. — See imder Bariz. 

Isband, x.^\ 

The name of a herb which springs up on the banks of tanks 
during the rainy season. It produces a round thorny fruity of 
which the seed is much used in exorcism and other superstitious 

Ismwar, j\y^ %,m^\K 

Literally, nominal. From ism, a name ; entry in statements 
according to the order of individuals' names. 

Istikldl, Jix:^\ tpin^m\m 

Confirmation; perpetuity; fixedness. 

Istikrar, JijhJi f,UAf\^K\K 

Confirmation. These three last words are tenth infinitiyes 
of Arabic roots. 

Itsit, dL^\ 

A root like osier-twigs, or like Chiret4, used in the Chaj 
Do&b, in the Fanjab, together with other drugs, to procure 
abortion. — ^B. 

PABT IV. — ^BURilLL LIFB. 349 

Izafa, ^Ul f^nuT 

Increase. These three words are also derived from the Arabic. 

J4bi, ^^U- wrf^ 

An ox-muzzle. J&Uy M6nhchhinkay and Miincha are also 
iisedy as well as the words mentioned under Chhinka. 

J&n, JiU flntw 

A term used in the Western parts of Bohilkhand to signify 
twice-ploughed land. When ploughed three times, it is caUed 
Tase ; when four times, Chaus ; when five times, Pachb&si ; and 
so on. In the Northern Parganahs of Bareillj, the corres- 
ponding terms are Debar, T&bar, Ghonwar, Pach&war ; and the 
first ploughing is called Eksirl. — See Dor and Dos&ri. 

Jdkhan, ^U- ?tT^R 

The wooden foundation of the brick- work of a welL It is 
generally made of the green wood of the Ghdlar tree {Ficua 
ghmerata\ because it is said to be less liable to rot than any 
other kind. The wood of the Pipal {FicuB religiosd) is also in 
request on the same account, but it is considered inferior to 
GuUar. This foundation is also known by the name of Newar 
and Nimchak. Sweetmeats are generally distributed, and some- 
times a drum is beaten, on the occasion of its being adjusted 
and fixed. The word is perhaps derived from Jakama, to 
tighten, to pinion ; as great care and time are necessarily taken 
in binding the separate parts (gandw&la) together, so that they 
may form a compact cylinder for the support of a heavy super- 
structure of masonry.— See Jamuwat. 

Jalf, ^U- «rwt 

An ox-muzzle ; a net bag for weighing Bhus (chaff). — See 
Chhinka and Jab. 


A wooden trough for raising water. 

Jdntd, 1x3 U- wftn 

A species of hand mill-stone ; a stone mill for grinding. 

The name of the post fixed in a tank to denote that its water 
has been dedicated to the deity,. or has been married to a grove. 
Also the revolving beam or axis of a sugar-mill. — See Kolhii. 

J&trd, yU w^ 

A religious festival or fair. 

Jfra, \j^ ^ftxj 

Oumin seed. 

Jftdpatr, ^\a-rj- dhniM^ 

A favorable decision. — ^Benares. 

Jihdt, <-^Vr f^fin 

Plural of Arabic ^-^^^v^ jihat, a cause, an object. Duties on 
manufactures. They were reduced by Akbar from 10 to 5 per 
cent., but were imposed during the decline of the monarchy at a 
much heavier rate by every petty ruler in his own principality. 

Jel, J^ %W 

The chain of buckets on a Persian wheeL — See Arhaf. 

Jeif, j^ %#r 

Jell is a kind of pitchfork, or rake, for collecting and ad- 
justing the ears of com on the threshing-ground. It is also 
known to the Eastward by the names of Pancha and Panch&n- 


gvLT&y from its haying fiye (ponch) prongs. Dhinka^ or Dhinka, 
is a smaller kind of Jeli, which is used by a man in a sitting 
posture^ and differs from a Jeli in haying cnryed prongs. 

^j^-duJ yL» J^ 1j^ *\^ j\ alt U JujljJl \jfbji izJ^\dj> ^^Ijj iXAb 

iteif J^\ ^ jC ^g^L^ L-.^Uj dij/jLjJ i/'^H^^ i/;^ 

1^1^ Li-WJCJb «aJl £***! A^jUljf t«i;Ul/« l/J^2Jbj 4^y! Jj\ U^ 

*^r* */b-> ^f-J^ *-^^j <J\ a*j .ui c^y J ^5-;^ j*^ C-r j V^ 

(Gharfilbul Lugh&t) y Ju^ tJl b 

I translate only so much of the aboye as refers to the matter 
in hand : " Jeli is a piece of wood with two prongs, with which 
they toss into the air the ears of com on the threshing floor 
after threshing them, to separate the chaff from the grain. 
Also called Sikau, but in the Jahangiri Sikau is restricted to a 
three-pronged fork ; one with four prongs is called a ' Ghah&r- 
sh&khah.' It is also called in Hindi damb&li, and at Gwalior 
Panch&ngur&." — ^B. 

Jeonar, J^yPr 't^TRC 

Is sometimes used in the sense of Jaunal, qx. 

Jentd, Ubw^ ^8teT 

A thick rope used for tying mould round the roots of trees 
when transplanting them. — E. add. 


Jeori, ^j^^ %^ 

Bears the same meaning as Jarib^ q.v. A cordi a rope. 

JMbar, ^W W^ 

Low land on which water lies, and which produces rice, or a 
grass called Tin. SometimeSi when the water dries up quickly, 
Babbi crops are also sown in it. — See Jhab Bhomi in the 
Printed Glossary. 

Jhad, jlfflj- unf 

Land on which Dh^, Hins, and other jungly bushes grow. — 
Upper Do&b. 

Lands which remain under water during the rains. A 
swamp. — See Jh&bar. 

Jh&karf, SgJ^W Wi^ 

A nulk-pail. From the Jh&kari, or Dohni, the milk is 
transferred into other yessels — the KadhaunI, the Jaoiaunl, the 
Biloni, according to the particular process it has to uiidergo, tiU 
it reaches the ultimate stage of Ghf. 

Jham, |»l^ ^grw 

A large instrument in the shape of a hoe, or Phaurd, used for 
excayating earth in well-sinking. The use of it is peculiar to 
this country, and it is very ingeniously applied. The mode of 
its application has been fully detailed in the Asiatic Society's 

Jiangi, ^/5W W^ 

Bramble and brushwood. — ^Eastern Oudh. 


(Tamarix dtoiea). A common shrub in the Upper ProTinces^ 
growing in marshy or inundated ground. It is much used for 
thatching, hedging, and burning. Galls are produced on it, 
called SamratuH turfa, or Ba|i-m&i. — See Faras. 

Jharf, s?;W 'JT^ 

A pitcher with a long neck. — See Ghara. 

Jhdri, 4^W Wi^ 

Jungle ; small bushes. 

Jhawar, j^\^ W^ 

Flat or low land flooded by the rains. — See Jh&bar. 

A shallow lake or morass, called in Bengal ^hl biL 

Withered wheat ; blight. The word is perhaps derived from 
Jhuma, to fade. 

Jhojhnrti, ^^.^p- l|t^ 

A grass to which camels are very partial, and which is 
occasionally given as fodder to horned cattle. It grows to the 
height of about two feet, and is known also by the name 
jangali nil, or wild indigo. 

Jhokand, ^^yi^- Vt^V^ 

Is the place at which the Jhonkay& stands.— See Eolhd and 

Jhola, ^^^ iftWT 

A cold wind which affects wheat by drying up the ears. — 
Upper Do&b and Dehli. 

TOL. n. 23 


Jhonkayd, \^^^ ^tftWT 

The man who keeps up the fire when sugar is boiling. The 
word is sometimes pronounced Jhdkwa and Jhokya, — ^but incor- 
rectly, for it is derived from Jhonkna, to supply fiiel to an oven. 

Jhuhd, Ujp- IJfT 

Jhuha is in Bohilkhand what Ohaur is in Dehli. A large 
stack of Jawar or Bajra. A Jhtih& generally contains &om ten 
to twenty Bojh, or loads. 

A cloth, or sheet, made into a fan for winnowing grain, when 
there is no wmd. — Dehli. The word is derived from Jhulna, to 
BWiQg,'or perhaps from Jhalna, to fan. The corresponding term 
in Bundelkhand is Sarwa. In Rohilkhand and Upper Doab, 
Partwai. In Benares, P&thi and Parauta ; and in the Lower 
and Central Do&b, Parauta, Partowa, and Partf . 

Jhiingd, ^^i>- ^^ 

Bramble; brushwood. The word is sometimes pronounced 

Jhtingd signifies also a bullock whose horns project forward. 
There are many similar words significant of peculiarities in the 
shape of horns. — VPfT maind is a bullock the tips of whose horns 
join in the centre. A superstition prevails against their use in 
draft or agriculture, and they are consequently always bestowed 
upon Brahmans. — Mor& is a bullock whose horns grow back- 
wards. — ^Mtindrd, one whose horns are stunted and ill-developed. 
— Mund&, one whose horns are broken. — ^Phulsapel (Uterally one 
who shoves against a doorway), one whose horns project to the 
right and left. — Kainchd, one whose horns are one up and the 
other down. In some places, this is called Sarg-p&t&li, ue. 
heaven-and-hellwards. — See Dunda. 


Jhunthar, j^jPr ^i?T 

Fields yielding double crops. It is sometimes pronounced 
jhtithan and jutliiy&il. Jdthiyan and jtitheli are also used in a 
similar sense. — See Jutiyan. 

Jhtipa, b^^ 1|in 

A pile of mangoes or other fruit. — Lower Do&b. 

Jhtirnd, ^lI^FT ^^^^ 

To shake fruit from the tree. Jhurna, with a short yowel^ 
is to fall as fruit from a tree. 

Jhord, \j^^ ijt^ 

The haulm or stalks of leguminous plants^ such as Mdng 
and Moth^ used as fodder. 

Jhauwa, \^^ ift^ 

A large open basket ; so called because it is made from the 
twigs of the Jhati, q.v. 

Jhabra, |^-^ Ijif^ 

Jhabrd, or Jhabbtia, is an epithet applied to the ears of 
animals when they are covered with long hair. From jhabba, a 
tassel. One of the bucolic maxims respecting the choice of 
homed cattle says in approval of this point, 

▼IT *^di u^ wm 

" Hairy ears 
Buy these, do not let them go." 

Jhajharka, ^j^^?^ UWh 

Early dawn before it is easy to distinguish objects. — ^Ghar&ibu'l 


Lugh&t. The word is spelt jhajhalka in the Tohfatu'l Lagh&t-i 
Hindi. I^either word is in Shakespear's Dictionary.' 

Jtakord, b/fT Wit^ 

A shower. 

Jhaldr, jlpr WfTK 

A thicket ; brushwood. 

Jham&ka^ ^U|c>- ij^umi 

A heavy shower. 

Jhamjham, ft^^,^ ^M^H 

Heavy continued rain. The term Jham&jhani is similarly 

Jlxamarjhamar, jA^^jA.^ quill i|< 

A light rain ; raining drop by drop. 

Jhanda, ^*^^^'i^ ^^ 

Jhandi, s? ^W iHt 

A flag staff; a flag used by surveyors as a mark by which to 
direct their observations. 

Jhanjia^ ^t-'T^^FT iJ^RTT 

A subdivision of the Mar soil. — Lower Do&b. 

Jhankhar&y l^f^^^^fT ll^ilT 

Jhankhar&i sometimes pronounced Jhankara, signifies a leaf- 
less tree, — ^the contrary of Jhanduld JI^Jc*^ which is applied 
to a tree with thick foliage. 


Jliar, ■ Jfl^ H^ 

Heavy rain; hence jharfi-jhar^ heayily, rapidly; and jhari, 
continued rain^ wet weather. 

Jharberf, v^Je^ 'H^W 

F^m jhar, or jhar^ a bramble, and ber the name of a tree, 
which appears to be the same as the sidar of Africa and Arabia, 
the ZizyphuB napeca of modem botanists, and the Rhamnm spina 
christi of Linneeus, and probably identical with the tree which 
yielded the famous fruit of the Lotophagi (Herod. IV. p. 177). 

The Jharberi seldom exceeds two feet in height, but the 
Ber is a large tree which sometimes grows to the height of 
between twenty and thirty feet. The Jharberi is often called 
the F6la shrub, and is used for many useful purposes. In 
appearance it is no better than a prickly bush, the fruit, 
howeyer, which resembles a small pliun, affords food to the 
destitute in famine, and is collected for that purpose by the 
women and children. It is either mixed with milk and water, 
or eaten in its natural state with bread, if procurable, and if 
not, by itself. The leaves are threshed and collected for fodder 
for the cattle ; the briars and thorns form barriers for the fields, 
and cattle sheds, and, when no longer required, are used as 
fuel. During the year of iJEunine (for it seems to grow equally 
luxuriant in a drought) the people to the West of the Jumna 
fed their cattle, and paid a large proportion of their revenue, 
from its sale. Indeed, in villages where the crop entirely failed^ 
the only collections wef e from this source. In such cases the 
people retained one-half for consumption, and disposed of the 
remainder. P&la leaves, in an average year, sell from six to 
twelve maunds the rupee. The Jharberi produces also very 
good gallnuts. 

Jbarud, \^j^ 1S%^ 

The name of a nutritious grass of which the grain is some- 


thing like that of Sh&mdkh (Panicum Jrumentaceum), of which 
it is reckoned to be a wild species. It springs up during the 
rains. The grain is eaten by Hindtis on fSut days, and Cham&rs 
commonly make it into bread. The stalks are cut up and given 
to cattle, or applied to the purpose of improving the quality 
and quantity of milk. It is known also by the name of S&wan 
and Sawain, because it ripens in the month S&wan. 

Jharotd, ^j}ji^ U^tUT 

The close of a season.— *See Jhuma. 

Jins, fj^:^ IRTO 

Ghrain; commodities^ products. 

Jinwar, j\y^ ftRTR 

See Janwar, which is the most usual pronunciation. 

Jiria, U^ f^rf^TTT 

The name of a rice cultivated in Benares.-»See Dhan. 

Jog, i^js^ ^tm 

The name of the person upon whom a draft or bill of exchange 
is drawn. 

Johar, yby>- ^Plft 

The name given to a large pond or lake. — ^DehU. — See Ahar. 

It is also applied in the Central Do&b to any inundated land, 
and is there pronounced Jhor. 

In Shakespear's Dictionary, Juhar is said to signify ''Pits 
filled with water at the bottom of mountains." 

Jokh&f, J^yr *t^ 

Weighment ; the weighman's perquisite. From jokhni, to 


Jud, 1^ ^JIT 

The yoke of a cart or plough. 

The word is preserved in many of the Indo-European lan- 
guages. — See Garly Hal^ and Halas. 

jtif, j^ ^ 

An insect destructive to certain crops. — See Gindar. 

Jugdlna, Ul^ ^fmWRT 

To chew the cud. 

Jiina, U^ ^ifT 

Jtird, \]fr ^ 

A rope of twisted grass, or twine, made to support a round- 
bottomed jar. It is called also Induri, Endhua, Ohakwa, 
Ghirari, GKnduri and Qodari. The original meaning of Jura is 
the knot into which Hindtis tie their hair at the back of the 

Juremdri, l^j^j^ ^^nf:^ 

Literally, brought under the yoke. The term is generally 
used to signify land actually in possession, in distinction to that 
which a man is entided to by virtue of descent from a common 

Jutd, lifl»- «pn 

Is the name given to the rope connecting the leheri, or 
irrigating basket, with the killi, or handle. From jotna, to 

Jtitiy&n, u^fr ^f*^ 

Land which bears two harvests during the year,— -opposed to 


ekfarda, wluch bears only one. — ^Benares. The word is deriTod 
from jotna, to ctdtiyate. 

JAthdli, JVyr ^wrtft 

Juth&li bears the same meaning as Jutiy&n above. 

Jorf, ^^f^ ^#t<t 

A pond smaller than a Fokhnr. — Dehli. — See Ahar. 

Jot, *^^ Wh! 

Cnltiyation ; tillage ; tenure of a cnltiyator. It is also some- 
times used to signify the rent paid by a cultivator. 

Jotd, \3^ ^tftm 

Jotir, j^^ 'frUTT 

Jotiya, LJj>- ^vtfTTVT 

Jotan, ^^ iftW^ 

A cultivator of land. — See above under Jot. 

Jau, ^ ^ 

Barley, — ^but not exclusively such as is raised by artificial 
irrigation, as stated in the Printed Glossary. 

The Jau, or barley-corn, is in India, as in many other 
countries, the primary unit of measures of length. The Asiatics, 
however, in that fondness for minute quantities which prevails 
with them, assume a certain number (6 or 8) of hairs of a horse's 
tail or mane, as equivalent to a Jau. Between Europe and 
Asia, there is also this difference in the -use of the Jau as the 
basis of measures of length, that in the former it is more usual, 
though not universal, to take the length of the grain ; in the 
latter, the breadth: — ^thus, in England, three barley-corns 
placed end to end make an inch, and in India, eight barley- 


corns' breadths make a finger. The former is more likely to be 
correct as an invariable standard than the latter. 

The following table shews the quantity of barley in cultiva- 
tion in the Upper Provinces during the year of survey. 

Dehli Division 90,063 Acres. 

Rohilkhand Division 182,476 „ 

Mlrat Division 153,050 „ 

Agra Division 359,811 

Allahabad Division 430,633 

Benares Division 1,301,887 

Saugor Division 854 


Total Acres 2,518,754 

A mixed crop of barley and chan&. — See Gbjara. 

Jaimal, JU^ vfNnr 

Land cultivated alternately by Eabi and Kharlf sowings. 
Land in continual cultivation. — ^Rohilkhand and Do&b. 

Li Dehli and Oudh it is applied generally to land which has 
been cropped during the past season with wheat and barley, 
which in the Upper Do&b is called Bin&r, and in some places, 
Narua. Li Benares the same word, or rather Jaun&r, means a 
field in which barley is sown without having borne a previous 
Kharif crop. In Bundelkhand it means land on which any 
Babi crops have grown.^See Jaimar in the Printed Glossary. 

It is probable that the meanings ascribed to this word are 
derived from different sources. When it is applied to Babi 
land alone, we may perhaps look for its root in Jau, barley. 
Where it means land under constant cultivation, we may 
perhaps look for its root in J6n, time. Thus, in many places 
land exhausted by over-cropping is styled Jdni. — ^E. 


The root of these words is probably to be found in the now 
little used Hindi word %nn ^ ^^* — ^B* 

Jannchf, ^^>r ^W^ 

A kind of smut in barley and wheats in which the ears 
produce no com, 

Judr, }^ ^I^TT 

A species of millet. — See Jawar. 

Jaunra, ]«5y>- IH^ 

Payment of yiUage servants in kind. The word appears to be 
a corruption of Jiora, j^.c. — ^Eastem Oudh. 

Jabdf, fc^'Vr 'wft 

A fipecies of rice cultivated in Bohilkhand. — See Dhan. 

Jadhan, ^^ Wff 

Jarhan, t^f^yr ^^^ 

A large species of rice, cropped at the close of the rainy 

Jagnf, \^^ Vnlt 

A small grain from which oil is extracted. It appears to be 
the same as the BamtiUi of the GFonds. — Saugor. 

Jajman, u^U^rr Qnmm 

A person from whom Brahman s, or menials, such as barbers, 
washermen and sweepers, have an hereditary right to claim 
certain perquisites, on occasion of any ceremonies or services 
which they are called upon to perform. 


Jal, Jar «iir 

A jungle shrub whicli grows in Bhatti territory* 

Jala, As>^ 9iwr 

A lake. From jal, water. 

Jaldliyd, LMU- ^nrrflRIT 

A fine specieB of wheat with reddish ears. — Saugor. 

Jalasa, iJL^ wwm 

A pool of water ; a tank. 

Jalkar, Jls^ 

The produce and piscary of rivers, jhils, tanks, etc. ; also, the 
revenue assessed thereon. — See Jelkora and Jalkar in the 
Printed Glossary. 

Jalm, jj^ qflTR 

Birth ; birthright. Fsed to denote proprietary right, 
especially in the soil. — Saugor. The word is a corruption of 
Janam, birth. 

Jalnim, &iA^ ^wft^ 

A bitter herb which grows on the banks of tanks. It is 
used medicinally as a cure for the itch, and has a purgative 
quality. It has obtained its name &om its springing up only in 
the vicinity of water. 

Jal pfpal, j-jj j^ mr iftmr 

A herb somewhat resembling the pepper plant. It is called 
also Aspab6ta in the Tarai Parganahs. In the Talif-i Sharif it 
is called Jalpflbaka. 



The foundation of a well. From janmay to join, to adhere. 
Hence the word is applied to the festive ceremony on the 
occasion of completing the foundation of a well. — Benares. In 
the Dehli territory this ceremony is called Naichak and Nina- 
chak, which are names applied also to the foimdation of the 
well. Newar (from ^^ foundation) is the most usual word 
elsewhere. — ^See Jakhan. 

Jamowa, \y^ ^nftlT 

Indigo planted before the rains, and irrigated by artificial 
means. — Central Do&b. 

Jamow& is also the name of a tree. 

Jamaiyd, L4>- ^1^^ 

The name of a grass in DehU. 

Jandra, ]j*^^ ^I^TT 

Shakespear says, Jandrd means a pitchfork ; but in the Upper 
Proyinces it is most usually applied to a kind of rake used 
during irrigation for dividing a field into small beds. It is used 
by two men— one holds the handle, and the other holds a string 
attached to the forks of the rake in a direction opposite to the 
handle. It is an inconvenient method of employing two men 
to do the work of one. The name Jandr& is used chiefly to the 
Westward. Elsewhere, the same implement is known by the 
name of M&njho and Karha, and solid wood more sensibly sup- 
plies the place of the forks of the rake. 

Janewa, 1^*^ 1%^ 

A kind of fragrant grass which grows in fields which have 
been cultivated with Kharif crops. Its flower is like that of the 
Do&b, but its stem is erect, and grows to about the height of a 
foot and a half. 


Jangra, \^^^ 'NTT 

The Laulm of Eliarif produce. — Lower Do&b. 

Jantri, s&r^ TW^ 

An almanac, or register. It originaUy meant a perforated 
piece of metal through which wire is drawn, and may have sub- 
sequently been applied to an almanac on account of its having 
many open compartments, or ruled divisions. — ^E. 

I should be inclined to think that the two meanings have no 
connection with each other ; the wire-drawer's metal is merely a 
diminutive from the Sanskrit ^S^ yantra, meaning a tool or 
instrument of any sort ; and the almanac was so called because 
it contained the record of astronomical observations made with 
yantras or instruments, such as the wonderful stone and brass 
circles, etc., still to be seen in the Man mandil at Benares. — ^B. 

Jarfbkash, JiS\^^^ W^^m 

Surveyor ; measurer. Literally, a drawer of the measuring 

Jurimana, <u Uj ^p- ^<t4||i|i 

From ^^ jurm, a crime ; fine, penalty ; given as Jerumana 
in the Printed Glossary. 

Jarita, ^J^ witZl 

Brushwood ; brambles. The word is used provincially, and is 
perhaps a corruption of the Hindi Jhuf \^9 which signifies the 

Jarela, Aij>^ ^l^W 

The name of a rice cultivated in Rohilkhand. 

Jargd, l^ ^RTH 

The name of a grass given as fodder to cattle, especially to 
horses. It grows generally on high ground. 


Jarwl, i/jjsj- wwft 

The name given to the small shoots of the rice plants when it 
first springs firom the ground. 

Jarwat, ^^ ^V^RZ 

The trunk of a tree. 

Jatar, jis^ W!T 

Cultivated land. — ^Upper Do&b. 

Jawdlf, ^\y>' vmift 

Jaw&la, or Jaw&li, signifies gram mixed with barley as food 
for cattle. Also, a small mixture of barley with wheat. 

Jaw&r, j\y>- wrnc 

A species of millet which grows from a height of eight to 
twelve feet on a reedy stem (Hokhus sorghum). It is known 
also by the names of Jondhri, and in some places^ of Jaundi. 
There are generally reckoned to be four kinds of Jaw&r. The 
red kind, or Joginia Jaw&r, is large, bears a lower price than 
the other qualities, and its stalk is not good fodder for cattle. 
The Baunia (from Bauna, a dwarf) is small, very white, grows 
straighter than the other kinds, and its stalk is also considered 
an inferior fodder. The third and best is the PIria or S&er. 
Its head bends more than the rest, its stalk is much approved 
as fodder, and, as the grain grows more compactly, it ripens 
later than the other kinds. The fourth and rarest is the B&s- 
mati, which is a very fragrant kind, but scarcely repays the 
expense of cultivation. 

These may be considered the kinds most ordinarily known in 
the Do&b ; but there are several others known elsewhere, as the 
Al&puri like the Joginia, Duleria or Domunhf, Jaterya, Khowa, 
Charka, Bidara, Lukd, Gutwa, M&lati, Chuneha, Baksi, Magha, 
Gtipurdf, Bhadeli or Ku&ru, Dugdi, Kumaria, Lattighar and 


B&nda; the specific differences of which it is needless to 

Jawdra, ?;'^ 'WrCT 

As much land as cfm be ploughed by a pair of bollocks. If 
a man says he has two Jaw&ras, he may be considered to have 
cultivation sufficient for the employment of two ploughs. A 
Jaw&ri of the Central Do&b^ in which province the word is 
chiefly used, could not at the most be considered as more than 
eight acres. 

In Dehliy Jaw&ra is used to signify the area ploughed in half 
a day, which is the same as the Chhakw&r of the Do&b. A 
Sanjhlo (literally, till the evening) signifies that which -is 
ploughed during the whole day, and comprises two Jaw&ras, 
equivalent to the Aratram, Arrura, Earing, and Avera of our 
law books. 

The words Jaw&r( and Jawara are derived from Jua, a yoke, 
it beiug as much land as one yoke of bullocks can plough. 

Another meaning of the word Jaw&ra is a yoke, or pair of 
bullocks, especially when employed at a well. 

Jaw&ra is likewise the name of the barley which is forced in 
earthen pots by the Brahmans for presentation at the Dasehra, 
or by women, for presentation to their brothers or fathers on the 
same festival. — See Jai. 

Jaw&ra also signifies, in some parts of these provinces, the 
small shoots of rice, which germinate when steeped in water. 
In Shakespear's Dictionary it is said to mean " large maize.'' I 
never heard of this application of the term. 


Jawasa, d^\^ ^RITOT 

Jaw&sa, under the name of Javassa, is described in the 
Printed Glossary to be '^ a slender thorny shrub, which assumes 
its most lively verdure in the heights of the warmest and driest 
weather, and languishes and fades under the influence of rain.'' 


It is the priokly-Btem Hedysarum (H. Alhagi), a thorny bosh 
on which camels browse; hence, says Khan Arzu, in hie Dic- 
tionary, it is also called Unt-kat&ra. But Ehan Arzti appears 
to be wrong in saying the Jaw&sa is the same as Unt-kat&ra. 
The peasantry look upon these as entirely different plants, and 
in appearance they do not in the least resemble each other. 
The real Unt-kat&ra, or Katela, is something like a thistle 
(Echinopa eehinatus, Boxb.), and has a yellow flower. It is 
called in different parts of the country by different names, such 
as Ghamoi, and Bang-kateya, and Satyan&si. The Bhat-kateya 
and Gol-kateya are of the same family. — See Slateya. But, 
though the Jaw&sa is not called Unt-kat&ra, it certainly is a 
camel's thorn, and being therefore ckssed under the name of 
nshtar-khar,EhanArz6 might easily have been misled. The name 
of Alhagi is deriyed from the root Ao;, which denotes in Arabic 
its connection with a place of pilgrimage. One of the species, the 
Alhagi Maurorum (which is said by some to be the Jaw&sa itself) 
is celebrated for its production of the manna* of the desert. 

Jaw&sa is &onsidered a good medicine in bilious disorders, 
but is chiefly known to Europeans as a substitute for Khas- 
khas in Tattis. In ancient times Jaw&sa appears to have been 
eaten by bullocks as well as camels : for we find those animals 
represented in the Mrichchhakati as chewing Jaw&sa. If they 
were able to accomplish this, their palates must have altered 
considerably ; unless, as perhaps was the case, the prickly herb 
was chopped up into little bits, and given as fodder in that state. 

Jaw&z, j\i 

A Persian word signifying a wooden mortar ; a sugar-mill ; 
an oil-mill. 

Jazar, ^^ IHIT 

A term in arithmetic signifying diiplation, or doubling a 
number, which, like mediation or halving, is considered in 


Oriental works to be a separate operation from ordinary mnlti- 
plication, or division, and is so entered in European books on 
arithmetic of the sixteenth century. 

Jaichf, ^^^^ ^^ 

A weed which springs up with Kabi crops. — See Jaiti. 

Jai, ^ ^ 

Oats. The name has been only lately introduced into the 
N.W.P.y as the grain was not known before the acquisition of 
this country by the British. It may perhaps have been so 
called from its being considered a small kind of barley ; thus, 
from jauy jauiy jai ; as from chan&y chani ; and urd, urdl. The 
wordy however, is not new, though the application, of it is ; for 
the small shoots of barley (especially cidtivated by Brahmans 
for the purpose, in anticipation of the season) which are carried 
about in the turbans of Hindus during Dasehra, are in many 
places known by the name of Jai, or Jai,* either because of ihp 
smallness of iihe barley, or in commemoration of the Jai, or 
triimiph of Rama over Ravana, the demon-lord of Lanka. 

It is worthy of remark that in Benares, Bundelkhand, and 
the Lower Do&b, oats are called R&mjau, i.e. the barley of 
Bama. As the Hindus already had an Indarjau (EeMte9 antt^ 
dysenierica), Bamjau was not altogether an unnatural combina^ 
tion to represent a new grain which bore a resemblance to 
barley. Bamjau, therefore, being the name which the natives 

• This is likewise the name giyen to the first sprouts of genninating rice (see 
Jaw&ra) when the seeds are steeped in water previoos to sowing. There is also a 
mall species of harley well known in Bohilkhand as Jai, or Jai, as is riiown bj the 
fioUoiwing coaplei^ in which its easj and n^id growth is remarked : — 

*■ Tlie Jai halloos out from the house tops, * Why not sow me after eating Eheohart ?' " 
(f .0. Makar Sakrant) which implies that its growth is very qnidc. 

TOL. n. 24 


chose first to give this grain, it is not altogether improbable that 
we may derive our Jai firom the ceremony above alluded to, 
rather than from its being considered a small species of barley. 
The very name of Bamjau would instantly suggest Jai — ^both being 
words intimately connected with the festival of the Dasehra. 

Jaitf , . ^i-rr Wt 

Jaiti, Jauchf, or Jaichi, is the name of an Euphorbia in the 
Western part of these Provinces, which springs up with the 
Bab( crops, and yields an excellent oiL The plant is about 
two feet high and three in circumference, and the seed yields 
about one-fifth of its weight in oil. In a paper presented in 
May, 1843, to the Horticultural Society of Calcutta, it is stated 
as an extraordinary thing that the seed will not come up on the 
ground on which it was last shed, if that land has in rotation 
been under a Kharif crop. But there appears nothing won- 
derful in this (even if the statement is true to the fullest extent, 
which perhaps it is not), because land under a Eharif crop is 
always most thoroughly weeded, and the Jaitf seed would not 
be allowed to remain in it. If the land remain uncultivated 
during the Kharif, a few Jaitf plants would come up, but not 
of course so many as would appear had the land been ploughed 
and prepared for a Eabf crop. In these respects it obeys 
some of the conditions of Matauna. — (See Eodo.) The previous 
ploughing for the Eabf has such an effect upon Jaitf, that it 
will spring up the third year after it is shed, even if the land 
has been under an intermediate E^harff crop. It is not there- 
fore necessary to suppose that it has any natural affinity with 
the Rabf grains; the mere ploughing, and exposure of the 
soil to the genial influence of the atmosphere, are sufficient to 
account for its germination. 

Jaitf does not appear likely to repay the trouble of cultiva- 
tion, notwithstanding the expectation held out in the paper 


Kaohhw&ra, ^j^^ 'WfTTT 

Any portion of ground cultivated by Kachhls. The Province 
of Katchh derives its name from the same source. (See Yiahnu 
Purana, p. 190). In the Upper Provinces the term Kachh- 
wfira, or, more usually, Kachar, is applied to alluvial forma- 
tions under the banks of a river, and the term has been said to 
be derived from Kach, a comer ; on account of Kachars form- 
ing chiefly in the re-entrant angles of a river^s bank : but this 
does not seem so probable as the derivation above given, as the 
land is well adapted for garden produce, and therefore culti- 
vated, or fit to be cultivated, by Kachhls. Or the word may 
come from Kachha, new, fresh. 

Kamld, L^ 

A caterpillar, so called from its woolly coat. — See below. 

Kamal, J^ m^m 

A blanket ; a coarse woollen garment worn universally by the 
peasantry of the Upper Provinces. 

The best £amals in these Provinces are made in Alwar and 
in the neighbourhood of Mir&pur in Mirat. The Sfinsld Kamal 
of the latter place sometimes sells as high as twenty-five rupees. 
It is made of the wool of lambkins, shorn about three days after 
their birth. The S&nsla is from six to eight yards long and 
about two broad. The ordinary Kamal sells for from twelve 
annas up to two rupees. 

Karia, f>^ ifT'n 

A village. From the Arabic 1/ assembling together, concourse. 
The word is not frequently used now, but we have it preserved 
in Kariat Mittu, Kariat Sikhar, Kariat Dost, and Kariat Mendhd, 
the names of Parganahs in the Province of Benares. 

K4s, {ji*\^ ^J^ 

Saccharum spontaneum, A grass which is found in every part 


of the Upper ProYinceB. Its existence is generally considered 
to be indicatiye of extreme poverty of soil, but this is not always 
the case. It particularly affects soils which have been allowed 
to remain long untiUed, and as its roots strike deep, it is very 
difficult to eradicate. 

In the Saugor territory it is said to grow in great abundance 
on lands which haye been exhausted by oyer-cropping ; it is 
also said that when the weed rots and disappears, it denotes that 
the soil has gained heart again, and is fit for cultiyation ; that it 
is stronger in proportion as the lands axe richer ; and that the 
strongest disappears in fourteen years. 

K&s, howeyer, is not altogether useless ; it is sometimes applied 
as a thatch ; is in much demand for twine ; and elephants, horses 
and homed cattle do not object to it as fodder. 

The grass grows from three to fifteen feet high, and it flowers 
in great profusion after the rains. The base of the flowers is 
surrounded with a bright silyery fleece, which whitens the 
neighbouring fields so much as frequently to resemble a fall of 
snow. It is hence frequently called in aid by the Hindu poets : 

<< like Siva's ashen whiteness, aatumn bears 
The budding grass, and like the foul hide wears 
The dun clouds," etc. 

— JTflM^ Rdkshtua, p. 196. 

The word is more generally pronounced E&ns, with a nasal «i 
as the penultimate letter ; but it is correctly K&s, as in K&a- 
gange. The fEuniliar couplet, in which the hunger and avarice 
of Brahmans are sportively alluded to, shows the correct pro- 
nunciation as well as the season of its flowering — 

*' The Eanigat* has come ; the K& flowers, 
B^unhans (low Brahmans) are sitting round the fireplace.*' f 

* Festival of deceased ancestors ; also caHed Shraddh, performed in Asm (Koftr). 
t i,e. To get their doles of food, umal on such oooaaions. 


A cnltiyator. This is a Persian word ; the Hindi Eas&n is in 
more general use. 

Karfl, JiJ nfNl 

Capparis aphylla. The caper bush. It grows to the height 
of from ten to fifteen feet^ and its eyergreen branches, or twigs, 
which are leafless, produce a red flower, from which proceeds the 
well-known fruit called Tent, which is eaten as a pickle by the 
poorer classes. 

The Karil grows chieflj in the North- West, and its being 
found in great quantities in the neighbourhood of Biij, has 
given rise to the following trite couplet, in which the taste of 
Baghonath is impugned for not giving the best article to the 
place of his own mortal abode. 

" Folks say Baghun&th's capriciousiiefls has not left him, 
He has given fruit to Kabul, and (only) Tent to Brij (his former house)." 

When the fruit is large, it is called Tenta, when small, Tentf. 

Kodo, jj/ iftift 

A small grain, sown early during the rainy season {Pa^fMlum 
/rumentaceum, Eoen.). The season for sowing it is indicated in 
the following lines :— 

** In Fnkh and Punarbas sow rice ; 
In Aslekh^ Eodo is directed.'' 

The first word in each of the three first lines is the name of 


a lunar asterism^ which points to the proper time of sowing 
various kinds of grain. 

It is a very curious fact, but one which does not admit of 
doubty that this grain is frequently found to have inebriating 
properties, when made into bread* Such Eodo is known by the 
name of Matauna (from Matt ifff drunk, intoxicated) ; but in 
appearance it resembles Kodo in every respect. It is sown as 
ordinary Kodo, and comes up as Matauna, but only in those 
fields on which Kodo has been previously grown, and only, 
perhaps, in one instance out of ten even in such cases. If wheat 
or barley is grown, it will not come up, nor will it ever spring 
up on newly broken soil. It is therefore a necessary condition 
of the produce of Matauna, that Kodo was sown the preceding 
year. The effects of the mania are fortunately not very in- 
jurious, and death never supervenes. The intoxication which it 
causes is generally that of a cheerful kind, lasts for two or three 
days, produces no convulsion or ulcers, and inflicts no permanent 
injury on the constitution. In these respects it differs from 
Baphania, which is caused by eating rye affected by ergot. 

These curious properties of Kodo have invested it with a 
degree of mystery in the eyes of the natives, and some classes 
even worship it as a god. Thus, the Kakan Eajputs of Gh&zipur 
are said to pay worship to this divinity. They never cultivate 
or eat Kodo ; and the reason assigned is that, while under the 
influence of Matauna, they were set upon by some of the neigh- 
bouring tribes, and thus lost the greater part of their once ex- 
tensive possessions. 

This intoxicating effect of Kodo is by no means imaginary, as 
many may be induced to suppose. Independent of , its notoriety 
in these provinces, it has been witnessed in distant parts of the 
coimtry by medical officers who have borne testimony to the 
fact. Dr. Irvine, in his statistical account of Gwalior, mentions 
it, and Dr. Francis Buchanan has seen its effects in Behar and 
and Bhagalpdr. He states that the natives, as they do in these 
provinces, attribute the narcotic quality of the grain in certain 



fields to its being infected by a large poisonous serpent, called 
Dhemna; and lie is disposed to ascribe the lameness called 
Magbya lang to tbe common practice of sleeping on Kodo straw» 
wbicb may, perbaps, emit narcotic ezbalations. 

£is6ri (athyrus aaUtms) is another grain wbicb is found to 
bave injurious properties. A curious instance of a general 
paralysLB caused by it is given in Colonel Sleeman^s '^ Bambles 
and BecoUections/' Yol. I. p. 134. 

Kolhti, ^/ *inr 

A sugar mill To illustrate tbe difference of knguage in 
different Provinces of tbis Presidences, tbe names of tbe com- 
ponent parts of tbe mill are given below in tbe language of 
Benares and Bobilkband. In Debli and tbe Do&b otber 
variations occur, but tbey are few. Tbe Lower Do&b inclines 
more to tbe Benares dialect — ^Debli and tbe Upper Do&b to 
tbat of Bobilkband. Bundelkband bas a mixture of botb. For 
instance, tbere Kattri ia tbe borizontal, and Jatb tbe uprigbt beam. 





Kattri ... 

The horizontal beam to which the bnllocks are 

The npright beam which moyee in the miU. 
The npright poet which is paraUel to the last 
The wood by which the two preceding are joined 

to one another. 
The basket on the horizontal beam, from which 

tiie mill is fed. 
The leather thon^ by which the horizontal beam 

is connected with the yoke. 
The cirele in which the bnllocks more. 

into the boiler. 
The place from which the ftiel is supplied to the 

ftre nnder the boiler. 
The outlet for the smoke. 
The spoon for taking the jnice ont of the boiler. 
The scrape to prcTcnt the sugar resting at the 

bottom of the boiler. 
The raised blocks on which the cane is cut. 
The receptacle for the sugar-cane before it is cut. 

L&th and Jfcih 



XhAnta ... 
Dhenka ... 

Oii .•• 


Ghagra ... 


Dohra ... 


Gareran ... 











This simple mill has, like the natiye ploogh, been much 
ridiculed for the rudeness of its construction ; but it is, neyer- 
ihelessy a very efficient instrument, gaining in power what it 
loses in rapidity of execution. Every particle of the cane is 
subjected to three crushings in the Kolhd. In the European 
triple-roller wheel it is subjected to only one. Native Zamlnd&rs 
repay us with their contempt for our process, by pointing to 
the juice in the refuse cane, which the European roller has been 
unable to express. — ^E. 

These words are by no means the only set of words in use ; 
in fact, every province and every district has its own long list 
for every small component part of every implement in use. It 
is not surprising, therefore, that no really complete dictionary 
of this exuberently copious language has ever yet been 
written.— B. 

Kora, \j^ ^^ 

Is the mercantile name of plain silk cloth dyed. Bandanna 
is the same article dyed. The word is derived from ]j^ Kor&, 
new, raw, fresh. 

This article of Indian manufacture has lately been depreciated 
in the English market, in consequence of the dishonesty of the 
native workmen, who prepare goods of inferior quality and 
weight, and conceal the deficiency by a composition of rice- 
paste and sugar. It is said that, a sound Kor& ought to weigh 
from thirty to thirty-two Sikkas, fiiithfuUy woven throughout 
with 1700 threads. The deteriorated Eor& has only 1400 threads, 
and weighs from twenty-six to twenty-nine Sikkas, brought up 
to the proper standard by the above-named composition, which 
may be easily detected by washing. 

Kauld, J/ ^INIT 

Kauliy4, U/ iftftRn 

Derived from ^j^ £aull, an embrace or armful, and hence 

PART ly. — RVBiX UFB. 377 

applied to bundles of sheaves of com giyen as perquisites to 
reapers and village servants. The word more generally used in 
Benares is £akhiali. From K&nkh A^l^ an armpit. 

Kerauny, ^\J WU^ 

An English clerk in a public office, generally of mixed 
European and native descent. The origin of the name has 
been disputed, and is, it is believed, utterly imknown. It may 
probably be a corruption of some Portuguese* word, or it may 
be a mispronunciation of Karana, by which the Kayeth 
(Kayastha), or writing tribe, is designated in Bengal; and 
as most native writers in public offices are of the Karana caste, 
it is not unlikely that, by merely extending its signification, the 
same won^ might have been used to designate English f writers. 
The word from being utterly harmless in its application, has 
begun of late years to be considered decidedly dyslogistic (to 
use an expressive word coined by Bentham) and is consequently 

* It 18 strange that Ab61 Fazl, in detailing the officers of a ship's company, say 
the ship's steward was called Kerani. 

^Ly ^J^ A** U\j ^^ ^^ ^^ ^\J 

This might imply a Portagaese origin, as many nautical terms are derived from that 

t Should this really be the origin of the word, it is worthy of obeerration 
that Kayeths themselyes at one time were called by a title, which was originally 
peculiar to foreign writers. In a treatise on Beyenne Accounts by Raj Bdp, who 
calls himself a pupil of Kaja Todar Mai, but who in reality wrote in, or after, 
Aurangzeb's reign, he says that, since those who in Iran followed the occupation of 
writing, were called Khwaja, it came to be considered an attributive word, and was 
in course of time appropriated to Hindd writers. 

^ ui^ S-r- Ut^ ^\^ *sr'^ b *iXi-iy u]ji\ j^ ^ ^j^ J 

There is no reason to suppose that in India Kayeths are now ever called Khwaja, 
though that word is in common use for other classes. In other Muhammedan 
countries, however, the term is still applied to writers and teachers. 


avoided by all officials of good feeling, for fear of giving 

The derivation of this word still baffles enquirers. The 
simplest and most obvious derivation is from the Hindi WVR 
WKJ^tWlMl K&m Kar&new&l&, which is equivalent to the English 
'^overseer;" as this class of East Indians has generally been 
employed in the higher grades of the subordinate executive 
service^ this name would be very appropriate and applicable to 
them, and is moreover very similar to the Bombay term 
K&rkan. — B. 


In the Printed Glossary, should be Ehateoni, Ehatauni, or 
Eli&t&bandi, words signifying the posting of several items 
together, after abstracting them from the Ehasra. From U\^ 
£h&t&, an account book. The meaning is correctly entered in 
the Glossary. 



A^bftd, ii 207. 
A^b^dfrn, ii 207. 
A^6d&ni, ii. 207. 
Aa>&dk&r, ii 207. 
Abar, L 136. 
Abafh&n, ii. 258. 
Abhira, i. 2, 102, 186. 
A'bhot, ii. 288. 
A^bi, ii. 208. 
Abli, ii. 208. 
A^bk^r, u. 1. 
A^k&ri, ii. 1. 
A'bp&Bhi, ii. 208. 
Adabandi, ii. 1. 
Adbbar, ii, 2. 
A44&, ii- 220. 
Adh, i. 103. 
A'dhanfr, i. 100. 
Adbanii, ii. 163. 
A'dbba^ ii. 2. 
Adhel&, ii. 2. 
Adheli, u. 2. 
Adheliy&, ii. 2. 
Adhgaw&n, ii. 394. 
Adl&fcri, ii. 208. 
Adhiy&r, ii. 2. 
Adhiy&ri, ii. 2. 
Adhkachchft, ii. 2. 
Adhkari, ii. 3. 
Adhoi, i. 21. 
Adi^h, i. 301. 
Ag, ii. 210. 
A gal, u. 208. 
A^, ii. 210. 
A^r, ii. 209. 
Agar, iL 208. 
A^arf, ii. 210. 
Anuria, i. 159. 
Agarwidi, i. 1, 257» 287, 

324, 327. 
AgaBtw6r, i. 2. 
Agannd, ii. 210. 
Aganr, ii. 3. 
Aganrfr, ii 210. 
Agayti, ii. 210. 

Aghan, ii. 3. 

Agbani, ii. 3. 

Agin, ii. 210. 

Agnibansi, i. 174. 

Agnihotrf, L 152. 

Agnikula, i. 108 ; ii. 77. 

Agor, ii. 210. 

Agoraiy&, ii. 210. 

Agranrihi, ii. 3. 

Agrehri, i. 286. 

Agw&r, ii. 210. 

Afw&si, ii. 210. 

Anar, i. 5, 6 f. 

Aliar, ii. 211. 

A'hari, u. 209, 211. 

Aheriy&, i. 6, 79, 90. 

Ahir, i. 3-6, 93 f, 101 ff, 
136 ff, 180, 183, 273 f, 
287, 295, 307, 325, 
327, : u. 48 ff. 

'Ahd, ii. 3. 

'Ahdd&r, ii. 3. 

'Ahdn&mah, ii. 3. 

Ahitft, ii. 212. 

Ahlfcwat, i. 130. 

Ahyftai, i. 319. 

A'il, ii. 214. 

Aimli, i. 112. 

Alndftn, ii. 212. 

Aipan, i. 271. 

Aithana, i. 305, 325. 

Aiw&ra, ii. 212. 

Ajaari, ii. 3. 

Ajmdd, ii. 212. 

Ajw6in, u. 212. 

A% ii. 212. 

Akai&, ii. 212. 

Alum, ii. 213, 332. 

A^kfta bel, ii. 213. 

AlLbfr, ii. 213. 

Akhaiwar, i. 156. 

AkbtQ, i. 193 f. 

Akor, ii. 218. 

Alanot, i. 65, 82. 

A% ii. 213f. 

Akr&, ii 213. 

A1&, ii. 214. 

Alfcpdil, ii 366. 
Algf, ii. 4. 
A^ ii. 3 f. 
Alm&ri, ii 214. 
Alo, ii. 215, 292. 
Alt&, ii. 215. 
Alfima; i. 131. 
Am&ni, ii. 9. 
Ambasthfr, i 2. 
Amethiy&, i. 7. 
Amiaht, i 305, 325. 
'Ami dastak, ii. 10. 
'Ami pat^&, ii. 10. 
'Ami sanad, ii 10. 
A'n&, ii. 10. 
Anandl, ii. 285. 
Aniurdfiiia, ii. 215. 
Andbi, ii. 215. 
A'ng, ii 215. 

Angii44iy&i ii* 215 f. 
Aj^kiff, u. 311. 
A'ngao, ii 216. 
Angaiiii^&, i. 194 ff. 
Angauiiyfi, i 196. 
ADgn&, li 216. 
An|wfii4, ii. 216. 
Anial&, ii. 196. 
Anjall, i 194, 196. 
Anjan, ii 216. 
Anjanfc, ii. 216, 285. 
A'nk, ii. 217. 
Ankbandi, ii. 10. 
A]ikd6r, ii. 217. 
Ankrf, ii. 213. 
Annapr&Ban, i. 196. 
An^&ri, i 7 f . 
Antai i 130. 
Antarbed, ii. 10, 285. 
An66, i 196. 
A'nwl&, ii. 217. 
A'ok&n, ii 217. 
A'okbal, u. 217. 
A'ol6iiij&, i. 8, 126. 
A'oU, ii. 10 f. 
A'ori, ii 217. 
Aphariyft, i 4, 8. 
Aphiriy&, i. 5. 



A'r, ii. 217 f. 
Ariiba, ii 218. 
Arah, ii. 218. 
Aral, ii. 218. 
Ar&r, ii. 218. 
Ajkrk, ii. 218. 
'AjtH^ u. 219. 
Aran^ ii. 219. 
Ar&r^, ii. 11. 
Ar&zi, ii. 11. 
Ard&wa, ii. 219. 
Algal, i. 117. 
Argar&, ii. 219. 
Areh, i. 197. 
Arnar, ii. 219. 
Arhat, ii. 219 1 
' A'liat, ii. 220 f. 
Arsath, ii. 11. 
Arthi&, ii. 221. 
Arwan, i. 197 ; ii. 292. 
Arwi, ii. 221. 
'Arzd6sht, ii. 12. 
Aa&miw&i, ii. 12. 
Afl&rh, i. 198. 
Ask^i, i. 198-225. 
Ajsal, ii. 306. 
Ashasfi, ii. 221. 
Ashj&r, ii. 221. 
ABhr&f, ii. 221. 
'Ashikt, ii. 222. 
ABlrgarh, L 2. 
Aflichfr, ii. 222. 
Afil, ii. 222. 
Asli, ii. 12 f. 
Ason, ii, 222. 
AgpabCita, ii, 363. 
Ast, i. 125 f. 
Astbal, ii. 222. 
Aeih&n, ii. 222. 
At&, ii. 222. 
At&b6, ii. 223. 
Atal, ii. 306. 
Mkn, u, 222. 
Ataip&l, ii. 223. 
Ataabaz, i. 295. 
A01I11&B, ii. 223. 
Athbaiy&, i. 25. 
AtiunanSi, ii. 223, 225. 
Atbwari&, i. 152. 
Athya, i. 117. 
At8^ i. 19. 
A6di, i. 8. 
A'w&, ii. 223. 
Aw&l, ii. 224. 
A'wan, L 113. 
A'wangilli, i. 248 f. 
Aw&ra, ii. 18. 
A'w&rij&, ii.- 13 f. 
Aw&Bi, ii^ 223, 292. 

Awasihf, i. 8, 146, 151. 
Azimgaphia, i. 70. 


B& aul&d, ii. 82 f. 
B&bar, ii. 233. 
B&bhan, i. 24. 
B&bd, ii. 224. 
Babai, ii. 247. 
Babtkr, ii. 247. 
Bacb, i. 15, 47. 
Bachgoti, i. 63, 77 » 177. 
BachE, ii. 23. 


achbaim^ ii. 32. 
B&d, ii. 14. 
B&d&mi, ii. 247, 285. 
Badb&cha, ii. 247. 
Badgdjar, i. 21, 38-41, 

87, 171, 323 
Badbiyg, ii. 248. 
Badbak, i. 47. 
Badbie, L 295. 
Badi, i. 18, 248 ; ii. 247. 
Badk&na, i. 100. 
Badni, i. 232. 
Badow&, i. 152. 
B&dsb&bi, u. 14. 
B& fanand&n, ii 32. 
Bfigam, ii. 35. 
Bag&r, ii. 248. 
B&gar, ii. 225. 
Bagarl, ii. 248, 285. 
B6gb, u. 224. 
Bagbd, i 49 f, 174 f. 
B&gbfcbah, ii 224 f. 
Bagora, i 47. 
B&grl, i. 9 f, 129 f. 
Bagsariyft, i. 50. 
BlLb§^ ii. 225. 
B&ban. ii. 225. 
B&bara, ii 225. 
Babera, ii. 248. 
Baheriy&, i. 50. 
Bahi, u. 32. 
Bablim, i. 50. 
B&bii&, ii. 225. 
BahoTO, i 233. 
Babr&icb, i 136. 
Bahriip, i. 54. 
Babr6piya,i. 17. 
Babdki, i 54. 
Baib, ii, 260. 
Bai-bbaii, i. 247. 
Bai 'bi'l wafGi d&r, ii 42. 
Baid&r, ii. 41. 

Bai^, i 58. 

Baiiil&, ii. 260. 

Baikbal^ ii. 260. 

Bainsi, i 58. 

Bairfigf, i 296. 

Bai^i. 13 ff, 77, 83, 117, 

171, 174, 177, 285, 304, 

323, 327. 
BaiBak, ii. 260. 
BaisaH, i 100. 
Baitak, ii. 45. 
Bai^b, u. 33. 
Baiy&, i 95. 
B&j, ii. 225. 
B&iantari, ii. 33. 
Bajhwat, ii. 248. 
Bajfd&r, ii. 248. 
Bajpal, i 146, 151. 
B&jp&ii, i 10. 
B&ira, u. 226. 
B&jri, u. 226. 
B&k, ii. 33. 
B&kand, ii. 226 f. 
Bakftr, u. 32. 
Bakarra, i 127. 
Bak&r6, u. 248. 
Ba^&y6, ii. 40. 
Baket ii. 248. 
Bakb&, ii. 248. 
Bakbar, ii. 249. 
Bakb&r, ii. 249. 
B&kbax, ii. 226. 
Bakh&ii, ii. 249. 
Bakbr&, ii. 307. 
Bakbflbi, i 117. 
Bakbsbl&t, ii. 39. 
Bakbsbn&mab, ii. 32. 
B6ki, ii 285. 
Bakf ot6, ii. 34. 
BUfik, ii. 228. 
Bakoli u. 249. 
B&kri, ii. 226. 
Baksi, ii. 366. 
Bakulf, ii. 304. 
B&l, u. 227. 
B&1&, ii. 227. 
Bal&bar, ii. 249. 
B&lMiL, i 10, 130. 
Bfrl&kb&nab, ii. 227. 
B&land, i 10. 
Bal&ya, i 132. 
Balbbog, u. 249. 
Bald, ii. 249. 
Baldah, ii 83. 
Baldeo, ii. 249. 
Baldibfri, ii. 40. 
Balesar, i 51, 100. 
Baikal ii. 40, 
Balla, i 16. 



B&Imik, i. 805, 825. 
BalsimdLar, IL 260. 
Bala&, iL 249. 
B&ldbiud. ii. 84. 
B&man Gaur, i. 105. 
Bftmbhl, ii. 260. 
Bamhan^ur, 1. 61. 
Bainliamy&, i. 61, 146. 
Barnhni, ii. 260. 
Bamltli&, ii 260. 
Bamtell, i. 61. 
BaA&faTy L 61. 
Ban&rasya, i. 99. 
Banbh&nta, ii. 260. 
Banchari, ii. 260. 
B&nda, ii. 334, 367. 
Band&, iL 260. 
Bandbeliri, ii. 40. 
B6iidh, ii. 227. 
B&ndhalgoti, i. 7, 11, 63. 
Bandh&n, ii. 260. 
Bandh&n, ii. 260. 
Bandh&n,ii. 261. 
Bandhi&, ii 260. 
Bandhte, ii. 261. 
Bandhw&s, ii. 261. 
Bandi Ghosf, i 94. 
Bandli,'ii. 261, 284. 
Bandii, ii. 261. 
Bandt&l, ii 261. 
Ban-ddbia, ii. 303. 
Banddkchi, i 296. 
Baiig&, ii. 261. 
B6ng&, ii, 227. 
Bang&li, i. 296. 
Baii|aU7&, ii. 252, 285. 
B&ngar, ii. 84. 
Baiigaim^&, ii. 262. 
Bangi, i, 131. 
Baiigk&, ii. 261. 
Bfiiigkatai7&, ii 262, 368. 
Bangkl/ii 261, 286. 
B&ni, ii. 227. 
Bania, i 144, 183, 287, 

293 ff, 306, 324. 
Baninb&r, ii. 262. 
Banj&ra, i 62-66, 294 f, 

299, 310, 313. 
Baniw&l, i. 16. 
B&njh, ii. 227. 
Baniin, ii. 262. 
Bftnk, ii. 227, 331. 
Ba]ikfiii^&, ii. 263. 
Bankar, ii. 263. 
Bfiukara, ii. 321. 
B&nkhar&, u. 262. 
Bankas, ii. 263. 
Bankhatta, i 289. 
Badka^i, u. 264. 

Bannl, ii. 264. 
Banotsai^, i. 233 f. 
Banowa, i. 161. 
B&ns, ii. 228. 
Ban8&, ii. 264. 
B&I1S&, ii 227 f. 
B&nsarl, ii. 228. 
Baxiai, ii. 264. 
Bansiy&, ii. 322. 
Banspnor, i. 296. 
B&9t& Cbaudas, ii 236. 
Bantorifr, ii. 264. 
Banwaria, i 296. 
B&oli, ii. 228. 
BapanB, ii. 40. 
Bapantt, ii. 40. 
B&r, ii. 229. 
Baf, ii. 264. 
B6t, ii 229, 226. 
B&ra, ii 229, 266. 
Bar&bh&o, i. 234 f. 
B&rah, ii. 34. 
B&rah s&d&t, i llff, 296 f. 
Bar&hi, ii. 64. 
B&r&bf, ii. 229. 
Bar&r, ii. 264. 
B&ramb6, ii. 36. 
Baranl, ii. 34, 42. 
Baranw&l, i 286. 
Bar&r, ii. 264. 
Bar6rf, ii. 41. 
Barat, ii. 267. 
Bar&t, ii. 34 f. 
Baraiindb&, ii. 252, 256. 
Barausia, i. 3. 
Barawwd, ii. 41. 
Barban, ii. 265. 
B&rbard6ji, ii 229. 
B&rbat&i, ii. 36. 
Baidi,'ii 266. 
Baietha, ii 255, 240. 
Bareiya, i 120. 
Barej, ii. 265. 
Bare|&, ii 265. 
Baresirf, i. 15, 129, 322. 
Bargan, ii. 265. 
Barghaiy&n, i. 161, 177. 
Barh&, li. 266 f. 
Barb&i, i. 66, 182. 
Barbaiy&, i 66, 
Barhan&l, i. 21. 
Barbauliyfr, i 67. 
Barh&wan, i. 235. 
BarM, ii. 41. 
BkfiA, ii. 229 ; i 296. 
Barhi7&, ii. 266. 
Barhotarf, ii. 266. 
B&d, i. 49. 
B6ri» ii. 229. 

B6iik, ii. 229. 
Bari-m&i, ii. 353. 
B&riz, u. 229 f. 
Barkalft, i. 16. 
Barkuiy&n, ii. 256. 
Barlasb, i. 306. 
Barmbh&t, i. 41. 
Barmbotar, ii 41. 
Bainaicbn, i. 242. 
Bamet, ii. 342. 
Baro, ii. 260, 266. 
Barroh, ii 256. 
Baronklfr, ii. 256. 
Barothi, i 4, 16. 
Barr&, i 235. 
Bar8&m&, u. 266, 290. 
Bar8&liy&, i. 236. 
Barsodi^ i. 236. 
Barsoi, i. 100. 
Bart, u. 277. 
Bartia, i 64 f. 
Bartcisb, ii. 267. 
Barwa, i 296. 
Barw&fk, i. 67 f, 127, 140. 
Barw&r, i. 68. 
Basaur, ii. 268. 
Basen^ ii. 267, 236. 
Basgit, ii. 257. 
Banian, i 7, 112. 
Basikat, ii. 267. 
Basit, ii. 267, 186. 
Basmati, ii. 230, 284, 866. 
Bastah, ii. 267. 
BastSlf, ii. 267. 
Basw&ii, ii. 268. 
Bat, ii. 288. 
Ba^ ii. 268. 
Ba^&i, ii. 268. 
Batania, u. 268. 
Batar, ii. 269. 
Bat&r, i. 68, 100. 
Bat&si, ii. 286. 
Ba^entb, ii. 258. 
Bates, ii. 268. 
B&tbam, i 81. 
Balb&n, ii. 258 1 
Bathi, i 274. 
Bathiy&, ii 259. 
Batbufr, ii, 269. 
BCitin, ii 230. 
Batnan-b&d-batoan, ii 41. 
Batoka, ii. 273. 
Batolan, ii. 269. 
Batoran, ii. 269. 
Batrd, ii. 285. 
Bat^ ii 41. 
Battaiya, ii. 244. 
Batti, ii 311. 
Batdrl, ii 259, 274. 



Ban, i. 232« 
Bamida, i. 228. 
Bfrunl, li. 228. 
Baonia, ii. 366. 
Batw&r, ii. 269. 
BaachdCur, ii. 247. 
Banll, ii. 247. 
Ba1lriyi^ i, 47. 
Baw&da, ii. 259. 
B&wag, ii. 244. 
B&warf, i. 47. 
Bayft, i. 236. 
Bay&i, i. 236. 
Bayd Baiij6ra, i. 64. 
BaV zamfn daftar, ii. 86 
Beb, ii 233. 
Beb&k, ii. 36. 
Bechir&gh, ii. 230. 
Bedhak, I 299. 
Beg&r, ii 232. 
Bee&ii, u. 232. 
Behan, ii. 232. 
Behnaur, ii 232. 
Behrah, ii. 232. 
Behrf, ii. 38. 
Behiid6r, iL 38. 
Bejhar, ii. 319. 
Beiharfr, ii. 238, 333. 
BekHB, ii. 233. 
Bel, ii 238. 
Belan, ii 339. 
Belb60. ii 233. 
Belak, ii. 234. 
Belch&, ii. 238. 
Belchak, u. 233. 
Beld&r, L 16. 
Belb&n, i 161. 
Belki, ii. 230. 
Belwar, i. 81. 
Bemhar, i. 20. 
Benaadhfr, ii 38 f. 
Ben&watfii. 14. 
Bengat, i. 226. 
Bent, ii. 234. 
Beor&, ii. 26. 
Ber&, ii. 228, 234. 
Ber&na, ii 234. 
Berh&, ii. 229, 234 
Berhn&, ii. 234. 
Berhwal, i 131. 
Beri, i226f; ii 300. 
Beshi, ii. 236. 
Besan, ii. 236. 
Beth, ii 236. 
Bew&ri, i 299. 
Bewra, i 296. 
Bh&bar, ii. 14f. 
Bb&bi, ii. 324. 
Bh&4, i 17. 

Bhsuik, ii 237. 
Bhadai, ii. 238. 
Bhad&har, ii 228 f. 
BhadariyfL, i. 31 
Bhadeli, u. 366. 
Bhadauri7&, i 26-31, 88, 

171 f, 322, 827, 333 ff.; 

Bbadw&r, ii 238. 
Bh6g, ii. 16. 
Bhftgnar, ii. 16. 
Bha|t&, i 3, 31. 
BhaifriiB, ii. 24. 
Bhaibat, ii. 24. 
Bhftfb&nt, ii. 16. 
BbailuBBi, ii 24. 
Bhaipaiui, ii 24. 
Bfaainbar, i 306. 
Bhaiw&d, ii. 24. 
Bhaiy&ch&r&, ii. 23. 
Bhaiyatar, i 120. 

Bhaiy&b&nt, ii* 271. 
Bh&l, i 16. 
BhfiJ& snlt&n, i 16 f. 
Bh&mBai4, i. 4. 
Bhanawag, i. 16, 177. 
Bhang, ii 238. 
Bh&ng, ii 238 f. 
Bhang&na, i 293. 
Bhangela, ii. 239. 
Bhangra, ii 239. 
Bhangf, i 31 f, 62, 80, 86. 
Bhangiwal, i. 130. 
Bbangtlriyi, i. 33. 
Bh&nkarf, ii. 236, 334. 
Bbansar^ i 33. 
BhR9t&, i. 229. 
Bhanwag, i. 33. 
Bh&oli, 1. 227. 
Bhar, i. 33 f, 84, 167, 287. 
Bbaradw&j, i. 147. 
Bh&radw&l, i. 147, 329. 
Bhar&r&, 1. 303. 
Bharai, ii. 16. 
Bbarat,i 33 f. 
Bharat, ii. 16. 
Bharbh6nj&, i. 36, 183, 

Bhare, ii. 239. 
Bharet, ii. 277. 
Bham, i 34. 
Bhark&, i. 81. 
Bharpatw&, i 36, 123. 
Bbaraim&, ii, 239. 
Bharaati, i. 229. 
BbamfiL, ii. 239. 
BbarpM, i 229. 
Bhanali&y ii 277. 

Bbartf, i 166, 289. 
Bbar6&, i 192 
Bhastnr, ii 236. 
Bhfrt, i 17 ff, 162, 296, 

299, 304, 321, 327; 

ii 236. 
Bba^ i 36. 

BhatOavr, i 36, 104 1 
Bhatara, i 19. 
Bhatghorfc, ii. 164, 
Bhatuftgar, i. 86, 306, 

310, 326. 
BhafkataiyfiL, ii. 240. 
Bhatkany&, i 16, 49. 
Bhaimai, i. 278. 
Bhatolar, ii. 241. 
BhtL% i 161. 
Bhatihid&r, ii. 241. 
Bhati&, i. 229. 
Bha(^6rj, i 87, 146. 
Bha^ ii 241. 
Bha^ i 7, 37 1 100. 
Bfaa^r&n&, ii. 16-23, 
Bbattiyli, ii. 239 f. 
Bha^y&rtL, i 192, 296. 
BhattktU, i 36. 
Bha^&, ii 241. 
Bbanndaii, i 228. 
Bhaunri, i 33. 
Bhanra, ii. 311. 
Bhawan, ii. 241. 
Bhei, ii. 16. 
Bhej-bar&r, ii 16 f. 
Bheti, ii 236. 
Bhihar, i 19 f, 39. 
Bhijoa, ii 307. 
Bbfl, i. 83, 296. 
Bhis, ii. 236. 
Bhisend^, ii. 236. 
Bhisti, i. 190, 296. 
Bhi^ ii 236. 
Bbitn&, i 264. 
Bhogaldaf, i 264 f. 
Bhogbandak, i 227. 
BboS, ii. 236. 
Bboidafdha, ii 268. 
Bhon, u. 260. 
Bhor, ii 237. 
Bhotia, i 302. 
Bhoja, i. 33. 

Bbrigubansi , i 26, 67. 1 76. 
Bhainbh&i or Bhnnbhfri; 

i 228 
Bbiiindagdba, i 227 f. 
Bhdinb&T, i. 21-26, 60, 

86 f, 121, 146, 148, 162, 

177 ff, 286 ; ii 221. 
Bbdfntela, i 61. 
BhakB&, i 20f, 316 ff. 



BliAmiA, L 242. 
Bhlimi7&, u. 236; i. 96. 
Bhtimiy&wat, ii. 236. 
Bhdndari, 228. 
Bhtlndifr, ii. 236. 
Bhdm Sen, L 242. 
BhCinda, i. 228. 
Bhtingfd, ii. 16. 
Bhtinhart, iL 236. 
Bhdr, i. 141. 
Bhtir, ii 236. 
Bhufari, ii 287. 
BhtSrastfrtha, iL 319. 
BhDB, a 237. 
Bhtsk, ii 237. 
Bhoflaui, ii 237 
BhuBaolft, ii. 237. 
Bhiuehr&, ii. 237. 
Blidn&iii, i. 7. 
Bhii8r&, ii. 237. 
Bhntoth, i 224. 

Bhnn&, ii. 237. 
Bhnttia, i 33. 
Bi&j, ii. 35. 
B1&J6, ii 35. 
Bf&r, ii 230. 
Bi&B, ii. 230. 
Bi4&, u. 231. 
Bidara, ii. 366. 
B(^ bandf, ii. 36. 
Bldh&, ii 36. 
Bigahti, ii 37. 
Blgh6, ii 36 f. 
Bighoto, u. 37. 
Bihar, i 20. 
Bihar, ii. 231 
Bihand, ii. 242. 
Bihiahti, i. 190. 
Biiaf, i. 226. 
Bijak, ii 38. 
Bfiar, ii 231. 
Bijaya, ii 239. 
Bi^hg&h, i. 229. 
Biihomy&, i 15, 38. 
Biljf, ii. 217. 
Bijkh&d, i 226. 
Bfim&r, ii 231. 
Bljw6r, i 226. 
Bikrf. ii 242. 
Bikwan,i 111. 
Bilahbandij ii. 242. 
Bilaongi, ii. 242. 
Bild&r, i 294. 
Bilehma, i 3. 
Bilfr&m, i 12. 
Bilihariya, i 38. 
Billi-lo^an, ii. 242. 
Brimukta, ii. 24. 
Bilna, ii 389. 

Biloni, ii 352. 
BUdch, i 295. 
B1m&, ii. 231. 
Binahar, i. 229. 
Bin6r, ii. 360. 
Biiiaiil&, ii. 242. 
Binauriy&f ii. 242. 
Bind, i 287. 
Bind, ii. 231. 
Bin^ ii. 281. 
Bir, ii. 231. 
B£r&. ii. 231. 
Bir&r P6n^a, ii. 234. 
Birb&nt, ii. 232. 
Birheriyfr, i. 57, 70. 
BirinjphjU, ii. 243, 285. 
Bi]ii7&, i 57. 
Birkah, ii. 243. 
BCrk&na, ii. 242. 
Birmph&i^ i 18. 
Birpdria, i 159. 
BiiT&, ii 243. 
Birr&baiar, ii 24 f. 
Binraria, i 7. 
Birt, ii. 25 f. 
Birti7&, ii 26. 
Birw&, ii. 243. 
Birw&hl, ii. 243. 
BisahrCi, ii. 244. 
Bis&r, i 230 ff. 
Bisar, i. 226. 
Bis&ti, ii. 243. 
Bisen, i. 41 f. 
Biflharf, i 243. 
Bishnpritd&r, ii 243. 
BislMuiYi, i. 42 f, 302, 305. 
Bisbt, ii. 244. 
Bisht Neg(, i 293. 
BiBi, u. 38. 
BiBkhapra, ii 244. 
Biflsa, L 203, 305. 
Bissati, i. 298. 
Bisw&bar&r, ii. 26. 
Binr&d&rl, ii 26 f. 
BiBw6n8f, ii 201. 
Biswi, ii. 27. 
Bi(, ii 232. 
Bithak, ii. 244. 
Bitanrfr, ii. 244. 
Bitr&bandl, ii 244. ' 
Bo, ii. 244. 
Bo&l, ii. 244. 
Bo&r&, ii. 244, 247. 
Bob, ii 245. 
Bod&, ii. 245. 
Bodar, ii. 245. 
Bohndail, i 228. 
Bohr&, i 43 f. 
Boib&chh, ii 245. 

Boib, ii. 233, 245. 
Bcnbbat&i, ii. 245. 
Boka, i. 226 f. 
Boktu ii. 245, 300. 
Bokhsar, i 294. {8m 

B0I&, ii. 27. 
Bolans, ii. 27. 
Bolansf, ii 27. 
Bolahdfir, ii. 27 f. 
Boni, ii. 244. 
Bora, i 130. 
Bo^^ ii. 246. 
Boro, ii. 247. 
Brahma Bh&t, i 304. 
Br&hman, i. 166 ff, 283 ff, 

803, 319 ff. 
Braokha, ii. 819. 
Briniara, i. 52. 
BriUL, ii 31. 
BriU&ntpattar, ii. 32. 
B6d, ii. 245 f. 
Bdhar, i. 45. 
Bnjauti, ii. 288. 
Baih&iat, ii. 31. 
B6k, u. 246. 
B6k6r6, ii. 246. 
Bnkel, i 244. 
Bnkildn, i, 7. 
Bnlandi, ii. 246. 
Bun, ii. 245. 
Bdndel&, i, 45 ff; 79. 
Biknga, ii 246. 
Bdn^ ii 246. 
Bur, ii. 327. 
Bdr&, ii. 31. 
Bdrh Gang&, ii 28-31. 
Bnrida, ii. 246. 
Bnrji, i 325. 
Borri, ii 246. 
B768, i 174. 
Byohra, i. 327. 


Chabacha, ii. 277. 
Chah, ii 272. 
Chfthal, i 131. 
Chahal, ii 273. 
Chah&nhakha, ii 351. 
Ch&hi, ii 42 ff. 
Gh&hil, i. 58 f. 
Ch&hira, i. 58. 
Chahora, ii 273. 
Ghahli, ii. 272. 
Chahornft, ii 272 1 
Chail, ii. 278. 
Chailha, i 127. 
Chain, ii 278. 



Ohaiti, ii. 278. 
Chak, i. 120, 806. 
Chak, ii. 79. 
Ch&k, ii 260. 
Ck&kaii, ii. 44. 
Ghakanndi, ii. 273» 
Ghak Bai, i. 16. 
Chak bandi, ii 79. 
Cbakbar&r, ii 79. 
Chakki, u. 273. 
Chakkat, ii. 79. 
Ghakkat, ii 278. 
Chakli, ii. 80. 
Chakna, ii. 286. 
Ghakn&mah, ii 80. 
Chakol, ii 321. 
Ghakwa, ii. 369. 
Chakw&fn, i 69. 
Chakwaii4r ii 278. 
Chal&n, ii. 8a 
Ghaltf, ii. 273. 
Gham&in, i 71. 
Gham&r, i 69 fl; 16, 79 1 

Gbam&r Gaiir, i 71> 106. 
Ghambal, ii. 278. 
Ghampi, i. 299. 
Ghamr&wat, i 240. 
Ghanfr, ii. 274 1 
GhaiilLmiy&, i. 16, 77. 
Ghanchar, ii. 80, 276. 
Ghandft, ii. 276. 
Gh&nda, ii. 260. 
Ghan4&l, i. 79. 
GhandUiyib, i 71. 
Gh6ndam, i 69. 
Ghandela, i 76. 
Ghandani, i. 166. 
Ghandar8eni&, i 26. 
Ghandaull, ii 842. 
Ghandarbanai, i 73, 76, 

169 ff. 
Ghandw&r, i. 26. 
Ghandd, i 71-76, 164, 

171 f. 309 ff, 324. 
Ghandeli, ii. 276 f. 
Gbandey&y ii 276. 
Ghane^h, ii 276. 
Ghangel, ii. 276. 
Ghanl, ii. 274, 276. 
Ghanial, ii. 80. 
Ghaniyad^, ii. 80. 
Ghfrnk, i. 236, 286-289. 
Ghfin^ ii 260. 
Ghantrandi, i 11. 
Ghanw&n^.ii 276. 
Ghfcwal, ii. 261. 

Ghanwar, i 242. 
Gh&p, ii. 261. 
Ghaparya, i 166. 
Ghapeti, ii 288. 
Gh&pre, ii 261. 
Ghaprf, ii. 276. 
GhaprOda, ii 267. 
Ghapta, ii. 309. 
GhaptM, ii. 274. 
Ghftia, ii 261. 
Gbaraghan, i. 248. 
Ch6nm, i 18, 62 £ 
Ghana, ii. 277, 309. 
Gharhwl, ii. 80. 
Gharf , ii. 276 f. 
Charka, ii. 366. 
Gharkbi, ii. 260, 277. 
Gharni, ii. 277. 
Gharw&hi, ii 278. 
Ghfrflni, ii 233, 261. 
GhatbanOri, i 297. 
Ghatk&, ii. 288. 
Ghatrl, ii. 278. 
Ghan, ii. 270, 342. 
Ghaube, i 62, 146^ 161, 

286, 319 ff. 
Gbaub&chhft, ii. 46. 
Ghaubisg, ii. 46. 
Ghandbar&r, ii. 47. 
Ghaadhar&it, ii 47. 
Chandri, i. 306. 

Gbaiu^4^ ii< ^7. 

Ghauh&n, i 7, 11, 21, 26, 
48, 64 ff; 169 ff, 266, 
286ff, 301, 321, 331. 

Ghankar&, ii. 270. 

Ghank&, ii. 288. 

Ghatikazi, ii. 79. 

Ghaakh&, ii 270. 

GhauktiT, ii 270. 

Chaulk, ii 270. 

Ghaul&i, ii. 27U 

Ghaumfia, ii. 47. 

Ghaiimfi8&, ii. 47. 

Ghaomaaiyftt ii* 47. 

Ghauncha. ii. 291. 

Ghannhar Ganr, i 106. 

Gliannr&, ii 271. 

Ch&unri, ii 260. 

Ghaant&li, ii 271. 

Ghanp&l, ii 271. 

Ghaup&r, ii. 271. 

Gbaupatkbamb, i 177. 

Ghaur, ii. 271, 864. 

Chanr or Gbaunr, ii 47. 

Ghaur&ba, ii 271. 

GbaiiT&8(, ii 47-78, 299. 

Ghaiira8l&, i 321. 

Ghavral, ii 272. 

Ghana, u. 78, 272, S49. 
Ghaiuiiig1i&, ii. 272. 
Ghauthiyfr, u. 272. 
Ghaat&hfr, i 99. 
Ghaatrk, ii. 272. 
Ghawar, ii. 804. 
Gheche, i. 100. 
Ghenoh, ii. 262. 
Ghepi, i 296. 
Gherik, i 69-62, 167. 
Ghibhar, ii. 261. 
Ghichaia, ii. 267. 
Gbihai, ii. 268. 
Ghihani, ii. 268. 
Ghihe, i. 69. 
Ghihel, ii 266. 
Ghihra, ii. 262. 
Ghik, ii 26L. 
Ghikar, ii. 261. 
Ghhad6m, ii. 266. 
Ghhahkur, ii. 266. 
Ghhainiw&n, i 166. 
Ghhai, ii. 262, 307. 
Ghh&j, ii. 262. 
Ghh&kn&, ii. 262. 
Ghhakri, ii 266. 
Ghhakw&r, ii. 867. 
Ghh&nta, ii. 264. 
Ghh&p. ii 263. 
Ghhapa, i 226. 
Ghh&p&, ii. 268, 800. 
Ghh&r, ii. 268. 
Ghhari, i. 248. 
Ghha(&o, ii 266, 
Ghhatri, ii 266. 
Ghhattri, i 286 S, 32L 
Ghhatt6, ii 808. 
Ghhattfir, i 236, 289. 
Ghhaur, i 239. 
Ghhaur, ii. 266. 
Ghhed&, ii. 263. 
Ghheon&, ii 264. 
Ghherkya, i 97. 
Gbhida, ii. 268. 
Ghhik&i, ii. 264. 
Ghhilatya, i 79. 
GhhUk&, ii 264. 
Ghhfliir, i 181. 
Ghhimi, ii. 264. 
Ghhindd, i 78. 
Ghhlnkfr, u. 264. 
Ghhinta, ii 264. 
Ghhintab, ii 266. 
Ghhir, ii. 44. 
Ghhi(u§L, ii. 266. 
Ghhitii, ii. 266. 
Ghhokar, i. 99 t 
Ghhol&, ii 266. 
Ghholni, ii 266. 



OhhontilS, ii 825. 
OUior«hitthi, ii 44. 
Ghhoti Mai, ii 806. 
Ohhotluai&, i 100. 
Ghhiitaiiti, ii 44. 
Ghikat, ii. 251. 
GhiUiar, u. 268. 
Ohikharw&S, ii. 266. 
Chlkn&wat, ii 267. 
Ckdk^ ii 261. 
Ohilwfti u. 261, 267. 

GhiUVu- 267. 
Ghiman Qtm, i 108. 
ChimbuT, ii 267. 
Chin, u. 267, 819. 
Chink, ii. 262. 
Chir&i76, i 68. 
Ohir&r, i 61, 827. 
Chircfairk, ii 267. 
ChixchiUa, ii 267 1 
Ghiriyfc, ii. 842. 
Ghimiithi, ii 826. 
Ohite. ii 262. 
Ghitth&, ii 268. 
Chit(hi, ii. 44 f. 
Ghittf, ii 237. 
Ghittin, ii 267. 
Glhiw6n&, ii 268. 
Chobd&r, i 827. 
COioghetfa, i 806. 
Cholk, ii. 268. 
Chok&, a 268. 
Chonehf, ii 269. 
Choii46, ii 268. 
Chonwar, ii 849. 
Ch4mn&, ii. 270. 
Chat, ii 261, 270. 
Cho7&, ii. 268. 
Chtk&, ii 268. 
Chng&l, ii. 269. 
Chi&fk, i 6SL 85. 
Chn^addam, n. 186. 
Chuk&rlu ii 45. 
Chukat, li 45. 
Chiikaiit&, ii 45. 
Chnkzi, ii 45. 
ChiUa, i 62. 
Chnlat, i 111. 
Chnlll, ii 269. 
Chvllti, ii 269. 
ChAn, ii. 269. 
ChnnanauL i 156. 
Chfhieha, ii. 866. 
Chtmgal, ii 269. 
Chnngf, ii 45. 
OkA/S, ii 269. 
Chiburd, ii. 270. 


P&b, ii. 211, 278 f. 
Dfcbak, u. 279. 
DabU, i 298. 
P&bar, ii 279. 
P&bi, li. 279. 
Dabbi7&, U. 801. 
Babelul ii 292. 
Dabhe, 1. 112. 
Babrfc, ii 211, 292. 
Dabrf , ii 292. 
Dabfla, ii 278. 
Daoh, ii 292. 
Dadrl, ii. 292. 
D&en, i 240. 
Daftarl, ii. 292. 
Dagar, i 257 ; ii 298. 
D6h, i 201. 
Dahendi, ii 298. 
Dahima, i. 4. 
DahiT&, i. 88, 180. 
Dahi^ u. 298. 
Dahmardft, ii 298. 
Dahr, ti. 298. 
Dahrf, ii. 298. 
Dahlftn, i 88. 
Bahnlml, ii. 284. 
Dahotar&, ii 156. 
Dahsaimf. ii 146. 
Dahyek, u. 284. 
Dftin, ii. 81. 
Daij&, i 249 ff. 
D61iff&, ii 279. 
D&khfl6, ii 81. 
D&khili, ii 18. 
B&UuInftma, ii. 81. 
Pakant, i 88, 152, 396, 

BU, ii. 279. 
P6],i227; ii.279f. 
Dal, ii. 280. 
BallO, i 80, 88, 180. 
Dalimk i 88. 
Pa^&jti&r, i 247, 270, 

Da]gaiijan4, ii. 285, 895 
DtahftrfiL ii 295. 
DaUyCu 1 227 ; ii 295. 
D&m, u. 81. 
Samaf, ii 290. 
Damb&li, ii 851. 
Dftmcha, ii. 280. 
D&mi w&riliit, ii 81. 
Damkfc, ii. 295. 
P&mar, ii 280. 

Dmnuidlr, L247f. 
Bfijui, ii 295 f; 800. 
Damwasi i 89. 
D6nabaiidf , u. 81 1 
Dfcnad&r, ii 82. 
Pao^, ii. 280. 
P6iLd4, ii. 296 f. 
DaodaTe^ i 97. 
Dandela, ii. 839. 
Dandali ii 821. 
pCtnflTu. 297. 
Pan^wlffa, ii. 297. 
Pand&saiif , i 248 f. 
D&ng, ii 280. 
P&ngar, ii 281. 
D611R i. 77, 95. 
D&ngr6, a 280. 
Bangwal, i. 293. 
Paxigw6za, n. 297. 
D6npattar, ii. 82. 
DanpatUurdftr, ii 82. 
P&nth, ii. 281. 
Banihal, a 297, 298. 
Pantfal&, ii. 297. 
Dant&oli, a 297. 
Dfaitl, a 28h 
D&nw&D, a 281. 
Dftnwail, a 281, 800. 
D&o^ a 281. 
D&ona, i 240. 
Dkphj a 288. 
Bar, a 155. 
I)art]i&, i 225. 
Dar&mad, a 156. 
Darinti, u. 297. 
Darar, a 298. 
Darfcwi, i 229. 
Dariiwar, i 244. 
Darbandi, a 156. 
Dai«s, a 298. 
Daridr khednft, i 241. 
Dariy&bar&mad, a 156. 
Dariy&bttftr, a 156. 
Dariy&biud, a 156. 
Dariy&ahikast, ii, 156. 
Darkhikl, a 298. 
DfatL, a 281. 
Danl, i 19i 295. 
D6a, a 281 ff. 
Dto6, a 288. 
Daaanndhi, i 19. 
Dastdr, a 82-146. 
Dartdrnl-'aml, a 156 1 
Datara, a 299. 
Datoi, a 298. 
DattiaiL i 112. 
Bafna, li 287. 

TOL. n. 




Danl, ii. 166. 
J^mlk, ii. 299. 
Daii]igr&, ii. 299. 
Dttor, ii. 800. 
Jhxttk, ii. 228. 
Daiir6h&, ii. 800. 
Daui, L 227 ; ii. 800. 
Dfcwan, L 242. 
D&waxa. iL 288. 
DiLwl, ii. 146. 
Dede, i. 100. • 
Deht& J&t, i. 800. 
DehfUa, ii 286. 
Debif, ii. 284. 
Pel, ii. 284. 
Dem&i, i. 162. 
Pemr&nt, L 77. 
Benffi, iL 802. 

Deodhan, ii. 286. 

Deokala, ii 286. 

Peorh6, ii. 146, 162. 

Deorhiy&, L 280. 

Deoth&n, i. 248, 247. 

Dei, iL 146-161. 

Desi J&t, i. 800. 

DeswU, L 77, 806, 816. 

Penlfr, iL 284. 

Dhiibriphal, u. 217. 

Dh64&, ii. 288. 

Vha446L, u. 289. 

9W4if ii* 289. 

Dh6]iim&, L 77. 

Dh6i, L 229. 

Dliai&, L 244 f. 

Ph&k, L 248. 

Ph&ka, L 243. 

Dh&kar&, L 78, 828, 886. 

DbydLfr, L 243 1 

Dhakolia, i. 146. 

D11&1&, ii 161. 

Dhamli, iL 162. 

Dh&maii, ii. 284. 

DhfrmiyftiLi. 48, 78. 

Dhammal-Kheln6, L 248. 

Dhioi, ii. 284 f. 

Dhi&na, ii. 286 f. 

Phandhoif ii. 289. 

Dhandel, i. 79. 

Dhangal, L 78. 

ph&iigar, i. 16. 

Dhangra, L 21. 

Dliaiii&, u. 289. 

Dhankar, ii. 289 f. 

Dhanoi, L 181. 

Dhanthi7&, iL 290. 

Dhftnuk, L 78^82,181, 
144, 826. 

Dhanwaiyi^ L 79. 

Dh&p, ii. 286. 
Dliapifr, ii. 290. 
Phar, iL 286. 
Dhaxah, iL 158. 
DliaraUi&, L 229 ; ii. 290. 
Dharallfc, L 229 ; iL 290. 
Dhaiam, L 108. 
Dharauki, iL 163. 
Dhar&wal, ii. 290. 
Dli6rb&chh, u. 161. 
Dh&rdham&, iL 286, 290 
Dh6zdli6rt, iL 162. 
Dharl, ii. 168. 
Dharingft, iL 290. 
Dhaifival, L 181. 
Dhariy4n&, iL 290 
Dlianngaiur,L 82. 
Dharohar. iL 290. 
Dharti, ii, 168. 
Dliartf, ii. 290. 
Dharw&i, L 82. 
Dhaaam, iL 291. 

Dhaaaa, ii. 291. 

Dhaa&n, ii. 291. 

Dhaa&o, iL 291. 

DhaMM, L 162, 286. 

Dhaul, u. 289, 818 t 

Dhanla, ii, 822. 

Dhaani, ii. 288. 

Dhaur, ii. 289. 

Dhanrf, iL 168, 808, 288. 

Phe, L 80, 126, 131 ff. 

Phek, iL 287. 

Dhen, ii. 287. 

Dhengftr, L 120. 

pheiLka, iL 287. 

Phenki, ii. 287. 

Phenkli, u. 261, 287. 

Phenii, ii. 287 f. 

Dheokal, iL 287. 

Pheri, iL 287. 

Dher. iL 286. 

Pherh. L 80 f. 

Dheear, L 228. 

DhS, iL 286. 

Ph(h&, iL 286, 291. 

Dhlmak, L 224. 

Dhimar, L 80, 182, 287. 

Dhingft, iL 287. 

Dhinka, ii. 861. 

PhinUuuy ii. 286. 

Phirhor, L 81. 

Dhobf, I 81 f, 183, 192, 

DI10J&, L 246. 

DboVa, ii. 287. 

Pboka, ii. 287 1 

Bhokhk, L 229, 244. 

Dholfc, iL 824. 
Phok, iL 289. 
phoU, L 97. 
Dlionch<^ ii. 162 1 
J>hxm^ ii. 288. 
Phon^h, ii. 288. 
PhonA u. 288. 
Dhor6, ii. 289. 
Pht&&, L 244. 
Phdli&, L 229, 244. 
DhfH, iL 288. 
Dhtlmar, iL 819. 
Phdn^i, ii. 288 1 
Dhundho^i, i. 82. 
Dhii]ii&, L 192. 
Dhir, iL 163. 
Dhnrfc, ii. 163. 
DhtSrkat, ii. 163. 
Dhiu, iL 289. 
DhtSsar, L 286, 294. 
Dichhit^ L 77, 146, 880. 
Dig, ii. 291. 
Dighelya, L 181. 
Dighf, iL 291. 
Digw6r, L 88. 
pm, iL 283. 
Plhk ii. 283. 
Dikindah, u. 284. 
DihiUa, iL 288. 
Dikhit, L 83. 
Dlkhit, L 77, 87, ll«t 

162, 171, 176. 
Dfl, iL 291. 
Dflbaysa, iL 286. 
Dilwaiia, L 826. 
Dimar, L 21. 
Dipd6n, L 242. 
Dirhor, i. 4. 
Diah^bandhak, L 227 ; 

ii. 164. 
Diflw6r, L 3. 
Dithwan, i. 246 ff. 
Dlw&r, L 242 f. 
Diy6r&, ii. 283. 
Dobfadft, iL 293. 
Dobiflwf, ii. 164. 
Do6ii, iL 334. 
Debar, iL 349. 
Dobard&, ii. 293. 
Dobrf, ii. 237. 
Docba, ii. 291, 334. 
Dofiuli, L 199; iL 164, 

Dogar, i. 88 t 
Doghia, i. 84. 
Doh&o, iL 801. 
Debar, L 70; ii. 292, 801. 
DebU, ii. 166. 
Dobni, iL 293, 862. 



Dobra, iL 801. 

Dohri, ii. 166. 

Dohur, iL 301.. 

Doia, ii. 261. 

Doiira, iL 286, 301. 

Bokhl, ii 301. 

Pol, ii. 302. 

I)ol&WB, ii 302. 

Polchi, iL 302. 

Pom, L 84 (287, 296^302. 

Poma^ ii. 302. 

Bomra, L 84. 

Domtikftr, L 86. 

Domimhi, iL 366» 

Don, iL 166. 

Pongi, ii. 302. 

Ponwftr, L 86 f. 

Dopaira, ii. 302. 

Dor, iL 304. 

Por, L 89, 87 f, 171. 

Doras, iL 299. 

PoTl, ii. 299. 

Dosadh Brfthman, L 162 

Doeari^ ii. 299. 

DosfJii, L 272; iL 164, 

292, 299. 
Doflal, iL 292. 
Dr&Yir, L 160^ 301. 
D6b, iL 302 f. 
P6b61. ii. 303 t 

284 ff. 336. 
Pabai, ii. 304. 
Dabflf, iL 164. 
DlSdb6, iL 286, 304. 
Dfidbf, ii. 286. 
Pa^&, ii. 304. 
Dugdi, ii. 366. 
Dngdbi, L 86 f. 
Ddgla, iL 227, 300, 304. 
Doffugia, i. 21. 
Diiibl, ii. 164. 
Diiileria, ii. 366. 
D<bn&, ii. 306. 
Dtin, iL 306. 
Pdn4&, ii. 306. 
Dimdk&, ii. 306. 
Pthig4, ii. 306. 
Dimg6xii, ii. 166. 
Ddnkharcba, iL 286. 
D6iir, i. 3. 
Dtlnwaril^ L 21. 
Dnigbansi, L 87. 
Dnrkbi, iL 304. 
Bona, L 803, 306. 

SkfudS, iL 847. 

Ekftali, L 199; ii. 848. 
Ekriri, iL 349. 
Kndhna, ii. 869. 


Fakir, L 296. 
Faisala, u. 160. 
F61ez, ii. 306. 
Far&B, iL 306. 
Fard, iL 167, 347. 
Fardbfd, u. 347. 
F6rigbkbat&Ba, iL 167. 
F&rigbkbattl, iL 167. 
Fann&n, ii. 167. 
Farod, ii. 167 f. 
Farr6flb, ii. 306. 
Farr&di, ii. 168. 
Fasl, ii. 168 1 
Fantfn&ma, ii. 167. 
Frbpftya, ii. 277. 
Fir&il, ii. 306. 
Fota, a 306. 


Oabr, L119f. 
Oabraiir&, iL 313. 
Oabrau(6, ii. 313. 
Oacbb, a 160. 
Gftebbi, u. 307* 
G&d, u. 307. 
Ga4, a 313. 
O&dar, a 307. 
GMar, a 307. 
G&^y&i i 120 t, 182, 

287, 296, 316. 
Gaddar, a 318, 307. 
Ga4&Br, a 320. 
Gaddi, L 120 ; a 307, 318. 
Gaddhii, a 313. 
Gadgol, a 313. 
Gadhe k& b&l, L 268 f. 
Gadbe par cbarb&na, L 

269 f. 
Gadhw&r, L 171. 
G&41, a 321. 
Gadlcbat, a 313. 
Gadka, L 249. 
G6gr6, L 89, 296. 
Gahai, a 313 f. 
G6b&n, a 307. 
Gab&r. ii. 833. 
Gaharw&r, L 46 ( 83, 87, 

121-124, 177. 
Gahlot,L90ff,109, 170ff. 

823, 836. 
GfOmft, a 307. 

Gahnfc, a 314. 
Gai-latana, L 248. 
Gairft, a 338. 
Gfj&, a 807 t 
Gft^ar, a 308. 
Ganar, a 314. 
G&kar, a 311. 
G&l, a 308. 
G&la, a 308. 
GaUyk, a 314. 
Gattaaa, a 314. 
Gatt6r, a 314. 
G&m, a 308. 
Gand, L ISO. 
Ganauri, a 319. 
Ga]i4&, a 316 f, 327. 
Gftn44, a 210, 308. 
Gandft-biroia, a 317. 
Gandaa&, a 318. 
Gandal, a 308. 
Gandar, a 271. 
G&n^ar, a 308. 
Gan^arwAlft, ii. 817. 
Ga^&ai, a 317, 320. 
Gan^&B&, ii. 320. 
Gand&war, a 300. 
Gftade, a 210. 
Gandbarb, L 162. 
Gandbeli, a 842. 
Gandbilft, i. 126. 
Ga]ldhi7i^ a 318. 
Gandbn, a 317. 
Gan^A, L 126, 131. 
Gandr&^^ a 317. 
Gandw&l, L 4. 
Ganal, a 319. 
Gang&U, a 318. 
Gang&pQtr, L 126, 162. 
GaDgbar&inad, a 318. 
Gaiigbar4r, a 318. 
Gang abikaat^ a 818. 
Gangrlui, L 298. 
Gangwaii, L 166. 
Gani {gojanj), a 319. 
Ganj, 11. 818. 
Gftnia, a 308 ff. 
Ganjell, a 318. 
G4niar, ii. 310. 
G4]ikar,a241, 311. 
Ganka^, a 818. 
Gannft, a 210. 
Oan^bi, a 320. 
Gftnfb, a 311 f. 
Ganthll, u. 327. 



Ganthw&ra, i. 126, 180, 

6&nwi>at, ii. 160. 
O&nw kharclia, ii. 160. 
Gtow^i, ii. 160 f. 
Oapnrfii, ii. 866. 
Gi^ ii. 320. 
Q«f6 batU, ii. 170, 320. 
Q6ra or Garhi, i. 89 f. 
Qiitih, ii. 821. 
Oaraiyiu i. 70. 
GaHu>, ii 320. 
Gftoli, ii. 321. 
GararS, ii. 320. 

GMsi, ii- 817. 
Gar&war, ii. 800. 
G6ri, ii 321. 
Gar^aimia, ii. 320. 
Gaidezi, i. 125 f. 
Gareran, ii. 317, 820. 
Garerf, u. 817. 
Gaigaw&, ii. 320 f. 
Gaig, i. 126, 146. 
Gargbansi, i. 16, 77, 126. 
G4rna, i. 295, 298. 
Ga|'haiyf^ ii. 211. 
Garhel&,ii. 211. 
Garhai, ii. 837. 
Gaphi, u. 887. 
Garhiband, ii. 170 f. 
Garili, ii. 260, 820. 
Garrai, i. 152. 
Gaxii, ii. 260, 265,820,887. 
Gaahti. ii. 338. 
Gfc^, u. 322. 
G&ta, il 314. 
Giitlibandi, ii. 161 f. 
G&iew&r, ii. 162. 
Gaihft, ii. 162. 
Gaihannd, ii. 388. 
Ga^iyk, ii. 338. 
Gathi, ii. 807. 
Gatbi, ii. 338. 
Ga(liw&ii8i, ii. 838. 
Gatknl, ii. 162. 
Gatir&r&, i. 8, 126. 
Gauchanfii, ii. 331 f. 
Glincharfti, ii. 321. 
Gauh&n, ii. 161. 
Gauhfrni, ii. 332. 
Ganndl, iL 210. 
Gaimt&, ii. 161. 
Ga^nii7f^ ii. 161. 
Gaur, 1. 151, 171, 175, 

284 ff. 
Gaurii, i 102. 
Gaur&har, i. 115. 
Gauf brahman, i. 102 f. 
Gaur k&yath, 108 f. 

Gavr r&jptit, i. 104 ff. 

Ganr tagik, i. 106-115. 

Gaumah, i. 172. 

Gautamiy&ii, i. 119. 

Gautam r&jpdt, i. 5, 58, 
76, 115-119, 166, 179 f, 
273 f, 296 ; ii. 50 ff, 77. 

Gaii^k&, ii. 161. 

Graiira&., i. 115. 

Gay&l, ii. 162. 

Gay&ri, ii. 338. 

Gas, ii. 162, 801. 

Gehdn, u. 322. 

Gentfi, i. 92. 

Gh&i, ii. 269, 326. 

Ghair munkin, 166 f. 

Ghair mazrd'ah, u. 168. 

GhaUa, u. 325. 

Ghameta, i. 156. 

Ghamoi, ii 368. 

Gh6n&, ii. 323. 

Ghan&, ii. 263, 326. 

Ghand, i 94. 

Ghanghas, i. 94, 130. 

Ghangol, ii. 826. 

Gh&nl, ii. 323. 

Gh&r, ii. 323. 

Ghar&, ii. 326. 

Gharar, ii. 326. 

Gharari, ii. 319. 

Ghaitlw6rl, ii. 162. 

Gh&ri, u. 323. 

Ghari, u, 163. 

Gharki, ii 326. 

Ghaipatti, ii. 163. 

Gharphant, ii 163. 

Gharw6na, ii. 163. 

Gh6t&nf, ii. 163. 

Ghaita Bania, i. 298. 

Gb&zi mlY&n, i. 251-254. 

Gheffar6, i. 254, 288 

Ghelaimi, i 255, 267. 

Ghenti, ii. 254, 288, 828. 

Gheri, u. 339. 

Ghikar, ii. 163. 

Ghinkfr, ii. 263. 

Gbittri, ii. 288. 

Ghonghi, ii. 323 f. 

Ghor&, ii. 164 ff. 

Gborcharh&, i. 93, 156. 

GhoBi, i. 98, 295. 

Ghotl, ii. 325. 

Gh6i, ii. 324. 

Gham&o, ii. 166. 

Ghan, ii. 324. 

Ghmi^i, ii. 324. 

Ghnngchl, ii. 324 f. 

Gbangi, ii. 325 f. 

Gh(mmy&n, U. 221. 

Ghtfni, u. 164. 

Ghiir, ii. 325, 332. 

Ghurat, ii. 325. 

Ghtfrbar&r, ii. 164. 

Ghnr-diib, ii. 303. 

Ghusr&nd, ii 825. 

Gilannda, u. 335. 

GiU6,i 131. 

Gindar, u. 326. 

Gin^uri, ii 326, 859. 

Ginti, ii. 327. 

Girftni, ii. 327. 

Gir6ri, ii. 339. 

Gird, i. 4. 

Giid&warS, ii 167. 

Girdi, ii. 311. 

Girii, u. 327. 

Giro, ii 327. 

Girr&, u. 320. 

Girwl, ii. 327ff. 

Girwln&mah, ii. 329. 

Go&l, ii 329. 

Gobar, u. 261. 

Gobaraunda, ii 813. 

Gobrf , i. 94. 

Gochani, ii. 331. 

God&r&, i 94, 130, 140. 

Go4arl, ii. 333, 359. 

Godhfit, ii. 308. 

Go^bar, ii. 332. 

Oodl, i 203. 

Goen4, ii. 34, 333. 

Gogi pir, i 255 ff. 

Gog&wat, i. 256. 

Goh&i, ii 333. 

Gohan, i 321. 

Gk)h&ii, ii. 34. 

Gobar, i. 257. 

Gob&ri, ii. 333. 

Goln, ii. 333. 

Goi&, ii. 333. 

Goiai, ii. 333 t 

Goiar&, ii. 333. 

Gojari, ii. 334. 

Gojb&, ii. 333. 

Goii, ii. 334. 

Gokbr6, ii. 334. 

Gol, ii. 334. 

Gola, ii. 167 ff. 

Golfii, i. 94; 257 f. 

Gol& pdrab, i 94 f, 152, 

Goli, i. 21 ; ii. 309. 
Goii4,i4, 95-98,287,804. 
Gond, ii. 334. 
Gon^i, i. 99. 
Gonr&, ii 300, 334. 
Gondal, i 136. 
Gonnft, ii. 318 f. 



OontiT&, iL 169. 

GopasDtami, i. 25S. 

Gophana, ii. 330. 

Gor&, iL 330. 

Gorait, ii. 330. 

Gorasi, ii. 331. 

Gorh&, ii. 331. 

Goni, i. 100. 

Got Th6bir, L 310 ff, 833. 

Gorfi, ii. 331. 

Gosa, ii. 261. 

GoBsr, i. 81. 

Goe6in, i. 289, 296. 

Got, ii 331. 

Gotam Tli&kiir, i. 312. 

Goth6n, ii 331. 

Gow6ri, iL 313. 

Gr&m, iL 820. 

Gnhasth, u. 167. 

Grihasihi, ii. 167. 

Gndri, ii. 335. 

G6jar, i. 6, 68, 76, 99- 

102, 166, 179^ 2731; 

296,298; iL50ff, 77. 
Giqarliti, i. 151, 303. 
GAiar-ganr, L 102. 
G&l, ii. 255, 335. 
Gol&l, iL 335. 
Gul&li. ii. 273. 
G(]lar, L 254 ; ii. 336. 
Gnlkh&r, u. 335. 
GuUi, ii. 210. 
Giilphi]naiL&, ii. 335. 
Giilti,ii. 335. 
Gtlma, iL 336. 
Giiiij6i8h,ii. 169. 
G6n^ ii. 386. 
Gnr, ii. 336. 
Gnrab, ii. 330. 
Gur&o, iL 336 f. 
Gurazi, ii. 359. 
Gurari, ii. 330. 
GurbhaS, iL 337. 
Gnrhaur, ii. 330. 
GiiTd&, u. 337. 
Giirdachhn&, ii. 169. 
Gnrlial, ii. 332. 
Gnrkhai, iL 169 f. 
Gnptdftn, L 258. 
Gntwa, iL 366. 
Gw6l or GW&1&, L 99. 
Gw&lbanfl^ L 3. 


Hab6b&t, ii. 172. 
Had, ii. 172. 
Hadbandi, ii. 172 1 

Hadbast, ii. 340. 
Ha]j&m,L 182, 1891; 295. 
Hak&ni&, ii. 340. 
Ha^iyat, u. 174. 
Ha^^ ii. 174. 
Ha^ bbent, U. 174. 
Haft haw&lad6r, iL 174. 
Haft kaminch&ri, iL 174. 
Haft thokd&ri, u. 174 f. 
Haft zamind&ri, iL 175. 
HU, ii. 171. 
Hal« ii. 340. 
H&I&, ii, 171. 
Hal&it6, i. 261. 
9al61khor, i. 32, 62, 127. 
Halas, ii. 344. 
Halbar&r, L 261. 
Halbandi, iL 173. 
Hald&, iL 343. 
H61i, ii. 171, 338. 
Haliy&k, iL 343. 
Halft, iL 173. 
Hals&ri, u. 173 f. 
Hal8ote&, L 270. 
Halta^ iL 343. 
H&l tanzi', ii. 171. 
9alw&i, L 127. 
Hanaa, ii. 344. 
Haii4&, ii. 344. 
Hanwat, L 242. 
H&par, ii. 338. 
Har, iL 340-343. 
H&r, iL 172. 
HM, i. 63, 126. 
Har&l, L 270 ; iL 844. 
Haras, iL 342, 344. 
Haraini, L 270. 
Harfdt, L 270. 
Haraf, iL 346. 
Haratknl, L 128. 
Haraat&, L 270. 
Haranri, iL 345. 
Harbong k& rftj, L 261- 

Hardanr, L 242, 269. 
Hardeb4, L 127. 
Hardw68, L 127. 
Harghasit, iL 344. 
Hark&, iL 344 t 
Harbameah, iL 175. 
Hail, L 269. 
H&ri, L 199. 
Hari R&m, L 242. 
Harft&, L 270. 
Hariyar, L 247, 270. 
Hadyft, iL 347. 
Haijina, ii. 845. 
Hanhobani^ L 127. 

Hariyfcnw^ iL 175. 
Hark&ra, iL 345. 
Harkat, iL 345 
H&r lenfr, iL 839. 
Harp&ji, L 270. 
Harri, L 131. 
Harsa, ii. 321. 
Harsin^, ii. 846. 
Hanajj&, ii. 346. 
Haisot, iL 346. 
Harw6li&, iL 847. 
Harwal, L 270. 
Harwati L 270. 
Hasbo minb&i. ii. 175. 
Hasiyi, iL 347. 
Hastobtfd, ii. 175 1 
H&ta, ii. 339. 
Hatbfr, ii. 342. 
H&thlchak, iL 339. 
Hathicbinghar, iL 334. 
Ha^bil, L 270 f. 
Haibili, iL 342. 
Hatt&, iL 347. 
Hanli, iL 340. 
Hayeli, iL 83. 
Haw61ad6r, iL 176. 
Hayobana, i. 60, 128. 
H&zir s&min, ii. 172. 
Hel&, i. 82, 126. 
Hel6 J6t, L 800. 
Hele, L 127. 
Hengft, iL 339. 
Heri, L 127, 296. 
Hibad&r, ii. 176. 
Hiban&ma, ii. 176. 
Hir&n&, L 260. 
Hirankhnzi, ii. 839 f. 
Hinad&ri, u. 176 
Hina hfcll, ii. 176. 
Hiasait, iL 177. 
Hina kashi, iL 177. 
Hi^b&, ii. 339. 

Ho9t&t ii- 152. 
Huda, L 223. 
Hadi, L 8. 
Hnlbnl, iL 840. 
Hvn^ ii. 840. 
Hureba, i. 228. 
Hnrbura, ii. 840. 
H(!iriy6,L 127. 
Hdiaft, iL 2S8. 


Ijm&li, ii. 177. 
lkb&€hbi, iL 177. 
IlLb, iL 347. 
I'khrkj, L 271 £ 



IkotrfL, or Ekotr^ u. 177* 

nUii gas, iL 177 f. 
'D&kaditr, iL 178. 
Tnclk, ii. 177. 
Iikfimk, ii. 848. 
fndoliA, i. 828. 
In^mi, ii. 848, 869. 
loglia, ii. 178. 
Ir£da, ii. 848. 
Uband, ii. 848. 
Iniiw6r, ii 848. 
Ifti'mU, ii. 178-186. 
LrtaUCa, ii. 848. 
Iitikrtr, ii. 848. 
Iitikba i. 272. 
mUf, u. 186. 
Itl&^ nATii, if. 186. 
Itat, u. 848. 
Is&&, iL 849. 


Jib, u. 849. 

Jabdi, n. 284, 862. 

J&bi, ii. 849. 

JTa^han, ii. 362. 

J&do, L 128. 

Jfcdon, L 128 f, 99, 172 ( 

JadnbaiiBi, L 3, 15, 171. 
J^6d, ii. 186. 
Jag6, L 141. 
Jftg&, L 18. 304. 
Jftgabh&t, L 18. 
Jaganbansi, L 141. 
Jfiglfcin, L 130. 
Jagneri, L 11. 
Jagni, ii. 362. 
Jagreii, L 297. 
Jiiil, u. 349. 
J&is, L 129 f, 172. 
Jain, L 289. 
Jaiiw&r, L 70, 79, 129, 

144 I 156. 
Jaiy&t ii. 245. 
Jajmfcii, ii. 362. 
Jdkar, L 272. 
J&khan, ii. 349. 
Jftkhar, L 130. 
Jal, iL 363. 
Jala, ii. 368. 
Jalfd, L 21. 
Jal6U7&, u. 822, 368. 
Jal6fla, ii. 868. 
Jidi, ii. 349. 
Jalkar, u. 363. 
Jalm, U. 363. 

alnim, iL 868. 

alotaarg, L 278. 

alpllbiSa, iL 863. 

al pfpal, iL 868. 

alwar, L 21. 

ami, ii. 187. 

amaiyfr, iL 864. 


am&iharti, iL 188. 

am& Kharcb, ii. 188. 

amanni, ii. 362. 

ami wfrsU hUfl, iL 188. 

ami, L 306. 

amnan^ ii. 188. 

am]iaaii7&, iL 188. 

amog, iL 189. 

amogd&r, iL 189. 

•■IOW&, ii. 364. 

amftwat, ii. 864. 

andanlija, L 141. 

andit, li. 864. 

anewfc, iL 364. 

angan, L 289. 

angh&ri^ L 141 ff; 814. 

angira, L 19. 

an^ri, iL 366. 

Miliaria, L 4. 

ankar, i. 292. 

kaU ii. 260. 

int&, ii. 288, 860. 

antii, ii. 366. 

an6tdrw&, L 143. 

anwfcr, L 143. 

anwarijfii, i. 143. 

ar&itfc, i. 138, 143. 

arothi, L 143, 146. 

arela, iL 366. 

aig&, ii. 366. 

axib, iL 189 f. 

aribkash, ii. 866. 

ariti, ii. 366. 

arijft, L 143. 

aprai ii. 366. 

arwaria, L 4. 

anri, ii. 366. 

as&wat, i. 144, 328. 

as&war, L 144. 

&^ i. 134 ff. 

M, L 6, 8, 88, 180-137, 
166, 179f,278f;296ff, 
806, 318 f; iL48ff,77. 

atar, iL 366. 

ate^ iL 366. 

k%h, iL 360. 

atli, L 100, 137. 

atr&ni, L 130 f, 144. 

&tr&, ii. 360. 

Atd, L 138. 

&ia&, L 70, 138. 

Jan, iL 360 f. 
Janchani, iL 333, 861. 
Jaonil, iL 861 f. 
Jannltr, ii. 360. 
Jannohi, ii. 362. 
Jannda, iL 280. 
Jaimdi, iL 866. 
Jannia, ii. 362. 
Jaw&li, ii. 866. 
JawanplirijiL, L 144 f. 
Jaw6r, iL 866 f. 
Jaw&ra, iL 367. 
Jawftri, iL 367. 
Jaw6iia, ii. 367 f. 
Jaw&a, iL 368. 
Jityi, ii. 282. 
Jasar, u. 868 f. 
Jariya, iL 190-198. 
Jegbar, L 272. 
Jehar. i. 272 f. 
Jel, iL 860. 
Jdi, ii. 360 f. 
Jen^ ii. 361. 
Jeonftr, ii. 361. 
Jeorit, L 273. 
Jeori, ii. 362. 
Je^ la'iyat, ii. 186. 
Jewan but, iL 26, 186. 
Jew&r, L 138. 
Jh&bar, ii. 362. 
Jbabrfr, ii. 366. 
JbabbGi, u. 366. 
Jhad, ii. 362. 
Jb&4&, iL 362. 
JhajharkA, ii. 366 t 

Jbiikaif. iL 362. 
Jbakori^ iL 366. 
Jbalftr, iL 366. 
Jbftm, ii. 862. 
Jhamfcka, ii. 366. 
Jbaniarjbainar, iL 366. 
JhamjlLam, ii. 366. 
Jbanaaar, ii. 286. 
Jban4&, ii. 366. 
Jban^i, ii. 366. 
Jba94(il&, ii. 366. 
Jb&n^, u. 362. 
Jbaniii, ii. 366. 
JhaiiKhar&, iL 366. 
Jb&]i8&,ii. 186 il 
Jhar, ii. 367. 
Jbarberi, ii. 367. 
Jhari,L 166; ii. 211. 
Jh6ri, iL 363. 
Jhkfi, u. 368. 
Jbarkband Tswar, L 242. 
Jbarotfr, iL 368. 
Jbani&,iL 3671 
Jh&B, i. 28. 



JMiytoft, i. 189. 
Jh&ti, ii 363. 
Jhaawft, ii. 366. 
Jh&war, ii. 363. 
Jhil, ii. 863. 
Jhinjar, L 138. 
Jliiii ii. 363. 
Jhoffhi, i. 296. 
Jhiihk, u. 364. 
Jli6hi, ii. 364. 
Jhemg&, ii. 364. 
Jlidnii, ii. 187. 
Jhfin^iar, U. 366. 
Jli6p&, ii. 866. 
Jh^fc, ii. 366. 
Jhdna, i. 70. 
J1iti(i76]i&, i. 139. 
Jhw&Bi, i. 162. 
Jhojh&, i 138 f, 296, 298. 
Jhoi1»ir6, ii. 363. 
Jhokand, ii. 863. 
Jhola, ii. 363. 
Jhonaiyfr, i. 139, 166. 
Jhonka^fii, ii. 364. 
Jhor6, li. 366. 
Jih&t,iL 360. 
Jijhoiiya, L 139, 146, 149, 

Jindhar, i. 100. 
Jinhar, i. 139. 
Jinjtita, i. 140. 
JinB, ii. 368. 
Jin8-i-k6inil, ii. 187. 
Jinsw&r, ii. 187. 
Jira, ii. 360. 
Jiri&, ii. 286, 368. 
Jit&patr, ii. 360. 
Jiter&, i. 196, 272. 
Jitta, i. 272. 
JinyB, ii. 187. 
Jog, ii. 368. 
Jogi, i. 289. 
Jogioia, ii. 366. 
Johar, ii. 211, 368. 
Johiyi, i. 140. 
Joklfci, ii. 368. 
Jondhri, iL 866. 
Jonk, iL 262. 
Jori, ii. 360. 
Josh&ndar, ii. 286. 
Joebi, L 140 if 303, 321. 
Jot, ii. 360. 
Jot6, ii. 360. 
Jot&r, ii. 860. 
Jotan, ii. 360. 
Joti, ii. 300. 
Jotiyi, iL 860. 
J6&, iL 342, 369. 

Ja6r, iL 362. 
Jugfid gaiqr, L 140. 
Jtigad, L 108. 
Jug&dl, L 140. 
Jngftlnfr, ii. 369. 
Jdi, ii. 326, 369. 
J(ila, iL 187. 

J4n&, ii. 369. 
J6iiaidiy&, L 12. 
Jtai, iL 360. 
J6r&, iL 369. 
Jarom&ri, ii. 369. 
JnrlO, ii. 326. 
Jtiri, L 273. 
Jurim&na, ii. 366. 
Jut&, iL 300, 369. 
Jfith&li, ii. 164, 292, 860. 
J6tiyfiii, u. 369 f. 
J6tiy&l, i. 68, 140. 
J&tiy&ri, iL 347. 

Eaoh&l4, iL 221. 
Kaolihaiir&, L 167. 
K&chhi, i. 16, 146 ( 181 1, 

287, 824 ; ii. 43. 
Kachhw&ha, L 38 ff, 146 ff, 

167 ff, 163, 171 f, 324, 

328, 336. 
Kachhw6r, L 169. 
Kftchf , i. 324. 
Kachin, L 166. 
Kaohwfoui, ii. 200 f. 
Kad&han, i. 100. 
Kadh, ii. 342. 
Kadhauni, ii. 362. 
Kadhelar6, L 276. 
Fadiain, L 130. 
K6gasi, L 296. 
Kahftl, iL 226. 
K&h6r, L 36, 287, 293 ff, 

326 ; iL 10. 
Kah&il, L 40, 182. 
Eahchar&i, iL 321. 
Kailea, i. 19. 
KUm Kh&ni, L 83. 
Kainchft, iL 364. 
Kaiihal, L 103. 
Kaiyfrn, L 44, 70, 84. 
KUa, ii. 286. 
E&16ganda, ii. 819. 
Eal&^ L 144, 287, 296. 
Kftl&aiirtha, ii. 319. 
Eal&wat, L 192. 
Kaldhawna, ii. 286. 

Kalijfr, ii. 286. 

Kail Sen, L 242. 

Kaln&n, L 99 ff. 

Kalfliright, L 306, 826. 

Kalwfcr, L 183. 

Kamanfar, L 296. 

KamanytL, i. 3, 328. 

Eamaura, ii. 284. 

Kamboli, L 294, 304. 

Eameih]lLa,L 169. 

Kamin, ii. 174. 

KaniAfiL, L 100. 

Kanaodha, i. 3. 

Kaiiaajiy&, L 81, 102, 
284ff, SOlff, 336. 

K6]ich&, ii. 210. 

Eanchan, i. 296. 

Kanddhar, L 810. 

KandelwU, L 326. 

Eandliyal, i. 297. 

Eand&, L 286. 

Eagi&ri, L 223. 

Eimeigar, i. 296. 

E&nkaiiri&, L 4. 

Eansi, iL 304. 

Eaaihphil, ii. 334. 

Eapea, ii. 227. 

Eapri, L 296. 

Eapseta, ii. 264. 

Ear&h, iL 233. 

Ear&hi, iL 233. 

Earan, L 306, 326. 

£ar6o, L 274 ff. 

Earauli, L 293. 

Earliwal, L 112. 

Earba, ii. 319. 

Earha, ii. 364. 

Eaiori. ii. 197-200. 

Ean, iL 220. 

Ea8UL&, L 100. 

Easftif, ii. 274. 

Eaaaimdi, iL 273. 

Easaimf, L 100. 

EasblLaii* L 169 ff. 

EasMnliih, L 242. 

Eashmiri, L 161, 309. 

Ea884, u. 274. 

EaoB&b, L 191. 

Eav&l, L 191. 

EaaNrw6iii, L 286. 

Eani, L 296. 

Eanondhan, L 286. 

Easoa, L 130. 

Eaiyap, L 147. 

Eat&i, iL 240. 

Eataiya, iL 240. 

Eatak, L 162. 

EaUura, ii. 319. 



Sat6r&, i. 162. 
Katela, ii. 868. 
Kateeui, i. 242. 
Kaiharifc, i. 79, 106, 141, 

171, 807 ff; iL 160. 
K&theja, i. 810 L 
Kathiy^, ii. 322. 
Katbor^ ii. 819. 
Kathtf, ii. 842. 
Eati&3ra]i, i. 147. 
K&tan, i. 130. 
Eatri, ii. 804. 
Kattiar, i. 166. 
Katoa, ii. 262. 
Katoly^, i. 97. 
Eanli, L 162. 
Eansik, i. 167. 
Kawal, ii. 292. 
Kavari, ii. 292. 
Kay6l, i. 236. 
Kfryath, i. 36 f; 180,182, 

287, 293 ff, 326 ff. 
Eazalbash, i. 306. 
Eewat, i 166, 182. 
Ehairaddi, L 296. 
Kh&kiob, L 82, 62; ii. 

Kh£al^ iL 226. 
Khallia,i. 4. 
Xhamha, ii. 288. 
Khampa, i. 802. 
Khanjan, ii 286. 
Ehanii, u. 79, 272. 
inifcn»6HR^ L 48 f. 

Ehaprft, iL 828. 
Kh&r, ii. 823. 
EhaHi, ii. 218. 
Khar&l, ii. 266. 
Kh&re, L 100. 
KhariMnd, i. 166. 
Kharkari, L 4. 
Kharrac, iL 286. 
Kharri, L 108. 
Kharmft, iL 821. 
Kharwfcr, i. 10. 
KhaMia, L 284, 287, 301. 
Ehat&na, L 100. 
Khat&n&, L 260. 
Khatbai, L IS, 
Khatknl, L 147. 
Ehattar, ii. 286. 
Klial^k, L 296. 
Khattri, L 169, 169 ff, 

284 ff, 294 ff, 824. 
Khattya, i. 803. 
Ehe^i, ii. 832. 
Kheoi, ii. 327. 
Khiw&hi, iL 819. 

Ehobarf, ii. 297. 
Kbobia, L 181. 
EboL L 276 ff. 
Kboiab, L 296. 
Kholi, L 276 C 
Kbokbar, L 99. 
Kboncb, ii. 269. 
EboDcbCi, ii. 168. 
Ebonta, ii. 264. 
Eboro, i. 4 f. 
EboBia, L 4. 
Ebowa, ii. 366. 
EbAbar, i. 100. 
EbliiDTa, i. 296. 
Eb6n Bab&, u. 26. 
Ebtintb, ii. 288. 
Ebikntla, iL 297. 
Ebtbrfr. iL 842. 
£biii4ban, iL 286. 
Ebuip&, L 208. 
Ebosyar, ii. 819. 
Ebatel, ii. 297. 
Ebiitbel, L 181. 
Ebiktia, iL 808. 
Eikar, ii. 247. 
Eilli, ii. 869. 
Eiltib&n, L 192. 
Ein&ra, iL 819. 
Eir&r, i. 171 f, 828. 
Eiri, i. 224 ; iL 324. 
Eisan, L 287. 
EiBbnant, i. 8. 
Eoeii, L 187, 286 ; ii. 42. 
Eoikopfil, i. 97. 
Eoitor, i. 97. 
Eoilabbut&l, L 97. 
EojIii^anL, L 241. 
Eol&m, L 97. 
Eolari, L 164. 
Eolbd, ii. 889. 
Eolf, L 164 f, 287, 296, 

Eor, L 8 ; iL 218. 
Eori, L 70. 
Eorcbamra, L 70. 
Eos, ii. 194 ff. 
Eror, iL 196 f. 
Eflbatrabandbi, L 108. 
Esbattriya, L 166 ff, 288 ff, 

299 ff. 
E6&r6, ii. 366. 
Enobra, i. 228. 
Etld& Bigb&, iL 198 f. 
Eudbiya, ii. 848. 
Eokiaitt, L 298. 
Eubi, ii. 886. 
Eulbaiyli, L 26. 
(uli (Cooly), L 166. 

Enm&dh, Ii. 847. 
Enmaria, ii. 866. 
Enmbbi, L 166. 
Enmb&r, L 182, 287v 296, 

Efirmi, L 16, 93, 144, 

166, 181 f, 287, 296. 
Ennabi, L 166, 181. 
Eon^wftl, L IL 
Enndar, ii. 266. 
Eundr6, iL 337. 
E6n^, L 222. 
Eanir&, L 192, 296. 
En^r-boji, L 247, 273. 

Eu^r mn^jl^ i* 247, 

278 f. 
E6p, i. 2. 
Enrmi, L 166 ff. 
Euro, u. 79, 272. 
EtSsi, ii. 342. 
Eufliyar, iL 348. 
Euz&far, L 296. 
Eye^ I 806. 

Lab, L 202. 

Lab&na, L 63 f. 

LfOri, ii. 819. 

Ladbfi, L 289. 

Lado, iL 289. 

Labaria, L 82L 

Labauria, L 169. 

L6b&t, L 177. 

L6]cri, L 180. 

Lakri, ii.8l9. 

L&l,L211f; iL822. 

L&lb^ L 82. 

LaUyfii, iL 822. 

L&ngri, ii. 163. 

Lao, u. 277. 

L6tbar, L 181. 

Lattfgbar, ii. 866. 

L&ya^ ii. 286. 

Lebari, ii. 800, 369. 

Let, ii. 211. 

Libri, i. 226. 

Linduii, ii. 287. 

Lisbk, i. 224. 

Liw&, ii. 307. 

liw&r, iL 211. 

Lodab, L 296. 

Lodbii, L 143, 166, 183, 

287, 326. 
Lobain, L 130. 
Lob6r, L 182, 296, 200, 

Lobe ki mai, 269. 



Lona, H. 274. 
Loniwal, i. 4. 
Longbasta, i. 79. 
Lore, i. 296. 
Lokti, iL 86^. 
Loinbha, ii. 285. 


M&cha, ii. 280. 
Mach&n, ii. 280. 
Machhar, i. 131. 
Madaria, i. 248. 
Ma^war, i. 171. 
Mfidy&l, i. 97. 
Magahja, i. 70, 79, 81, 

85, 145. 
Magha, ii. 366. 
Mafiir, i. 47. 
Man&brahman, i. 152. 
Mab&dewa, ii. 343. 
Mahainsi, i. 100. 
Mab&jan, i. 286. 
Mahamania, i. 159. 
Mab&p&tr, i. 19. 
Hab&r&shtrl, L 150. 
Mabaur, i. 159, 325. 
Mahesaia, i. 112. 
Mabesri, i. 299. 
Mabetya, ii. 186, 257. 
Mabton, ii. 186. 
Mail&, L 4. 
HaiHa, ii. 289. 
Hainfr, ii. 354. 
Mainra, ii. 280. 
Mainp<iLriw&l&, i. 19. 
Haina, i. 25, 64. 
Mairab, i. 296. 
Maitbil, i. 151, 309. 
]Aakta,i. 112. 
M&lati, ii. 866. 
Midi, i. 182, 287. 
MaUab, i. 80, 287, 825. 
MaUl, i. 295 ; ii. 289. 
Hall(i, i. 286. 
Haiti, u. 285. 
H&lwl, i. 151. 
Mam&ri, i. 295. 
Manas, i. 225. 
Mandwacb, i. 232. 
Manga, ii. 319. 
Mangoria, i. 159. 
Manjba, ii. 256. 
M&njbo, ii. 364. 
Mansalf i. 286. 
Mansa R&m, i. 242. 
Marantbia, i. 53. 
Margbat, ii. 268. 

Manai, ii 271. 
Mard, ii. 211. 
Marwa, ii. 280. 
Marw&ri, i. 152. 
Marwat Birt, ii. 25. 
M&sbki, i. 190. 
Matana, i. 293. 
Matbar, i. 805. 
Matbor, i. 825. 
M&tb6r, i. 85, 828. 
Matbnr^fiL, i. 79, 151, 159. 
Matna, ii. 819. 
Maitdla, ii. 280. 
Maty&l, i. 97. 
M&Tl, i. 99 f. 
Medni, i. 248. 
Mebra, i. 294. 
Mebror, i. 171. 
Mend, ii. 800. 
Mendbya, ii. 800. 
Menra, ii. 280. 
Meo, i. 295, 831. 
Mew&ti, i. 89 f, 77 1 
Mbail&, i. 4. 
Mbair, i. 159, 287 ff. 
Mi'am&r, i. 192. 
Mibmar, i. 295. 
Mfr, i. 85. 
Mir&sl, i. 85. 
Mirdab, i. 298. 
TAJfOjk, i. 242. 
Misr, i. 146, 151, 284. 
Mogbi, i. 9. 
Mofak, i. 4. 
Morl^ ii. 854. 
Mor&o, i. 144, 181. 
Morf, i. 822. 
Motb, ii. 277. 
Mot(cb6r, ii. 284. 
Motijbdl, ii. 285. 
Motisini, ii. 285. 
Motl&, i. 100. 
M6cbb&ri, i. 54. 
Macbi, i. 295. 
Mddi, ii. 254. 
Mngbal, i. 184, 186, 284, 

296, 298. 
Mnjr&i, ii. 44. 
Mdjw6r, i. 4. 
Miikerf , i. 54. 
MAkba, ii. 264. 
Mtincba, ii. 849. 
Mimd&, ii. 354. 
Mfindan, i. 100. 
Mnn^ba, i. 272. 
Murb&wat, i. 54. 
Munbcbbandari, i. 288. 
MiUibcbbinka, ii. 849. 

M(hidrt, n. 854. 
Miindl6, i. 270. 
Mnngal, i. 112. 
Mnnriy^, ii. 822. 
M<ir&s&, i. 282. 
Mnsbka, ii. 264. 
Mnska, ii. 264. 
Mutbiyfii, ii. 842. 
Matmuri, ii. 285. 


Nadab, ii. 342. 
Nadbas, ii. 800. 
N&gar, i. 151. 
Nag&rcbi, i. 97. 
Nag&wat, i. 7. 
Nfigbansi, i. 60, 108. 
Nagowa, i. 3. 
Ni^ i. 100. 
Nab, li. 321. 
N6bi, L 325. 

N&i, 1.145,182,189(287. 
Naicbak, ii. 364. 
Naibatb&, i. 15. 
Naik, L 152. 
Naindosb, ii. 285. 
NainBukb, ii. 285. 
N&1&, ii. 228. 
KaU, ii. 255. 
Nalkf, ii. 255. 
NanakBb&bi, i. 289. 
Nandbans, i. 3 . 
Nandwak, i. 15. 
Kandbd, ii. 300. 
N6nfal, ii. 342. 
Nanbya, ii. 285.' 
Nanw&nsf, ii. 201. 
N&rb&n, i. 63. 
Nareli, ii. 342. 
Karbel, iL 342. 
Kama, ii. 360. 
Narw&, ii. 255. 
Kasaurf, ii. 266. 
Nat, i. 55, 287. 
Natb&mfr, L 53. 
Nangorf, i. 7. 
Naulai, ii. 266. 
Nanrangf, ii. 285. 
Nanwak, i. 177. 
Neganria, i. 21. 
NeiUi, ii. 319. 
Newar, ii. 349, 364. 
Nibanni, i. 270. 
Nigain, i. 305. 
Nig&ni&, i. 4. 
Nikbar, i. 120. 
Nikomb, i. 68. 



Nlmohak, iL 849, 864« 
Nirai, iL 266. 
Nirb6n, i. 4. 
Kirbh&n, i. 170. 
Nirbij, iL 208. 
Niflama, L 223. 
Nizam&b&di, L 104. 
Kohwat, L 130. 
Nok-ii4ka, ii. 218. 
Kotal, L 293. 
Nimi&, L 183. 
Kimga, ii. 286. 
Ntinre, ii. 239. 
Nytoi, iL 300. 


Obr&, ii. 287. 
Odi, iL 300. 
Ojbak, L 244. 
Ojhyftl, L 97, 161. 
Ojpo, L 244. 
Oma, ii. 228. 
Otal, L 293. 
Odh, ii. 834. 
Og, u. 842. 
Ora, L 7. 


Pachai, ii. 814. 
Pachanda, i. 808. 
Pacb6war, ii. 349. 
Pacbb&sf, ii. 849. 
Pachddli, ii. 271. 
Pacbel&, ii. 842. 
Pacbblla, ii. 842. 
Pacbbtariy&2 i- 83. 
Pachranga, ii. 348. 
Pacbmil, iL 274. 
Pacbotaria, i. 177. 
Pacbii, ii. 800. 
Pad&d, ii. 807. 
Pfid61, L 97. 
Padar, L 68. 
Pagbaria, ii. 300. 
Pagabya, L 81. 
Pab&ri&, L 162, 809. 
Pabtan, ii. 889. 
Pabtak, L 146, 161, 829. 
P&b6][&8bt, ii. 2. 
Paidba, ii. 800. 
Paibwar, i. 120. 
Paibara, L 229. 
Paikar, L 229. 
Painianl, ii. 821. 
Pairt, iL 246. 

Paiff, L 283. 
Pu&wa, iL 223. 
Pakbar, iL 800. 
P&kbi, u. 841. 
Pakbawaji, L 86. 
Pakmi, ii. 287. 
P&Ia, L 228. 
Pal6n, iL 807. 
Palfts gond, L 248. 
PaUfcjb&r, L 278. 
Palliwal, i. 824. 
Paln&, L 162. 
Palwa, iL 210. 
Paman, L 211 f. 
Pancb, L 279. 
Pancba, ii. 360. 
Pancb&ngiir&, ii. 860. 
Pancb&vat, L 279. 
Pand&,i. 162. 
Pande, L 146, 161, 284, 

Pandii, ii. 187. 
Panb&rl, ii. 842. 
P&nbi, ii. 808. 
Panir, ii. 282. 
Pankaraii, ii. 800. 
Pbannab, ii. 321. 
Panoty L 64. 
Pftp&, ii. 324. 
Parauta, ii. 354. 
Parautb&, ii. 342. 
Parbatti, L 310. 
Parcbba, ii. 334. 
P&Tcbba, ii. 261. 
Partbftii, L 96 f. 
Pareba, ii. 277. 
Paresbaw&sban, ii. 344. 
Paribfiir, L 68, 163, 171, 

174, 322, 336 ; ii. 102. 
Pamaria, L 16. 
Parti, ii. 864. 
Paiiowa, ii. 864. 
Partwai, ii. 864. 
P&rikb, L 161. 
PariwIO, L 171. 
Paaerl, ii. 79, 272. 
P6si, L 287 1 296. 
Pajmi, L 196. 
Pasnln, L 171. 
P&t, ii. 210. 
Pat, ii. 800. 
Patao, ii. 227. 
Pataiya, L 166. 
Patbandbak, L 277. 
Patda, ii. 839. 
Patera, ii. 288. 
P&fb, ii. 842. 
P&tbk, ii. 824. 
P&lli&di, L 97. 

P&tlia^, L 810, 818. 
Patbltn, L .184, 186, 284, 

294, 297. 
Patbaii, i. 96. 
P&ibi, ii. 864. 
Patoi, iL 289, 889. 
Patpar, iL 288. 
Patri, iL 889. 
Patsaria, i. 16. 
Pattea, ii. 288. 
Pattl, ii. 821. 
Pattf, ii. 28. 
Patwa, L 296. 
Paukarn, i. 809. 
Paunda, iL 808. 
Paimd&, ii. 803. 
Pazzawagar, L 296. 
Pb&l&, ii. 842. 
Pbaani, ii. 342. 
Pbar, ii. 266. 
Pb&^, ii. 219. 
Pb&tak, L 4. 
Pbaiir&, ii. 862. 
Pber&£, L 296. 
Pbirti, L 224. 
Pboilsab, L 226. 
PbtUb&, iL 283. 
Pbulrapel, ii. 864. 
Pb6lw&rf, ii. 226. 
Pbungi, ii. 210. 
Piad, li. 282. 
Pi&8i, L 162. 
Paa, ii. 284. 
Pill^ iL 274. 
Pilf, ii. 822. 
Pilwan, L 99 1 
Piria, ii. 866. 
Pudyi, ii. 822. 
Pit&ri, iL 824. 
Pokbar, ii. 211. 
Pom&r, i. 810 ff, 322. 
Poncb6, ii. 162. 
Powar, L 20, 64, 79, 87, 

171, 178 ff. 
PnuxL&r, i. 60, 68. 
Padia, L 808. 
P61, L 229. 
P&ndlr, L 100, 148. 
Ptinya, i. 130. 
P6r, ii. 277. 
Ptirbar, L 100. 
Ptirbi, L 272. 
Pdrbiyi, i. 169. 
Panba, ii. 800. 
Purwai, ii. 304. 
Piubkani&, L 161. 
Patanawar, L 166. 
Ptitba, ii. 291. 
Pattbi, iL 321.